Greek Sculpture


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Revision on Greek Sculpture.

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  • This sculpture made by Phidias for one of the pediments of the Parthenon represents the Fates or Morias.
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Greek Sculpture

  1. 1. GREEK SCULPTURE Revision
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>The roots of Greek sculptures come from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern regions (Assyrians, Babylonians) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Egyptian influence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commercial relations made possible the knowledge of these works. </li></ul><ul><li>Greek artist developed their own language, defined by their attempt of portraying human beings. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Sculpture is the art that best shows the fight for depicting their ideals of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beauty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Periods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Archaic: until 5th century bc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical: 5th and 4th centuries bc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hellenistic: last 4th century bc until the Roman conquer in 1st century bc. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. General characteristics <ul><li>Human being as the depiction of physical beauty and spiritual equilibrium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beauty is conceived as the proportion among the parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need of a cannon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characters are harmonic and idealised </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naked human body is the main subject </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. General Characteristics <ul><li>Search for expressivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expression is understood as the exteriorization of feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is idealised so it only can be </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serene </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equilibrated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only during the Hellenistic period was less idealised. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. General Characteristics <ul><li>Movement depiction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sculptors began working with rigid forms based upon eastern static </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archaic images are static </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After that they tried all the forms of dynamism: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Images that adapt to the architectonic frame </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Groups with dynamic relation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscular tension </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement reinforced expressive values of the sculpture </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. General Characteristics <ul><li>Volume depiction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greek early broke with Egyptian frontality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sculpture is conceived to be seen from every angle and point of view </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat depictions are left </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A majority of the sculpture is exempt, but for relieves </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. General Characteristics <ul><li>Materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limestone (in Archaic times) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bronze (modelled with the technique of the lost wax) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White marble in the Classicism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many works are known through Roman copies made in marble after Greek bronze originals. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Archaic period (7th-6th bc) <ul><li>The depictions of this period are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kouroi or kuros </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Korai or kore </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sculpture presents unity of style </li></ul><ul><li>Man’s nudity appear as one of the basic conventionalisms of Greek Art </li></ul>
  10. 10. Archaic period (7th-6th bc) <ul><li>Kuroi: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Images are rigid, looking to the front and monumental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arms are linked to the body and the left leg a bit advanced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symmetry avoiding torsions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geometrical disposition of hair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Almond-shaped eyes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rigid articulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archaic smile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naturalistic depiction, with muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geometric trend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They evolved along the period </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Archaic period (7th-6th bc) <ul><li>Koré </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a religious image, a votive image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They could be made of terracotta or stone and appeared in tombs, having small dimensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The human body is flat, a bit expanded in the hips and in the breast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They lack of expression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hair is unnatural, following Egyptian fashion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are wearing the Dorian peplum, asymmetric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and with few folders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geometry is a characteristics, as in the kuroi </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Transition to the Classicism <ul><li>The main work are the relieves such as the Egina pediments </li></ul><ul><li>There are composite sculptures where the images are adapted to the frame of the architectonical space. </li></ul><ul><li>They show the evolution towards naturalistic forms, with a limited expression of feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>Images are in natural attitudes, but rigid. </li></ul><ul><li>Thematic is more varied too. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Transition to the Classicism <ul><li>Examples of this transition are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ludovisi throne: the relieves are not rigid and the clothes appear to be transparent, showing the anatomy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delfos’ Cart Driver: made of bronze, it has a tension between archaism and modern elements: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Position is static, the same as his clothes, with vertical folders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symmetry is broken by the arm, that holds the reins of the cart and the face that shows a certain internal strength, with stoned-eyes, full of live and polychrome lips. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Classical Plenitude (5th to 4th centuries bc) <ul><li>It is the golden age of Greek sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>A majority of the works were made for Athen’s Acropolis, due to the importance of this city. </li></ul><ul><li>The ideal of beauty is not only physical but also spiritual. </li></ul><ul><li>Proportion and equilibrium are the basis of citizens’ virtue, represented by the Athenian democratic system. