Romanesque Sculpture


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Romanesque Sculpture

  1. 1. Romanesque Sculpture Revision
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>It is limited by the frame in which it is contained. </li></ul><ul><li>The main places for sculptural location are </li></ul>Portals Capitals
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Romanesque sculpture had an educational objective: it should teach the Bible to illiterate people </li></ul><ul><li>The message is simple and clear to be easily understood </li></ul><ul><li>It is not important to be loyal to nature but to express the ideas they aimed at transmitting. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>The location of the iconographic programme is always the same: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tympanum is reserved for the depiction of the Last Judgement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jambs are the place for saints sculptures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capitals are left for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biblical stories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetal motives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Satirical depictions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other minor decorations (in the outside) are left for depicting sins and vices. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Parts of a portal
  6. 6. Tympanum <ul><li>The tympanum depicts the Last Judgement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the middle appear Christ as a Judge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He is sitting in the mandorle or almond shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is surrounded by the four Evangelist as people of animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Around them people judged or the twenty-four wise men of the Apocalypses </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Tympanum <ul><li>Christ appears blessing, with the hand elevated </li></ul><ul><li>His feet are standing on a symbol of the earth </li></ul><ul><li>The mandorle represents a mystical element </li></ul><ul><li>The evangelist are around </li></ul><ul><li>Mark, the lion </li></ul><ul><li>Mathew, the man </li></ul><ul><li>Luke, the ox </li></ul><ul><li>John, the eagle </li></ul>
  8. 8. Composition <ul><li>Images must adapt to the frame </li></ul><ul><li>They are distributed following criteria of hierarchy and symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>The unity of the scene is given by the eyes of the images that converge in Christ </li></ul><ul><li>There are several details </li></ul>
  9. 9. Composition <ul><li>Other important elements appear in the portals: </li></ul><ul><li>Images of the Apostles tend to appear in the jambs, being elongated images </li></ul><ul><li>Christ, the Virgin or other important Saints may appear in the trumeau </li></ul><ul><li>The lintel is reserved for less important images of for the wise men of the Apocalypse </li></ul>
  10. 10. Composition <ul><li>In some cases decoration may escape from the classical locations to invade the whole façade </li></ul><ul><li>The images out of the normal places tend to be depictions of vices and sins </li></ul>
  11. 11. Archivolts <ul><li>The images are distributed in each archivolt </li></ul><ul><li>The subjects can vary from one archivolt to the other </li></ul><ul><li>They are limited by the space </li></ul><ul><li>Subjects can vary from geometrical to human depictions </li></ul>
  12. 12. Archivolts <ul><li>Images in the archivolts are looking at the centre </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes each voussoir contains a whole story </li></ul><ul><li>We can find non religious elements such as zodiacal symbols </li></ul>
  13. 13. Other decorations Images that appear below the roof: they represent monsters and vices
  14. 14. Cloisters <ul><li>Cloisters were other of the main areas where sculpture could appear </li></ul><ul><li>The sculpture tends to be limited to the capitals over the small column. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cloisters <ul><li>Capitals can be decorated following several patters: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some of them explain biblical stories in a simple and understandable way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others copy natural elements such as plants and flowers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others are symbolical, with monsters or allegories </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Cloisters Biblical Animals Vegetables Satirical
  17. 17. Relieves <ul><li>They are not as common as the tympanum or cloister sculptures </li></ul><ul><li>They appear somewhere in the wall of the churches </li></ul><ul><li>Subjects are religious </li></ul>
  18. 18. Relieves <ul><li>Technically they have the same characteristics as the rest of the sculptures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of naturalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplicity of the message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different plans to give impression of deepness. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Exempt Sculpture <ul><li>It is made of wood </li></ul><ul><li>The images are not of big size </li></ul><ul><li>They are always religious </li></ul><ul><li>They have Byzantine influences </li></ul><ul><li>Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virgin with her Son </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christ on the Cross </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deposition </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Exempt Sculpture <ul><li>Virgin: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is based on the Byzantine Teotokos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Virgin is a throne for her Son </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both of them appear looking at the front </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are blessing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is not different of ages, just of size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are disproportionate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With the time they evolved and the position of the Son varied to be a bit more naturalistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They were polychrome </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Exempt Sculpture <ul><li>Christ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are on the cross </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They still alive and lack of any symbol of sufferance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They were a long dress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They have four nails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everything in them is symmetrical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are polychrome </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Exempt Sculpture <ul><li>Depositions </li></ul><ul><li>Some times more than one image appear creating a biblical scene </li></ul><ul><li>The most common is the one representing the moment in which Christ was deposited from the cross </li></ul>
  23. 23. Exempt Sculpture Deposition Piety