Computer Assisted Learning


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I present a brief history of computer assisted learning, looking at this through the lens of behaviourism. We consider advantages and disadvantages to a stimulus/response/reward approach to CAL.
Without necessarily subscribing to this learning theory, you create a simple CAL program within Scratch.

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  • The student inserts the disk and closes the machine. He cannot proceed until the machine has been locked, and, once he has begun, the machine cannot be unlocked. All but a corner of one frame is visible through a window. The student writes his response on a paper strip exposed through a second open- ing. By lifting a lever on the front of the machine, he moves what he has written under a transparent cover and uncovers the correct response in the remaining
    corner of the frame. If the two responses correspond, he moves the lever horizon- tally. This movement punches a hole in the paper opposite his response, record- ing the fact that he called it correct, and alters the machine so that the framr will not appear again when the student works around the disk a second time. Whether the response was correct or not, a second frame appears when the lever is returned to its starting position. The student proceeds in this way until he has responded to a11 frames. He then
    9works around the disk a second time, but only those frames appear to which he has not correctly responded. When the disk revolves without stopping, the assignment is finished.
  • Computer Assisted Learning

    1. 1. Behaviourism CC by-nc Andrew Pollard
    2. 2. Behaviourism o Practice should take the form of question - answer frames which expose the student to the subject in gradual steps o Require that the learner make a response for every frame and receive immediate feedback o Try to arrange the difficulty of the questions so the response is always correct and hence a positive reinforcement o Ensure that good performance in the lesson is paired with secondary reinforcers such as verbal praise, prizes and good grades.
    3. 3. BBC Bitesize
    4. 4. Mangahigh
    5. 5. CIMT MEP
    6. 6. Computer assisted Learning A brief history
    7. 7. Thorndike, 1912 If, by a miracle of mechanical ingenuity, a book could be so arranged that only to him who had done what was directed on page one would page two become visible, and so on, much that now requires personal instruction could be managed by print.
    8. 8. Pressey, 1920s The teaching machine that Pressey developed resembled a typewriter carriage with a window that revealed a question having four answers. On one side of the carriage were four keys. The user pressed the key that corresponded to the correct answer. When the user pressed a key, the machine recorded the answer on a counter to the back of the machine and revealed the next question. After the user was finished, the person scoring the test slipped the test sheet back into the device and noted the score on the counter.
    9. 9. 1960s
    10. 10. 1970s
    11. 11. 1980s
    12. 12. 2000s 13 13
    13. 13. 14 2000s
    14. 14. 2010
    15. 15. Personalisation  Across the public sector  Choice and voice  Assessment for Learning  Assessment of Pupils’ Performance  Adaptive Learning Design
    16. 16. The personal online space “In the future it will be more than simply a storage place - a digital space that is personalised, that remembers what the learner is interested in and suggests relevant web sites, or alerts them to courses and learning opportunities that fit their needs.” Ruth Kelly's introduction to Harnessing Technology, 2005
    17. 17. Schools white paper  Personalisation … means a tailored education for every child and young person  It means every pupil being able to extend their learning and develop their interests and aptitudes  Good schools already use ICT … to set and mark work online … and to link the classroom and home  By 2008 all schools will be able to offer access to e-learning resources both in and out of school. We will encourage all schools … to make available a personal online space to every pupil
    18. 18. IMS LD
    19. 19. RM Maths
    20. 20. The Maths Factor
    21. 21. Scratch for cal
    22. 22. For next week…