Baroque Revision
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Baroque Revision

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Baroque Art revision, including architecture, sculpture and painting.

Baroque Art revision, including architecture, sculpture and painting.

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Baroque Revision Baroque Revision Presentation Transcript

  • BAROQUE ART Revision
  • Cronology and geography
    • From the end of 16th century until 1750.
    • Geography: whole Europe+ America.
    • Characteristics of the period:
      • Religious and political conflicts
      • Geographical colonization
      • Scientific development
      • New astrological discoveries  Sun centre of Universe
  • Baroque Style
    • The word means imperfection
    • New naturalism that reflects the scientific advances
    • Taste for dramatic action and emotion:
      • Colour and light contrasted
      • Rich textures
      • Asymmetrical spaces
      • Diagonal plans
      • New subjects: landscape, genre, still-life
  • Baroque Style
    • Variety within the style
    • Art at the service of power
    • Two main centres:
      • Rome: Pope’s authority
      • France: powerful monarchy
    • Influence of the Counter-Reform
    • Worry about plastic values
  • Architecture: Characteristics
    • Long narrow naves replaced by broader or circular forms
    • Dramatic use of light
    • Opulent use of ornaments
    • Large-scale ceiling frescoes
    • External façade with dramatic central projection
    • Interior a shell for painting and sculpture
    • Illusory effects
    • Onion domes in Eastern Europe
  • Architecture: Italy
    • They evolved from the Renaissance forms
    • Movement toward grand structures with flowing, curving shapes
    • Landscape was frequently incorporated
    • New elements as gardens, squares , courtyards and fountains.
    • Influence of the rebuilding of Saint Peter, in which classical forms integrated with the city.
  • Architecture: Italy
    • Maderno
      • He made the Vatican’s façade
      • His work destroyed partially Michelangelo’s design
      • His work combined the dome with the creation of an space where the Pope could appear publicaly
      • Other works:
        • Santa maria della Vittoria
        • Palazzo Barberini
  • Architecture: Italy
    • Longhena
      • He worked mainly in Venice
      • His design was selected for building Santa Maria della Salute
      • It is building of central plan with a great dome that became the symbol of Venice.
  • Architecture: Italy
    • Bernini
      • He created a fusion of architecture, painting and sculpture
      • He used false perspective and trompe-l’ oeil to impact
      • He used a palace façade that became a model with massive pilasters above a rusticated base.
      • Works:
        • Saint Peter’s square
        • Baldaquin
  • Architecture: Italy
    • Borromini
      • His works spring from the contrast between convention and freedom
      • He used tradition as a basis, but not as a law
      • Works:
        • San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane
        • San Carlo Borromeo
        • Oratorio degli Fillipenses
  • Architecture: France
    • It was elegant, ordered, rational and restraided
    • It is a rectilinear model, closer to classicism
    • It aimed at showing the power of Louis XIV monarchy.
    • The main works are:
      • Louvre: Le Vay and Perrault
      • Versailles: Le Brun, Le Vau, Le Notre
  • Architecture: Central Europe
    • It began later due to the Thirty Years’ War
    • Austria developed the Imperial style with Fischer von Erlach and Hildebrandt
    • In Germany, in the Catholic South Jesuit models were followed while in the Protestant North works were less important
    • Palace architecture was important in the whole area
  • Architecture: England and Russia
    • In England is important Wren
    • Baroque was the style used to design town planning
    • In Russia it is very decorative, in quite traditional churches sometimes made of brick; later it was imported from the Low Countries and finally it became an extravagant art.
  • Architecture: Spain
    • At the beginning it continued the pattern of the Escorial
    • Decoration tends to concentrate just in the façade
    • The Rococo was the time of the development of the Churrigueresque style, with exaggerated decoration around the door
    • The Plateresque (last Renaissance that imitates the work on silver) and the Churrigueresque were exported to America, mainly to Mexico.
  • Sculpture
    • It is one of the most popular arts.
    • The clients are the church and the nobility.
    • It is the way of expression of different religious believes.
    • It was used as a way of advertising power
    • Works are located in public places, such as courtyards and fountains.
  • Sculpture: Characteristics
    • Creation of images that can be seen from different points of view.
    • Tendency to open structures.
    • Complicated lines, being the diagonal the most used.
