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Gothic Architecture

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Revision on Gothic Architecture. It includes elements, main buildings and geographical differences.

Revision on Gothic Architecture. It includes elements, main buildings and geographical differences.

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  • 1. GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE Revision
  • 2. Introduction
    • Gothic Art is the expression of the new city life
    • It is going to have to different areas:
    Religious Civilian
  • 3. Introduction
    • The term was coined with a deceptive sense
    • It is deter by a series of elements:
      • Economic and social transformations of the late Middle Ages
      • Consolidation of the new monarchies and modern states
      • A new spirituality, with the Cister reform
  • 4. Introduction
    • The style had an evolution:
    • 12th century: origin
    • 13th century: plenitude
    • 14th century until mid 15th century: international
    • Second half of the 15th century: flamboyant
  • 5. Architectonical elements Lancet arches Tudor Ogee Three-centered
  • 6. Architectonical elements Windows Gablet Gargoiles Capital
  • 7. Cathedral
    • Cathedrals are the most representative building
    • They are full of accessional spirit
    • The technical innovations made possible the construction of these buildings, something ethereal.
  • 8. Cathedral
    • Plans continue being of Latin cross but it is more difficult to distinguish because the number of naves increases in the transept
    • They have three or five nave, normally five after the crossing
    • They have ambulatory
    • There are radial chapel
    • The cover is of ribbed vaults
    • There are two towers in the façade.
  • 9. Cathedral
    • The plans can be:
    Basilical Saloon
  • 10. Cathedral In the elevation it can be seen the aisles, over them the triforium and finally, the clerestory.
  • 11. Cathedral
    • The inside is full of light thanks to the numerous windows
    • The cathedral has three levels: low, gallery and clerestory
    • The walls are open, allowing a lot of light into the church, with different levels of intensity (more light in the highest parts because light comes directly).
    • Windows can be open because there are new supports that are not glued to the wall.
  • 12. Cathedral
    • The cover evolved from the barrel vault
    • The lancet arch permits higher structures
    • The most common covers are:
      • Rib vault
      • Crossing vault
    • All of them stand on slim and delicate pillars
    • The nerves cross and there is a decorated boss in the intersection
  • 13. Cathedral
    • Supports are essential for the new buildings
    • The most common in the outside is the flying buttress
    • On top of them pinnacles appear in order to transmit the strength to the floor
    Flying buttress Pinnacle
  • 14. Cathedral
    • Thanks to the use of flying buttress, the wall is liberated and may be open with windows
    • Windows tend to be covered by stained glass
  • 15. Cathedral Façade Lateral façade Apse Ambulatory Radial chapels Crossing Transept Spires Rose window Flying butresses Nave Clerestory Tribune Gargoiles
  • 16. Civilian Architecture
    • Its development is consequence of
      • trade renaissance
      • development of cities government
    • Main buildings are
      • Palaces
      • Town halls
      • Markets
  • 17. Civilian Architecture
    • Town halls were the residence of the city’s government
    • There are two kind of models:
      • Northern (Netherlands) : very decorated, with ogee and lancet arches
      • Southern (Italian): closer, sometimes as a fortress
    Leuven Siena
  • 18. Civilian Architecture
    • Palaces were the residences of the nobility
    • They lose their defensive character
  • 19. Civilian Architecture
    • Markets were the places for keeping the products and to sell them
    • They have big rooms with this purpose
    • The spaces are clear, with high and stylised columns
  • 20. French Gothic
    • The distinctive characteristic of French cathedrals, and those in Germany and Belgium that were strongly influenced by them, is their height and their impression of verticality.
    • They are compact, with slight or no projection of the transepts and subsidiary chapels.
    • The west fronts have three portals surmounted by a rose window, and two large towers.
    • The east end is polygonal with ambulatory and sometimes a chevette of radiating chapels.
    • In the south of France, many of the major churches are without transepts and some are without aisles
  • 21. British Gothic
    • The distinctive characteristic of English cathedrals is their extreme length and their internal emphasis upon the horizontal .
    • It is not unusual for every part of the building to have been built in a different century and in a different style, with no attempt at creating a stylistic unity.
    • English cathedrals sprawl across their sites, with double transepts projecting strongly and Lady Chapels tacked on at a later date.
    • In the west front the doors are not significant
    • The West window is very large and never a rose, which are reserved for the transept gables.
    • The west front may have two towers or none.
    • There is nearly always a tower at the crossing and it may be very large and surmounted by a spire.
    • The distinctive English east end is square .
  • 22. Italian Gothic
    • It use s polychrome decoration, both externally as marble veneer on the brick facade and also internally where the arches are often made of alternating black and white segments .
    • The plan is usually regular and symmetrical and have few and widely spaced columns.
    • The proportions are generally mathematically simple, based on the square, the arches are almost always equilateral.
    • It may include mosaics in the lunettes over the doors.
    • The facades have projecting open porches and occular or wheel windows rather than roses, and do not usually have a tower.
    • The crossing is usually surmounted by a dome.
    • There is often a free-standing tower and baptistry.
    • The windows are not as large as in northern Europe and, although stained glass windows are used , the decoration is fresco or mosaic.
  • 23. German Gothic
    • It is characterised by huge towers and spires.
    • The west front generally follows the French formula, but the towers are taller, and if complete, are surmounted by enormous openwork spires .
    • The eastern end follows the French form.
    • The distinctive character of the interior of German Gothic cathedrals is their breadth and openness.
    • Cathedrals tend not to have strongly projecting transepts.
    • There are also many hallenkirke without clerestorey windows .
  • 24. Spanish Gothic
    • Spanish Gothic cathedrals are of spacial complexity.
    • They are comparatively short and wide, and are often completely surrounded by chapels.
    • Spanish Cathedrals are stylistically diverse.
    • I nfluences on both decoration and form are Islamic architecture, and towards the end of the period, Renaissance details combined with the Gothic in a distinctive manner.
    • The West front resembles a French west front,
    • T here are spires of German style.
    • F ew pinnacles.
    • Th ere are often towers and domes of a great variety of shapes and structural invention rising above the roof .