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Historicism in architecture (new)

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New materials including images.

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  • 1. Historicism in Architecture New materials. Revision
  • 2. Introduction • Modern architecture embraced geometric forms and tried to recover some elements such as arches and vaults of the Classical architecture in place of the stylistic traditions inherited from the Renaissance. • The development of modern architecture was driven not only by new aesthetic principles. • The easy availability of materials such as concrete, iron, steel and glass freed architecture from the restrictions of building in stone, wood and masonry • The new sense of space aimed at meeting the needs of life in the 20th century.
  • 3. Origins • Architecture was altered by the Industrial Revolution • The traditional concepts about the appearance and purpose of buildings lost their validity • In England, Ruskin and William Morris, founder of the Arts and Crafts Movement held that machine-made objects were devoid of cultural significance • Inspired by the medieval past, they persuaded leading craftsmen to become involved in the design of ordinary artefacts and domestic surroundings • The construction of Paxton’s Crystal Palace in London in 1851 marked an advance in modern architecture. • The building was made of prefabricated units of iron and glass • Architects began to think that the beauty of the buildings would lay on the clear exposure of the structural properties of the new materials.
  • 4. Origins • Iron, glass and steel became abundant and masonry was no longer the only constructive element. • The possibilities of the new materials were evident in two buildings made for the 1889 Paris Exposition: “The Halle des Machine” and “The Eiffel Tower”. • Technology began to affect the design of building servin more useful purposes • High-rise buildings were made possible by the erection of a steel cage to which were attached floors and walls, and rendered practical for the user by the development of passenger lifts.
  • 5. Historicism • Eclecticism fostered the interpenetration of geographically and ethnically diverse cultural elements • Historicism opened the door to limitless creative possibilities by erasing the illusory boundaries between past, present and future • Together they conferred upon artists the unprecedented freedom to explore a universe of artistic forms and styles unfettered by chronological constraints.
  • 6. Historicism • Types: – · Adaptive historicist art is that in which historical material is interwoven with elements considered contemporary or new at the time of creation. – ·Derivative historicist art is based on one or more clearly discernible historical models. – ·Pure historicist art authentically expresses the essence, manners, forms, or styles of a period earlier than that in which it was created. – ·Eclectic historicist art is that in which elements of two or more historical periods are blended.
  • 7. Historicism • "Pure historicism" is a highly relative expression since new buildings, interiors, and landscapes designed and built in historical styles almost always make use of technologies, methods, materials, and amenities not available when the styles in question first appeared. • Few people today would want to forego the conveniences of modern plumbing, electricity, and air conditioning, and fewer still could afford the luxury of worshiping in a Doric temple constructed of Pentelic marble. • It is still possible to create new structures that, given these inevitable conditions, are authentic reinterpretations of established stylistic traditions, with the understanding that the very things that alter these traditions also serve to invigorate them.
  • 8. Historicism • At the beginning Neo-Classical forms were common in the main European cities, in a bourgeois aim at remembering the glories and virtues of the Classical time. • The Romanticism led the architects to revive the Gothic or Islamic forms. • This style is known as Historicism or revival of different historical styles.
  • 9. Historicism • The development of Historicism was deterrent for the evolution of the architecture and decorative arts. • It was born in opposition to the official art of the academies and under the influence of the Romanticism. • It aimed at recovering the genuine roots of the nationalities, present during the medieval period, and to distance from the Italian influence.
  • 10. Historicism • The architects used the new building techniques allowed by the use of iron and other materials. • It is a moment of high impulse for great public buildings, the renaissance of several old styles: – Greek, – Classical, – Romanesque, – Gothic, • and the interest for exotic styles such as the – Moorish, – Hindi, and – Chinese.