    • Interest for the effects of light:
      • different treatment of surfaces
      • Resource to breaking wall to get the ideal illumination
  • Sculpture: Characteristics
    • Combination of different materials in the same work
    • Grandiloquence of the gestures
    • Human treatment of the depicted characters
    • Mythological and religious images frull of humanities and passions
    • Perfect organisation of the volumes to obtain the desired effect
  • Sculpture: Characteristics
    • Tension and drama: moment of maximum tension
    • Violent contrast of light and shadows
    • Types of sculptures:
      • Relief
      • Portrait
      • Equestrian portrait
      • Allegories
      • Mythological stories
      • Religious
      • Easter sculptures (Spain)
      • Fountains
      • Pantheons
    • Regional differences
  • Sculpture: Italy
    • Bernini
      • He created a new style in sculpture
      • Sources of inspiration were the paintings of his contemporaries
      • Sense of drama and naturalism (following Caravaggio)
      • Captured in stone frozen moment of human bodies in motion
      • Works:
        • Apollo and Daphne
        • Sainte Therese Ecstasy
        • Fountain of the Four Rivers
        • Fountain of the Triton
  • Sculpture: France
    • Girardon
      • Quite classical conception
      • He worked for Louis XIV
      • Author of fountains (Apollo Tended by Nymphs), pantheons (Richelieu)
    • Puget
      • Impassioned work
      • Formed in Italy
      • Expressed physical vigour and emotional intensity
      • Work: Milon of Crotona
  • Sculpture: Spain
    • Religious sculpture had an important development
    • It is realised for the Easter parades.
    • Characteristics:
      • Humanity (passions, mainly sufferance)
      • Symbols of sufferance: blood
      • Individual or group images
      • Wood is the most used material (polychrome)
      • Additional elements: real clothes, glazed eyes, hair
      • Common images:
        • Painful Virgin (Dolorosa)
        • Ecce Homo (Christ tied up to a column)
        • Death Christ
        • Calvary
  • Sculpture: Spain
    • Castilian School: Gregorio Fernandez
      • His style evolved from the refinement and elegance of Court Mannerism to Baroque naturalism
      • Master in depicting the human body with anatomical detail, tension in muscles, strength of bones and softness of flesh and skin
      • Clothing heavy and flat, with rigid and angular folders, producing contrast of light and shadows
      • Dramatic expressions
      • Simple polychromes (flat colours)
      • Works: Virgin with the Dead Christ, Road to the Calvary, Saint Theresa
  • Sculpture: Spain
    • Andalusian School:
    • Greater classical tradition
    • Artist maintained the aesthetic of latter Mannerism (athletic figures, elegant composition, and idealised beauty)
    • Incorporation of the effects of naturalism in emotions
    • Artists: Martinez Montañes, Alonso Cano, Pedro de Mena, Jose de Mora
  • Sculpture: Spain
    • Andalusian School:
      • Martinez Montañes: “ The God of Wood”
        • Combined love of beauty and serenity of the Mannerism with the naturalism of the Baroque
        • Elegant figures in restful poses
        • Human and contained emotions
        • Saint John the Evangelist
      • Alonso Cano
        • Combines classicism and Baroque
        • Purity of form, delicacy and contaiment of expression
        • Careful anatomy and slender outline
        • Oval faces, eyes with melancholic and pensive gaze
        • Saint John the Baptists
  • Sculpture: Spain
    • Andalusian School:
      • Pedro de Mena:
        • Greater simplification of form
        • Spiritual content
        • Pure sentiments or states of mind: ecstasy
        • Saint Peter of Alcántara, Ecce Homo
      • Jose de Mora:
        • Simplicity and expression
        • Realistic pain
        • Faces with expression of introspection and sad gazes
        • Impossibility of consolation
        • Virgin of Solitude
  • Sculpture: Spain
    • Pasos or processional scenes
      • Made of light but fragile materials at the beginning
      • Wooden carvings popular since 17th century
      • Polychrome and with fake additions: glass eyes and tears, ivory teeth, hair
      • Viewpoints should be taken into account
      • Different work in characters:
        • Goodies: meticolous, pretty to look, dressed in timeless clothing
        • Baddies: less detail, no additions, ugly and unpleasant, clothing from the time they were made
  • Sculpture: Spain
      • Mounted in wooden platforms: scenes seemed almost alive with the movement
      • Main images desmounted and put in altars and baddies packed
      • There were famous those of Valladolid, made by Gregorio Fernandez
      • Decadence during the 18th century
  • Sculpture: Spain