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Classical Plenitude (5th to 4th centuries bc) Early Classicism <ul><li>Miron: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>His most famous work is the Discobolus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It expresses the interest for the human body in movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The human is treated as a divinity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It capsized the movement of an instant, with a complex composition with spirals, curves and broken lines that multiplies the points of view. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anatomy is well defined, even a bit flat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Although the dynamism, the face is inexpressive, without any relation to the muscles tension. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Classical Plenitude (5th to 4th centuries bc) Early Classicism <ul><li>Policleto </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He was the theorist of human anatomy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He was worried about human body’s proportions: canon or rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He depicted the human body in its plenitude, with a perfect study of anatomy but idealized . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canon: head is 1/7 of the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geometry influences in some parts of the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Face divided in three parts: forehead, nose and mouth, all in proportion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The head is a perfect sphere to which the hair was glued </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asymmetric composition: contraposition, with a leg a bit advanced. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It shows physic and spiritual equilibrium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works: Doriforo, Diadumeno </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Classical Plenitude (5th to 4th centuries bc) Early Classicism <ul><li>Fidias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He created the prototype of the ideal of classical beauty. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He was responsible of the works in the Parthenon, where he made the pediments, friezes, metopes and goddess sculpture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His work is characterized by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serene beauty of the faces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility and transparency of the clothes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combination of equilibrium and life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exquisite proportions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wet clothes technique gave him the opportunity of working the anatomy of the images. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Panatheneas procession </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parthenon’s friezes and pediments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Palas Athena sculpture </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Classical Plenitude (5th to 4th centuries bc) Late Classicism <ul><li>It was a baroque trend in sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Canon was more stylized </li></ul><ul><li>Complete equilibrium, harmony and proportion are not always respected </li></ul><ul><li>It is the beginning of a dramatic expressionism </li></ul><ul><li>Realism is shown in the proliferation of portrait </li></ul><ul><li>Human feelings are better depicted </li></ul><ul><li>Classical idealism continues but they look for new beauty ideals. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Classical Plenitude (5th to 4th centuries bc) Late Classicism <ul><li>Lisipo: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>His work Apoxiomenos shows the new canon of beauty: the head is 1/8 the body, so its slimmer and higher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legs are longer and head smaler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It does not represent a moment of glory but the athlete cleaning himself after the effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal position has disappeared and the sculpture look to encourage the spectator to look around </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works: Apoxiomeno, Ares Ludovisi, Hercules Farnesio. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Classical Plenitude (5th to 4th centuries bc) Late Classicism <ul><li>Scopas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>His work supposed the crisis of Fidias’ serenity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The images are contortioned, with extreme and violent positions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He was Alexander's sculptor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Menade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mausolo’s head </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Classical Plenitude (5th to 4th centuries bc) Late Classicism <ul><li>Praxiteles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gods appear to be human beings graceful and soft but without the majesty and serenity of other times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expression is vague and dreamer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The artist uses the Praxitelian Curve in the bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For faces he used the sfumato, polishing marble surface, especially some parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These gods and goddesses are melancholic, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nostalgic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hermes with Dionisos </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apolo Sauroctonus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Venus of Arles </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Hellenistic Period (4th to 1st century bc) <ul><li>It’s a wide period both chronologic and geographically </li></ul><ul><li>Greek tradition is mixed with other influences of Alexander empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Greek tradition and oriental influences resulted in a new conception of life. </li></ul><ul><li>In art there is a deep realism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They liked the disequilibrium of the bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dramatic expressions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ugliness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Baroque works with intense movement and tension </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Hellenistic Period (4th to 1st century bc) <ul><li>Variety of subjects: gods, athletes, heroes </li></ul><ul><li>Artists look for inspiration in the life around </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The treatment is realistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portrait rude and sincere, without idealization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The portrayed is individualised </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Daily gestures, actions and characters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human and ridiculous but expressive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Old age, ugliness, imperfection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infancy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep interest for the anatomy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relieves had perspective in the backgrounds, such as that of Pergamo. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Hellenistic Period (4th to 1st century bc) <ul><li>Schools and works </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhodes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Colossus (lost nowadays) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Samotracia’s Victory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Laocoon and his Sons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Farnesio Bull </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pergamo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dying Gallus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gigantomaquy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alexandria: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nile </li></ul></ul></ul>