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Revision on Surrealist Art.

Revision on Surrealist Art.

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  • 1. SURREALISM Revision
  • 2. Origin
    • It was an artistic movement that brought together artists, thinkers and researchers
    • They were involved in a hunt of sense of expression of the unconscious
    • They were searching for the definition of n
      • New aesthetic
      • New humankind
      • New social order
  • 3. Origin
    • Their forerunners were the Italian Metaphysical painters
    • It came into being after the French poet Andre Breton 1 published Manifeste du Surrealisme
    • Breton suggested that rational thought was repressive to the powers of creativity and imagination and thus inimical to artistic expression
    • Breton admired Freud and its concept of the subconscious
  • 4. Beginnings
    • It is closely related to some forms of abstract art
    • At the end of World War I Tristan Tzara, leader of the Dada, wanted to attack society through scandal
    • He believed that society that creates the monstrosity of war do not deserve art so he decided to create an anti-art, full of ugliness instead of beauty.
  • 5. Beginnings
    • Tzara wanted to offend the new industrial commercial world of the bourgeoisie.
    • His victims did not feel insulted
    • They saw this art as a reaction against old art
    • The result was the opposite to its original one because anti-art became art.
  • 6. Beginnings
    • One group of artists did not follow Tzara´s ideas
    • The Surrealist movement gained momentum after the Dadaá
    • It was led by Breton
    • The artists researched and studied the work of Freud and Jung
    • Some of the artists expressed themselves
      • In the abstract tradition
      • In the symbolic tradition
  • 7. Groups
    • The two forms of expression formed two distinct trends:
          • Automatism
          • Veristic
    • There are two different interpretations of Freud and Jung
  • 8. Automatists
    • Artists interpreted it as referring to a suppression of consciousness in favour of the subconscious
    • They were more focused on feeling and less analytical
    • They understood Automatism as the automatic way in which the images of the subconscious reach the conscience.
    • They believed that images should not be burdened with meaning.
  • 9. Automatism
    • They saw the academic discipline of art as intolerant of the free expression of feeling
    • They felt form which had dominated the history of art, was a culprit in that intolerance
    • They believed abstractionism was the only way to bring to life the images of the subconscious.
  • 10. Automatism
    • Coming from the Dada tradition, these artist:
      • Linked scandal
      • Insult
      • Irreverence toward the elite´s with freedom
    • They continued to believe that lack of form was a way to rebel against them.
  • 11. Veristic Surrealists
    • They interpreted automatism to mean allowing the images of the subconscious to surface undisturbed so that their meaning could be deciphered through analysis
    • They wanted to faithfully represent these images as a link between:
      • The abstract spiritual realities
      • The real forms of the material world.
  • 12. Veristic Surrealists
    • To them the object stood as a metaphor for an inner reality
    • Through metaphor the concrete world could be understood, not only by looking at the objects, but also by looking into them.
  • 13. Veristic Surrealists
    • They saw academic discipline and form as the means to represent the images of the subconscious with veracity
    • The images would easily dissolve into the unknown
    • They hoped to find a way to follow the images of the subconscious until the conscience could understand their meaning.
  • 14. Veristic Surrealists
    • The language of the subconscious is the image
    • The consciousness had to learn to decode that language so it could translate it into its own language of words.
    • Later they branched out into three other groups.
  • 15. Struggle of Surrealism
    • For the automatists the approach to the mystery of nature is to never become conscious of the mystery
    • The Veristic Surrealist quest is none other than the one described by Breton as the cause of freedom and the transformation of man´s consciousness
  • 16. Struggle of Surrealism
    • In the works of surrealist we find
      • The legacy of
        • Bosch
        • Brueguel
        • William Blake
        • The Symbolic painters of the 19 th century
      • The perennial questioning of philosophy
      • The search of psychology
      • The spirit of mysticism
  • 17. Struggle of Surrealism
    • It is a work based on the desire to permit the forces that created the world to illuminate our vision
    • They must allow us to consciously develop our human potential.
  • 18. Struggle of Surrealism
    • Veristic surrealist recognize the difficulties that their movement has faced during the second half of the twentieth century as it attempted to become a major cultural force
    • The United States wholeheartedly embraced abstraction and modernism.