    • In the late Baroque there were French and Italian influences
    • Creation of a new classicism
    • Murcia took relevance: Salcillo
      • Influenced by the Neapolitan school (Belen tradition)
      • Movement, delicacy and tender beauty
      • Perfection of form, serch of elegance and refinement
      • Great dynamism
      • Added materials and polychrome
    • Luisa Roldan
      • Larger sife sized an small terra-cotta compositions
  • Painting
    • Subjects: religious and profane (mythological, allegorical, historical or portraits)
    • Composition: complicated; taste for big groups, with different centres of attention. Portraits are just essential
    • Lines: dynamic and complicate. Diagonal is the most used or combinations of horizontal and vertical
    • Colour: rich, with great effects due to the use of oil and contrast depending on the areas
    • Strange elements: secondary plans, mirrors
  • Painting
    • Kinds of depiction:
      • Religious: martyrdoms, sufferance and blood
      • Mythological: generally developed with contemporary characters
      • Allegorical: virtues and sins portrayed as humans
      • Portraits: royal, bourgeois (doelen), beggars, handicapped
      • Customs: every day’s life
      • Historical: bear witness of historical events
      • Landscapes: never quiet sceneries
      • Still-life: food and vegetables, flowers, animals
      • Vanities or vanitas: remainders of the egalitarian role of death
  • Painting: Italy
    • Caravaggio
      • Very naturalist
      • Theologically incorrect
      • Enormous contrasts of light
      • Difficult compositions
      • Known as the creator of tenebrism
      • Works: Supper at Emmaus, the Death of the Virgin, Saint Mathew’s Conversion
  • Painting: Italy
    • Carracci
      • He received Caravaggio’s influence
      • Naturalism
      • Perfect and idealised world
      • His works are completely different from those of Caravaggio
      • Works: Cerasi Chapel
  • Painting: Flanders
    • Rubens
      • He was a complete artist
      • Gifted with organization and a sense for realism and idealism
      • He enjoyed harmony’s enviable balance of opposites
      • Romantic but rooted in classical tradition
      • Works: The Three Graces, The Garden of Love, Catalina of Medici’s Portrait
  • Painting: Flanders
    • Van Dyck
      • He was Rubens’ s student
      • In his works there in a languid melancholic mood
      • Portraits of the aristocracy
      • Works: Charles I
    • Jordaens
      • Specialized in genre and banquet scenes
      • Strong contrasts of light and shade
      • Realistic images
      • Works: The King Drinks
  • Painting: Netherlands
    • Rembrant
      • Thunderous use of light and shade
      • Dramatic figures filling the picture surface
      • Fluid and vigorous brushwork
      • He substituted the exact imitation of form by the suggestion of it: painting looked to be unfinished
      • Limited palette but able to depict colours
      • He worked in complex layers
      • Great care to the physical qualities of the medium
      • Works: The Night’s Ronda, Saskia having a Bath, The Jew Bridegroom, The Philosopher
  • Painting: Netherlands
    • Hals
      • He brought life to groups
      • Portraits as a snapshot
      • Unconventional work for his moment
      • Quick depictions with a few touches of light
      • Works: The Gipsy Girl
    • Vermeer
      • Domestic interiors
      • Serene sense of compositional balance and spatial order
      • Mundane, domestic or recreational activities
      • He used the camera obscura to exaggerate perspective
      • Works: Girl with the Pearl Earring, View of Delft, the Procuress, The Geographer
  • Painting: France
    • Poussin
      • Founder of the classical school
      • Myths, essential subject and sensuality
      • Works: Et in Arcadia Ego
    • La Tour
      • Preocupation with the realistic rendering of light
      • Effects of chiaroscuro and diffusion of artificial illumination
      • Works: Marie Magdalene
    • Le Nain
      • Common life, peasants and poor people
      • Grave presences, not comic or gallant, neither picaresque or satirical
      • Works: Peasant’s Family
  • Painting: Spain
    • Zurbarán
      • He was a portrait painter
      • Main subjects: religious (saints, monastic orders’ members)
      • Austere, harsh, hard edged style
      • Still-lives
      • Works: Paintings of the Guadalupe Monastery, Sainte Casilde, Still-life with lemons
  • Painting: Spain
    • Velázquez
      • He painted any kind of subjects
      • He was Court Painter and travelled to Italy to buy art works and he knew classical masters’ works
      • Portraits: include royal family and nobility, some of them equestrian, but also normal people of the court or even beggars (Olivares, Juan de Pareja, Esopo, Meninas)
