Accelerate your Exadata
deployment
With the skills you already know
Marc Fielding
September 2013
About me
• Senior Consultant with Pythian’s
Advanced Technology Group
• 12+ years Oracle production
systems experience sta...
About Pythian
• Recognized Leader:
– Global industry-leader in remote database administration services and consulting for ...
© 2013 Pythian4
Why this presentation
So you have Exadata. What next?
• Underpinning Exadata are well-known Oracle
technologies
• SQL*Plus works just like on an...
So what is different?
• It’s an engineered system: you run the same
hardware as other Exadata customers
• Oracle developme...
© 2013 Pythian7
Storage servers
Management switch
Compute servers
Empty space
InfiniBand switches
KVM
The bits you know already
• It’s running Oracle database software
• Database servers: Xeon-based
servers running Oracle Li...
The secret sauce
• InfiniBand networking
– Gives amazing latency: forget 1ms, try 1µs
– Great capacity too: 40gbps
– Used ...
Differences from SAN/NAS
• No single “storage head” – storage management is
handled by the ASM cluster instead
• Easy scal...
Smart Scans (1)
• Somewhat analogous to parallel query
• Multiple parallel processes
• Communicate with shadow processes w...
Smart Scans (2)
• Put processing closer to the storage
• Inherently parallel: processing happens on all storage
servers th...
• Used in conjunction with smart scans
• Can avoid doing I/O entirely
• Split storage up into 1m “storage regions”
• Track...
Hybrid Columnar Compression (1)
• New storage type with superb compression ratios: 10x or more
• Group blocks into compres...
Hybrid Columnar Compression (2)
• Much like smart scans, data must be loaded in bulk:
CREATE TABLE AS SELECT, INSERT
/*+AP...
Recommendations: HCC
• Best for data that is inserted in large batches (data
warehouses for example)
• Also useful with ti...
Flash cache
• Designed for OLTP
• Flash memory has 5x better read
latency than hard drives
• Transparent to applications
•...
Flash cache: recommendations
• With new Exadata X3, you may fit entire DB in
flash. Enjoy!
• Entirely different from the s...
I/O Resource Management
• You can use DBRM in Oracle 11g to manage
CPU time, and manage runaway queries
• But what if your...
Management tools
• OEM 12c: put a lot of work into managing Exadata
• Can now manage
all Exadata
components (incl
switches...
Management tools (2)
• Command-line tools all there: SQL*Plus etc
• For storage servers, a new tool: cellcli to
manage sto...
Hardware management
• Like other enterprise hardware, Exadata has out-of-
band management
• ILOM lets you access hung serv...
Backups
• Backups run through RMAN – no snapshot support
• Similar RMAN configuration to non-Exadata
• Use high-speed Infi...
Disaster recovery
• No storage-level replication like SRDF
• Data guard is the overwhelming
favourite
• Active data guard ...
Data migration
• Like backups: no storage-level replication
• Physical copies
– Data guard physical standby
– Transportabl...
Patching
• Exadata has many components
• All of which have periodic patches
• Major work has been done to improve patching...
Diagnostic tools
• exachk is developed by Oracle development to
compare your configuration with Oracle-
recommended values...
New Exadata install – what to expect
• PDF configuration questionnaire
– How you want your system built out
• Hardware req...
Decisions to make
• High performance / high capacity
• ASM normal / high redundancy
• Data/FRA storage split
• Hot/cold di...
Working with Oracle Support
• Oracle Support manages all Exadata components:
database, hardware, OS, network
• Even hard d...
Organizational support models
• Exadata blurs the lines
• Oracle support procedures are new for admins used
to dealing wit...
But overall
• As a DBA, you’ll still be doing much the same
work as you’re used to on Exadata
• Performance tuning, backup...
Gaining Exadata skills
• Not many of us have datacenters in our
basements to try out new technologies
• Learn technologies...
A word about the IOUG
• The IOUG is bring you today’s user group day
• By Oracle users, for Oracle users
• Collaborate 201...
Thank you and Q&A
© 2013 Pythian37
fielding@pythian.com
1-877-PYTHIAN
pythian.com/blog
http://is.gd/PythianFacebook
@mfild...