  • 19. Struggle of Surrealism
    • They shared the belief of abstract artist that
      • the chaos of action painting and automatism were expression of freedom and
      • that form, subjugation and inhibition walked hand in hand
    • The American art establishment looked at the image of form with mistrust until the advent of Pop Art.
  • 20. Struggle of Surrealism
    • The Surrealism had to fight against:
      • Pop-Art
      • Photorealism
    • Veristic Surrealism is the only historical artistic expression still in want of recognition as a cultural force in the twentieth century
  • 21. Characteristics
    • It was highly influenced by the psychoanalysis:
      • Images are as confusing and startling as those of dreams
      • Can have a realistic, though irrational style, precisely describing dreamlike fantasies.
  • 22. Characteristics
    • They were influenced by:
        • Symbolism
        • Metaphysical Painting of Giorgio de Chirico
        • Dadaism
  • 23. Characteristics
    • Some of them have a more abstract style.
    • In this case they invented spontaneous techniques, modelled upon the psychotherapeutic procedure of free association as a means to eliminate conscious control in order to express the working of the unconscious mind, such as exquisite corpse.
  • 24. Exquisite Corpse
    • There were aleatoric techniques for producing visual or literally art
    • This activity was frequently considered as a game.
    • It is based upon an old parlour game in which players take turns writing on a sheet of paper folded it to conceal part of the writing and them pass it to the next player for another contribution.
  • 25. Exquisite Corpse
    • This technique was used by artists to produce drawings and collages.
    • The first efforts are reminiscent of children’s books that allow the making of pictures with multiple ages divided at various levels, involved assigning a section of a body to each player
  • 26. Exquisite Corpse
    • A majority resulted in images that only vaguely resembled the human form.
    • Some participants in early exquisite corpses were Tanguy, Miro and Man Ray.
    • Later adaptations have involved using other means of passing the work around, using different media.
  • 27. Artists
    • Some of the better known representatives of this movement are:
        • Max Ernst
        • Frida Kahlo
        • Marc Chagall
        • Joan Miro
        • Man Ray
        • Salvador Dali
        • René Magritte
        • Yves Tanguy
        • Oscar Dominguez
  • 28. Techniques
    • Surrealism has the same lack of prejudice of Dadaism both in the use of photographic procedures and object production out of their normal use.
    • Traditional techniques, because those can be appropriate for depicting imaginations
  • 29. Max Ernst
    • He reached to the deepest critic of the form as a depiction and the style as something unitary.
    • He used any technique that would be useful for transmitting his ideas. He used:
      • Collage
      • Frottage
    • His work is frequently a pile of rubbish of bourgeois culture.
  • 30. Joan Miro
    • He used symbolic keys to depict the unconscious.
    • His principle is not the organic world.
    • His world is simple, clear
    • His mythology is easy, transparent.
    • His painting is unstressed, freely chromatic, without equilibrium among signs and colours
  • 31. Hans Arp
    • He was previously involved in the Dadaism.
    • He depicted organic forms, both in painting and sculpture.
    • He used:
      • Geometric shapes
      • Orthogonal images
      • Continuously curve forms, concave and convex.
  • 32. Yves Tanguy
    • He invented the anti-Nature:
      • Never ending landscapes,
      • Planet like settings
      • Lack of light and sun
      • Remains of an organic life :
        • Bones
        • Mummified fruits
        • Fossils and shells
  • 33. Salvador Dali
    • His view is full of sexual connotations.
    • Highly rhetorical works.
    • Mix of lubricous and holy
    • He overcame cynically the bolshevism.
    • Ambiguous mix of reaction and anarchy.
    • Very complicated compositions.
  • 34. Rene Magritte
    • He is the artist who worked in a deepest way the lack of logic of the image.
    • He invented the anti-history
    • He discovered the non-sense of the normal.
    • He created with great detail and realism images of ambiguous significance that could have a double sense
  • 35. Expansion
    • Other artist contributed to the expansion of the Surrealism, equally in Europe and in the United States.
    • Soon it appeared as a way of eluding the reality of the problems through:
      • Ambiguity
      • Paradox
  • 36. Expansion
    • The movement gained prestige with the adhesion of artists such as Picasso.
    • The analytical cubism, discomposing the objects did a similar work as that of the Surrealism.