      • Religious paintings are treated as common subjects, with great importance given to daily life objects (Christ in Martha and Mary’s house)
  • Painting: Spain
      • Mythological work appear normally in a secondary plan or represented by normal people (Spinners, Drunks)
      • Historical scenes (Breda’s Surrender)
      • Nudes (Venus of the mirror)
      • Landscapes (Villa Medicci)
      • Genre scenes: same importance given to the tools or to people (Old Woman Cooking Eggs, Sevilla’s Water-Seller)
  • Painting: Spain
      • Characteristics:
        • Great detail when wanted
        • Aerial perspective
        • Pre-Impressioniss (few matter and impression of unfinished work)
        • Special conception of the space (no divisions of it)
        • Resource to very baroque elements such as mirrors that create an illusionist space
        • Richness of colours
  • Painting: Spain
    • Murillo
      • His work is not strong but his images are convincing
      • Realism but a bit idealistic
      • He is reputed as children painter, works in which beggars and poor children are depicted
      • He created a model of Immaculate, moved by the wind and with a lot of putti
      • Works: Children Eating Fruit, Two Women at a Window, the Holy Family of the Bird, Immaculate
  • Rococo
    • French style for interior decoration
    • It developped mainly at the end of 1720
    • It was used in other countries as a French Style
    • Characteristics:
      • Galante: luxurious things
      • Contraste: asymmety
      • Chinoiserie: exotic character imitating Chinese arts
  • Rococo Architecture
    • It caught the public taste
    • Small and curious buildings
    • Elegant parlours, dainty sitting-rooms and boudoirs
    • Walls, ceiling, furniture and works of metal as decoration
    • Ensemble of sportive, fantastic and sculptured forms
    • Horizontal lines almost completely supressed
    • Shell-like curves
    • Walls covered by stucco
    • White and bright colours.
  • Rococo Sculpture
    • There is not a breaking with the former
    • The tune was set by courts and it is decorative
    • Staircases, columns with atlantes become common
    • Gardens and parks were adorned more than ever before with statues. These isolated and groups were placed on fountains
    • The social role of sculpture increased to show the power of dynasties and nobility, mainly when cities expanded
  • Rococo Sculpture
    • Taste for technical virtuosity, sheer brilliance of manner
    • Allegory was used because it had an elaborate system of symbols
    • Religion was a bit less used during the Enlightement
    • Portraits give importance to reallity with psychological quirks
    • Female portrait were less austere
    • Cult of great men
    • Increase of the number of equestrian statues
    • Funeral monuments
  • Rococo Sculpture
    • Bouchardon:
      • Clean forms, can and harmonious rhythms
      • Precursor of the Neoclassicism
      • Works: Louis XIV
    • Houdon:
      • Charming images a bit ambiguous
        • Works: Voltaire, La Frileuse
    • Pigalle: The Negro Paul, Tombe of Marshl Saxony
    • Falconet: Equestrian statue of Peter the Great
  • Rococo Painting
    • Instead of portraying the moral depression of the time, they protrait high society and gallant festivals
    • Beautiful sensuality is masterly depicted through the colour
    • Conversations, rural pleasures, character as the Italian and French Commendians indicates the spirit of this art
    • Slim images, in unaffected pose, in rural sceneries and painted with the finest colours
  • Rococo Painting
    • France
      • Wateau
        • He depicted mankind as the most interesting natural element: affinity toward them
        • Elegant characters in vibrant colours
        • Works: Embarkation to Citera, Gilles
      • Fragonard
        • Rapid an spontaneous painter
        • He depicted the sense of human folly
        • Works: The Swing
      • Chardin
        • Master of the still life
        • Paintings in brown colours with mids, but loyal to reallity
  • Rococo Painting
    • England
      • Hogart
        • Caricature in his morality paintings
        • Fluent and vigorous brushwork
        • Works: Shrimp Girl
      • Gainsborough
        • Artist of the landscape and the portrait
        • Ability to regard all creatures with sympathy
        • Works: Landscape with Gypsies, Sunset
  • Rococo Painting
    • Italy
      • Tiepolo
        • Master of the decorative painting
        • He used the fresco
        • Works: Wurzburg Palace, Allegory of the Spanish Monarchy
      • Canaletto
        • Townscapes painter (vedute)
        • He apparently painted directly from nature
        • He used the camera obscura
        • Works: Architectural Capriccio, The Bucintoro Returning to the Molo on Ascension Day