Digital Literacy


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We make comparisons between young people’s use of technology within and beyond school, and I present some research in this area, exploring particular the implications for classroom practice. You spend part of the session exploring young people’s work in Scratch, commenting on particular examples within your blog.
I introduce you to Comic Life, which you use this to create a more conventional, linear storyboard for your project.

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  • Key term to describe this gap, or perceived gap between use at school and at home.. US study of 136 students. Five metaphors of Internet use, including, and remember this is seven years ago now, ‘virtual study group’. Schools and teachers generally hadn’t realised the new ways students were communicating and accessing information over the Internet. For the most part, students’ educational use of the Internet occurs outside of the school day, outside of the school building, outside the direction of their teachers.
  • 1200 pupils, 12 primary and secondary schools, summer 2004. 89% with access to computers at home. Educational use at home modelled on use in school. “Children who have more opportunities to access information/educational opportunities outside of school are more likely to be motivated by school work.” “ There is also a risk that increased home-school links and therefore parents’ awareness of, and involvement in, children’s home use of ICT may undermine the qualities of home ICT – freedom to experiment and so on - that children value and which motivates them to use it.” many pupils, particularly girls, were using ICT (including telephones and txt) for communication on homework, although this was informally, rather than through any system supported or monitored by the school.
  • Looking at technology from the perspective of children, stories about how they use online spaces to build relationships and create original content. Interviews, discussions, conversations, 60 diaries, poll of 600 parents. “ The use of digital technology has been completely normalised by this generation, and it is now fully integrated into their daily lives. The majority of young people simply use new media as tools to make their lives easier… Almost all are now also involved in creative production, from uploading and editing photos to building and maintaining websites. … many children we interviewed had their own hierarchy of digital activities when it came to assessing the potential for learning… they were very conscious that some activities were more worthwhile than others.”
  • Obviously focussed on e-safety, but much of the evidence gathered by Tanya Byron and her team very relevant, and those interested in the field will find much of value in the research reports commissioned by the Byron Review.
  • “ Online spaces provide unprecedented opportunities for kids to expand their social worlds and engage in public life, whether that is connecting with peers over MySpace or Facebook, or publishing videos on YouTube,” said Ito. “Kids learn on the Internet in a self-directed way, by looking around for information they are interested in, or connecting with others who can help them. This is a big departure from how they are asked to learn in most schools, where the teacher is the expert and there is a fixed set of content to master.”
  • This provides an interesting picture of what teens do on line.
  • Interesting gender differences – boys higher for games, girls for cameras and phones
  • Notable gender differences Girls leading the boys with music, pictures, chatting and social networks, and blogging and school related learning (16 point difference here!) Boys taking the lead for learning unrelated to school, games and cheats, hobbies, video, ict skills and making websites.
  • Gender differences again show a similar pattern with games, video editing and programming more popular with boys, writing things, making pictures, presentations and photographs the girls.
  • This is good news. Our sample actually do quite enjoy IT! Even in school, well over half like it or love it. At home, over 60% say they love IT. I doubt there are many areas of the curriculum, if one sees IT in those terms, that would come out quite so favorably.
  • There is a perception amongst our sample that their teachers really knew very little about how they were using technology out of school – with over a third claiming their teachers knew nothing about this. Surely one of the ways we can move forward to leverage the benefits of pupils informal learning through technology is to start this conversation.
  • Digital Literacy

    1. 2. Education <ul><li>“ Our concept of an educated person is of someone who is capable of delighting in a variety of pursuits and projects for their own sake, and whose pursuit of them and general conduct of life are transformed by some degree of all round understanding.” </li></ul><ul><li>R S Peters, 1972 </li></ul>
    2. 3.