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OOW13: Accelerate your Exadata deployment with the DBA skills you already have

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OOW13: Accelerate your Exadata deployment with the DBA skills you already have

  1. 1. Accelerate your Exadata deployment With the skills you already know Marc Fielding September 2013
  2. 2. About me • Senior Consultant with Pythian’s Advanced Technology Group • 12+ years Oracle production systems experience starting with Oracle 7 • Blogger and conference presenter pythian.com/news/author/fielding • Occasionally on twitter: @mfild 2 © 2013 Pythian
  3. 3. About Pythian • Recognized Leader: – Global industry-leader in remote database administration services and consulting for Oracle, Oracle Applications, MySQL and Microsoft SQL Server – Work with over 250 multinational companies such as Forbes.com, Fox Sports, Nordion and Western Union to help manage their complex IT deployments • Expertise: – Pythian’s data experts are the elite in their field. We have the highest concentration of Oracle ACEs on staff—8 including 2 ACE Directors—and 2 Microsoft MVPs. – Pythian holds 7 Specializations under Oracle Platinum Partner program, including Oracle Exadata, Oracle GoldenGate & Oracle RAC • Global Reach & Scalability: – Around the clock global remote support for DBA and consulting, systems administration, special projects or emergency response © 2013 Pythian3
  4. 4. © 2013 Pythian4 Why this presentation
  5. 5. So you have Exadata. What next? • Underpinning Exadata are well-known Oracle technologies • SQL*Plus works just like on any other Oracle system • RAC and Grid Infrastructure, 11gR2 (or 12c!) • ASM is there • Services, SCAN, etc no different than other Oracle RAC environments © 2013 Pythian5
  6. 6. So what is different? • It’s an engineered system: you run the same hardware as other Exadata customers • Oracle development has tested on the exact same configuration • It’s a good thing: much fewer obscure OS issues, driver issues etc • Single point of contact at Oracle support – hardware and software • And yeah, there are are a few new concepts… © 2013 Pythian6
  7. 7. © 2013 Pythian7 Storage servers Management switch Compute servers Empty space InfiniBand switches KVM
  8. 8. The bits you know already • It’s running Oracle database software • Database servers: Xeon-based servers running Oracle Linux 5 • 2, 4, 8- or more-node 11gR2 RAC cluster • Clustered ASM instances • Ordinary Ethernet connections to the outside © 2013 Pythian8
  9. 9. The secret sauce • InfiniBand networking – Gives amazing latency: forget 1ms, try 1µs – Great capacity too: 40gbps – Used for RAC interconnect and storage access – replaces fiber channel • Storage servers: also Linux servers – But they run Exadata-specific software – Take I/O requests from database servers and send to disk – Also have understanding of database concepts © 2013 Pythian9
  10. 10. Differences from SAN/NAS • No single “storage head” – storage management is handled by the ASM cluster instead • Easy scaling: when you add storage capacity, you get processing capacity too • Switched network increases network capacity as you scale • Usually dedicated database storage, so often managed by DBAs too • Hot/cold storage: tier outer and inner tracks on a disk © 2013 Pythian10
  11. 11. Smart Scans (1) • Somewhat analogous to parallel query • Multiple parallel processes • Communicate with shadow processes with SQL-type constructs – rows, columns etc • Save communication capacity by only sending the data you need, not entire data blocks • select col1 from big_table; • Sends only col1 data, for example • Also more complex actions like predicate evaluation, decryption, bloom filter joins… © 2013 Pythian11
  12. 12. Smart Scans (2) • Put processing closer to the storage • Inherently parallel: processing happens on all storage servers that might have matching data • Only apply to bulk, direct path operations – usually full table scans • Excludes – Index range scans – Table access by index rowid – Blocks with uncommitted changes – LOBs © 2013 Pythian12
  13. 13. • Used in conjunction with smart scans • Can avoid doing I/O entirely • Split storage up into 1m “storage regions” • Track high/low values • Work best with pre-sorted data • Example: select * from tab where col1 < 20; © 2013 Pythian13 Storage Indexes 2-99 4-57 33-60 90-120
  14. 14. Hybrid Columnar Compression (1) • New storage type with superb compression ratios: 10x or more • Group blocks into compression units • Store columns together instead of rows • Typical databases have repeated values: the infamous “Y”/”N” column for example • Then apply well-known compression like bzip2 or gzip on top © 2013 Pythian14
  15. 15. Hybrid Columnar Compression (2) • Much like smart scans, data must be loaded in bulk: CREATE TABLE AS SELECT, INSERT /*+APPEND*/, SQL*Loader direct path, etc • Otherwise data will get OLTP compression instead • CPU overhead to compress/decompress (though smart scans can offload decompression) • Locks affect entire compression units rather than single rows © 2013 Pythian15
  16. 16. