Expressionism (new)


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Expressionism (new)

  1. 1. EXPRESSIONISM Revision
  2. 2. Introduction • The name Expressionism is used to refer to the German art of the early 20th century. • This is a European phenomenon that had two branches: – The France based group developed the Fauvism – The German branch paved the way for Der Blaue Reiter.
  3. 3. Phylosophy • The name tends to reflect their opposition to the Impressionism. • The Expressionism is a movement from the inside to the outside. • Its attitude can be even aggressive. • The movement has something in common with the Impressionism: – both movements are realistic and – both ask for the full compromise of the artists in the matter of the reality. • The expressionist are involved in their
  4. 4. History • The first German Expressionism was born in 1905 with the movement known as Die Brüke that is related to the national figurative tradition. • The artists understood the world as a deep existential condition of the human being: – the desire of having the reality – and the anguish of being possessed by the
  5. 5. Die Brücke • Die Brücke is a solid artists’ community with a written programme. • Members of the group are: – Kirchner, – Nolde, – Schiele, – Kokoschka. • The German situation of the time was obscure, with different artistic influences. • Die Brücke proposed the union of the revolutionary element to fight against the
  6. 6. Kirchner Nolde Ensor Schiel KokoschkaMunch
  7. 7. Die Brücke • Characteristics: – it is a realism that creates reality; – they begin from nothing, just from the artist ideas; – the matter influences on the artist; – the subjects reflect daily life (streets, people in the cafes); – the works are a bit rude
  8. 8. Die Brücke • In their opinion technique is not something that can be invented, it is just work. • It is important the dominance of graphics, especially xylography, in which the carving can be violent and the result is sometimes irregular. • Technique: – the painting is dense, full of colour, with stains and lack of hues; – it is more important the process than the result.
  9. 9. Die Brücke • The artist works directly on the image and chooses the colours depending on their mood. • Deformations are common and they are sometimes aggressive. • They find their inspiration in the work of primitive cultures. • They do not have a concept of beauty, for them it changes to be ugliness, deformity: it is the poetry of the awful
  10. 10. Die Brücke • Expressionist artists renounce to be bourgeois and criticise this social group. • In their opinion, existence is self-creation and they oppose to the industrial work that creates a dehumanized society. • They are obsessed with the subject of sex because the relation of men and women is the basis of the society • They consider that society – deforms, – is perverse,
  11. 11. Kirchner • He depicted the atmosphere of cities with forms full of angles and with vivid brush-strokes • He portrayed contradictions: – Lack of interest in beauty – Problems of life – Sexual influence – Desire
  12. 12. Nolde • Primitive forms with simbolic value • He depicted a religious experience • Technical characteristics: – Strong brush-stroke – Thick matter – Vivid contrast of colours
  13. 13. Ensor • Strange images full of people • The faces of people look to be masks. • He critisized all social classes • Technically: – Lots of matter – He wanted to imitate the texture of oil painting.
  14. 14. Schiele • Sensuality became a sexual obsession • Strong line symbolising the physical and moral deterioration of people. • Colour is independent, mainly in watercolours. • Space is a hole and symbolizes the
  15. 15. Kokoschka • Oso expressive works • He received bad critics • He painted a lot of portraits • He received the influence of other artists of his time
  16. 16. Munch • Characters between waves • Areas of strong contrast • He wanted to depict the problems of his times • Characters appear in turmoil. • They look to be
  17. 17. Der Blaue Reiter • Die Brücke was dissolved in 1913 when the group Der Blaue Reiter started its investigation with a less compromised attitude. • Members of this group are: – Beckmann, – Dix, – Grosz, – Marc, – Macke, – Kandinsky, – Klee. • They do not have a defined programme. And their orientation is more spiritual.
  18. 18. Beckmann Dix Grosz
  19. 19. Marc Macke Kandinsk y Klee
  20. 20. Der Blaue Reiter • Their objective is to coordinate international exhibitions to foster their polemic writings • The ideas of the artists of this group are not revolutionary but it is anti-classicist. • They are influenced by Matisse, oriental art and even music. • Symbols are limited to common objects while the aesthetic communication is dominant.
  21. 21. Der Blaue Reiter • Characteristics of the movement are: – importance of the colour and its significance; – primitivism; – improvisation; – inclusion of different lines and shapes: • curves, • zigzags, • stain; – art is understood as communication.
  22. 22. Beckmann • In many of his works handicapped bodies appear. • Extravagant forms • He critised governments heavily • Images in movement, doing exercise • He painted portraits
  23. 23. Dix • He wanted to depict the disasters consequence of WWI • Trend to objectivism • In his work he made strong social critics
  24. 24. Grosz • Influences of the war • He depicted cartoons and other independennnnnnt projects • Images are simplified, with strong critic • He is a
  25. 25. Marc • The main characters of his works are animals • He was quite mistic • He used colours arbitrarily • Each colour had its symbolic value
  26. 26. Macke • He integrated in the movement after knowing Kandinsky • He received influences of other avant gard • The influence of Delaunay’s colour can be see in hitDelaunayren kolorearen eragina ikusten da bere lanetan, batez ere
  27. 27. Kandinsky • He experimented with several avant-gardes • Russian influences are aboundat • He used vivid colours • He said that colours are linked to music • He made the first abstract painting
  28. 28. Klee • He liked primitive art • Although introduced in the expressionist group his work is quite special • He was autodidactn • Colour is the most important element of his work.