    3. 4. CC by-nc steve_cx
    4. 5. Growing up digital Don Tapscott, 1998 <ul><li>Contrast between N-Geners and Baby-boomers </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast between TV and the Net </li></ul><ul><li>The Net: </li></ul><ul><li>Active </li></ul><ul><li>Raises Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic </li></ul><ul><li>Community building </li></ul><ul><li>“ Using the new technology is as natural as breathing” </li></ul>
    5. 6. Digital Natives Marc Prensky, 2001 <ul><li>“ Our students have changed radically” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast pace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics before text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Random access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Networked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instant gratification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent reward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Games not work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital Immigrant instructors, who speak an outdated language (that of the pre-digital age), are struggling to teach a population that speaks an entirely new language. </li></ul>
    6. 7. The Digital Disconnect Levin & Arefah, 2002 <ul><li>A substantial disconnect between how students use the Internet for school and how they use the Internet during the school day </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons : </li></ul><ul><li>Administrators </li></ul><ul><li>Variation in teaching policies </li></ul><ul><li>Uninspiring assignments </li></ul><ul><li>Barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of access </li></ul><ul><li>Filtering </li></ul><ul><li>Inequalities of home access </li></ul>
    7. 8. Pupils’ home use of computers Valentine, Marsh and Pattie, 2006 <ul><li>High level of access </li></ul><ul><li>Educational opportunities outside school are beneficial </li></ul><ul><li>Children value the freedom they have at home </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive use of communication </li></ul>
    8. 9. Their Space Green and Hannon, DEMOS, 2007 <ul><li>Building relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Creating content </li></ul><ul><li>Essential skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creativity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>User types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital pioneers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creative producers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyday communicators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information gatherers </li></ul></ul>
    9. 10. Safer Children in a Digital World Byron Review, 2008 <ul><li>Opportunities for fun, learning and development </li></ul><ul><li>Generational digital divide and risk averse culture </li></ul><ul><li>Children are still developing critical skills </li></ul><ul><li>Empowering children to keep themselves safe </li></ul>
    10. 11. Digital Media and Learning Initiative MacArthur Foundation, 2008 <ul><li>Generation gap in perceived value of online activity </li></ul><ul><li>Learning social and technical skills </li></ul><ul><li>Peer learning </li></ul><ul><li>Most aren’t making the most of the opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Hanging Out </li></ul><ul><li>Messing Around </li></ul><ul><li>Geeking Out </li></ul>
    11. 12. What are your kids learning when you’re not looking?
    12. 13. What are you learning whilst your teachers aren’t looking… <ul><li>Live from 26 th November to 18 th December 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Publicised via </li></ul><ul><ul><li>online forums, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>discussion lists, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>blogs and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>twitter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>google docs spreadsheet form </li></ul><ul><li>Demographics </li></ul><ul><li>Access to tech </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Internet and computers at home </li></ul><ul><li>Filtering </li></ul><ul><li>Social networking in school </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison between school and home </li></ul>
    13. 14. 985 responses excluding duplicates and blanks
    14. 15. Access to Technology
    15. 16. Use of the Internet
    16. 17. Use of computers
    17. 18. Give examples of things you have learnt using technology that are not related to school work.
    18. 19. Give examples of things you have learnt using technology that are not related to school work. <ul><li>Girl, 16: You don't really learn much from these social sites. It is just an easy and fun way to communicate with your friends. </li></ul><ul><li>Boy, 16: I have learned how to do some simple programming using Basic and I have researched how to utilize the Macromedia Flash program to create basic flash documents. </li></ul><ul><li>Boy, 15: I have learned how to do some simple programming using Basic and I have researched how to utilize the Macromedia Flash program to create basic flash documents. </li></ul><ul><li>Boy, 14: I've taught my self some Python scripting and how to mod most of the games that I play. I've also learned to bypass nearly every filter/parental control my parents or school have placed on my computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Boy, 15: I have expanded my musical knowledge through YouTube video. I have also improved my instrumental skills through YouTube. </li></ul><ul><li>Girl, 13: how to personalise backgrounds, and how to download music </li></ul><ul><li>Boy, 15: I've taught myself to program in C++ and PHP through online technical documentation and tutorial sites like W3Schools. (I believe W3Schools is blocked at school.) Most of the home pages of FOSS projects are blocked as well. </li></ul>
