• It was an artistic movement that brought
together artists, thinkers and researchers
• They were involved in a hunt of sense of
expression of the unconscious
• They were searching for the definition of n
– New aesthetic
– New humankind
– New social order
• Their forerunners were the Italian Metaphysical
• It came into being after the French poet Andre
Breton 1 published Manifeste du Surrealisme
• Breton suggested that rational thought was
repressive to the powers of creativity and
imagination and thus inimical to artistic
• Breton admired Freud and its concept of the
• It is closely related to some forms of
• At the end of World War I Tristan Tzara,
leader of the Dada, wanted to attack
society through scandal
• He believed that society that creates the
monstrosity of war do not deserve art so
he decided to create an anti-art, full of
ugliness instead of beauty.
• Tzara wanted to offend the new industrial
commercial world of the bourgeoisie.
• His victims did not feel insulted
• They saw this art as a reaction against old
• The result was the opposite to its original
one because anti-art became art.
• One group of artists did not follow Tzara´s ideas
• The Surrealist movement gained momentum
after the Dadaá
• It was led by Breton
• The artists researched and studied the work of
Freud and Jung
• Some of the artists expressed themselves
– In the abstract tradition
– In the symbolic tradition
• The two forms of expression formed two
• There are two different interpretations of
Freud and Jung
• Artists interpreted it as referring to a suppression
of consciousness in favour of the subconscious
• They were more focused on feeling and less
• They understood Automatism as the automatic
way in which the images of the subconscious
reach the conscience.
• They believed that images should not be
burdened with meaning.
• They saw the academic discipline of art as
intolerant of the free expression of feeling
• They felt form which had dominated the
history of art, was a culprit in that
• They believed abstractionism was the only
way to bring to life the images of the
• Coming from the Dada tradition, these
– Linked scandal
– Irreverence toward the elite´s with freedom
• They continued to believe that lack of form
was a way to rebel against them.
11. Veristic Surrealists
• They interpreted automatism to mean
allowing the images of the subconscious
to surface undisturbed so that their
meaning could be deciphered through
• They wanted to faithfully represent these
images as a link between:
– The abstract spiritual realities
– The real forms of the material world.
12. Veristic Surrealists
• To them the object stood as a metaphor
for an inner reality
• Through metaphor the concrete world
could be understood, not only by looking
at the objects, but also by looking into
13. Veristic Surrealists
• They saw academic discipline and form as
the means to represent the images of the
subconscious with veracity
• The images would easily dissolve into the
• They hoped to find a way to follow the
images of the subconscious until the
conscience could understand their
14. Veristic Surrealists
• The language of the subconscious is the
• The consciousness had to learn to decode
that language so it could translate it into its
own language of words.
• Later they branched out into three other
15. Struggle of Surrealism
• For the automatists the approach to the
mystery of nature is to never become
conscious of the mystery
• The Veristic Surrealist quest is none other
than the one described by Breton as the
cause of freedom and the transformation
of man´s consciousness
16. Struggle of Surrealism
• In the works of surrealist we find
– The legacy of
• William Blake
• The Symbolic painters of the 19th
– The perennial questioning of philosophy
– The search of psychology
– The spirit of mysticism
17. Struggle of Surrealism
• It is a work based on the desire to permit
the forces that created the world to
illuminate our vision
• They must allow us to consciously develop
our human potential.
18. Struggle of Surrealism
• Veristic surrealist recognize the difficulties
that their movement has faced during the
second half of the twentieth century as it
attempted to become a major cultural
• The United States wholeheartedly
embraced abstraction and modernism.
19. Struggle of Surrealism
• They shared the belief of abstract artist
– the chaos of action painting and automatism
were expression of freedom and
– that form, subjugation and inhibition walked
hand in hand
• The American art establishment looked at
the image of form with mistrust until the
advent of Pop Art.
20. Struggle of Surrealism
• The Surrealism had to fight against:
• Veristic Surrealism is the only historical
artistic expression still in want of
recognition as a cultural force in the
• It was highly influenced by the
– Images are as confusing and startling as
those of dreams
– Can have a realistic, though irrational style,
precisely describing dreamlike fantasies.
• They were influenced by:
•Metaphysical Painting of Giorgio
• Some of them have a more abstract style.
• In this case they invented spontaneous
techniques, modelled upon the
psychotherapeutic procedure of free
association as a means to eliminate
conscious control in order to express the
working of the unconscious mind, such as
24. Exquisite Corpse
• There were aleatoric techniques for
producing visual or literally art
• This activity was frequently considered as
• It is based upon an old parlour game in
which players take turns writing on a sheet
of paper folded it to conceal part of the
writing and them pass it to the next player
for another contribution.
25. Exquisite Corpse
• This technique was used by artists to
produce drawings and collages.
• The first efforts are reminiscent of
children’s books that allow the making of
pictures with multiple ages divided at
various levels, involved assigning a
section of a body to each player
26. Exquisite Corpse
• A majority resulted in images that only
vaguely resembled the human form.
• Some participants in early exquisite
corpses were Tanguy, Miro and Man Ray.
• Later adaptations have involved using
other means of passing the work around,
using different media.
• Surrealism has the same lack of prejudice
of Dadaism both in the use of
photographic procedures and object
production out of their normal use.
• Traditional techniques, because those can
be appropriate for depicting imaginations
• Some of the better known representatives of this
• Max Ernst
• Frida Kahlo
• Marc Chagall
• Joan Miro
• Man Ray
• Salvador Dali
• René Magritte
• Yves Tanguy
• Oscar Dominguez
29. Joan Miro
• He used symbolic keys to depict the
• His principle is not the organic world.
• His world is simple, clear
• His mythology is easy, transparent.
• His painting is unstressed, freely
chromatic, without equilibrium among
signs and colours
31. Salvador Dali
• His view is full of sexual connotations.
• Highly rhetorical works.
• Mix of lubricous and holy
• He overcame cynically the bolshevism.
• Ambiguous mix of reaction and anarchy.
• Very complicated compositions.
33. Rene Magritte
• He is the artist who worked in a deepest
way the lack of logic of the image.
• He invented the anti-history
• He discovered the non-sense of the
• He created with great detail and realism
images of ambiguous significance that
could have a double sense
35. Max Ernst
• He reached to the deepest critic of the
form as a depiction and the style as
• He used any technique that would be
useful for transmitting his ideas. He used:
• His work is frequently a pile of rubbish of
36. Hans Arp
• He was previously involved in the
• He depicted organic forms, both in
painting and sculpture.
• He used:
– Geometric shapes
– Orthogonal images
– Continuously curve forms, concave and
37. Yves Tanguy
• He invented the anti-Nature:
–Never ending landscapes,
–Planet like settings
–Lack of light and sun
–Remains of an organic life:
• Mummified fruits
• Fossils and shells
• Other artist contributed to the expansion of
the Surrealism, equally in Europe and in
the United States.
• Soon it appeared as a way of eluding the
reality of the problems through:
• The movement gained prestige with the
adhesion of artists such as Picasso.
• The analytical cubism, discomposing the
objects did a similar work as that of the