In the final decade of the century, Goya became aware of the grotesque shifts in the socio-political climate. He suffered a grave illness in 1792 which left him completely deaf. His experiences of that time matured his work and led him to adopt a more critical point of view.
His new way of painting affected his religious work, as can be seen in the frescos in the church of San Antonio de Florida
At the beginning of the 19th century, Goya began to work on highly Romanticist subjects, such as contemporary stories: scenes of witchcraft and the political role of people
Another grave illness in 1819 brought about a new phase in the artist's oeuvre. The fruits of this new change in direction were the highly enigmatic paintings in his country house, the Quinta del Sordo
Here he painted his “black paintings”, creating a horrifying, hallucinatory world of imagery
Goya felt obliged to leave Spain in the midst of the repression unleashed by Fernando VII after the French invasion. He moved to and settled down in France where he painted new portraits and some works on the subject of bullfighting. The painting The Milkmaid of Bordeaux marks the end of his artistic career
He excelled in the late Baroque and Rococo styles in his youth, but he never fully incorporated the influence of Neo-Classicism which was predominant in Spain and Europe in the final decades of the18th century and the beginning of the 19th.
Goya was an artist ahead of his time, who created works full of personality, both in painting and in engraving without ever conforming to the conventional.
He predicted the predominant movements of the 19th and 20th century. Romanticism, Impressionism, Expressionism and Surrealism were the principal movements to be influenced by his work.