    19. 20. Give examples of things you have learnt using technology that are not related to school work. <ul><li>Boy, 8: you can talk to people in a different country on skype. </li></ul><ul><li>Boy, 11: Financing - from playing Football Manager every week Football - from Fantasy Football </li></ul><ul><li>Girl, 13: Watching BBC i-player nature programes because it doesn't work at school. </li></ul><ul><li>Girl, 15: I learnt how to power an i pod with an onion through Youtube! </li></ul><ul><li>Boy, 15: Av learned how to write flash games with actionscript. </li></ul><ul><li>Boy, 10: Making your own website and how to put on html snippets and embed codes </li></ul><ul><li>Boy, 11: Wikipedia lies (often) </li></ul><ul><li>Girl, 12: learnt words to songs. l learnt a tiny, tiny bit about brain/heart surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Boy, 10: How to make music, use iChat. Watching Videos and filming movies. Making websites (freewebs, iweb and justhost) Used to play DS </li></ul><ul><li>Boy, 12: Rune Scape is a game in where you have to be very social to complete </li></ul><ul><li>Boy, 16: The govournmental structure of the early Roman Republic. </li></ul><ul><li>Girl, 12: How to programme my laptop. </li></ul><ul><li>More information on Phyrrus. </li></ul>
    20. 21. Eleanor, 11 <ul><li>My mum taught me people`s email addreses but I taught myself how to  actually email. I just clicked most of the buttons until I found the  right one! I also taught myself a lot of diseses as I would love to be  a docter! For this I mostly used the internet. I once also worked out  how to use Google Earth. I`m not a very tecnical so this was a big  leap for me! I simply fiddeld around with the buttons picking the ones  that I thought would do the job and after just half an hour I found my  house! I don`t actuelly no why i kept at it- probably wanted to learn  something new as usual! </li></ul>
    21. 22. What is your favourite thing you do with technology at home?
    22. 23. What is your favourite thing you do with technology at school?
    23. 24. Which blocked websites do you think you should be able to access at school?
    24. 25. Enjoyment
    25. 26. What do teachers know?
    26. 27. How could ICT at school be more like at home?
    27. 28. How could ICT at school be more like at home? <ul><li>Boy, 17: I believe that schools should take advantage of the ICT technologies that most students have at home to a greater extent. For instance they should use face book to keep students connected to each other and to the school such as teachers. Video games could also be used by schools to assist learning. Games can get kids interested in what they are learning, they also present the information in a more hands on way then a book alone. </li></ul><ul><li>Girl, 10: let us play games in our free time (at breaks etc...) </li></ul><ul><li>Girl, 10: they could install programs on moodle which are like games </li></ul><ul><li>Boy, 17: Yes. Allow students to learn on their own, don't set a plan for learning. Let students find websites and resources on their own and make it less of a chore to do assignments. </li></ul><ul><li>Boy, 16: I believe that my school should lower its restrictions on schools computer access, because the filter that blocks websites is a double-edged sword. I understand that my school blocks certain websites that may be distracting (eg. gaming websites), but some websites that could be utilized by myself and other students are blocked as well for no apparent reason. I would like my school to either lower the restrictions or use a different filter than can be configured much more easily than our current one. </li></ul>
    28. 29. Should ICT at school be more like at home? <ul><li>Girl, 16: No because then people could use that to their advantage and go on websites that will distract them from their school work. </li></ul><ul><li>Boy, 15: No - Many students CAN'T TYPE ENGLISH (&quot;u&quot; DOES NOT EQUAL &quot;you&quot;) because of sites like Facebook and MySpace (plus these sites are horrible anyway), along with a lot of IM services. Gaming would not be usable in school unless it's something like Garry's Mod (a mod that allows players to experiment with the Source physics engine). </li></ul><ul><li>Boy,15: no because then we would mess around instead of learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Girl, 14: No, school is not home! </li></ul><ul><li>Boy, 10: They should not because at school we should be learning not playing games. </li></ul><ul><li>Girl, 13: no because you dont want to learn how to do different ICT skills at home - you use if for fun at home </li></ul><ul><li>Girl, 15: NO what they have at our school is a fantastic program </li></ul>
    29. 30. <ul><li>Register for an account at </li></ul><ul><li>Explore some of the uploaded projects, (start with the featured list). </li></ul><ul><li>Provide feedback to young Scratchers </li></ul><ul><li>Select one project to discuss on your blog. </li></ul>
    30. 32. For next time… <ul><li>Complete your storyboard and upload this to Moodle in advance of an interim submission deadline on 14 th November. </li></ul><ul><li>Start thinking about some interactive games or puzzles to include in your project. </li></ul><ul><li>Read pages 5-16 of Pritchard (2008) . To what extent do you see these ideas as having relevance to modern classroom practice? Blog your thoughts on this. </li></ul>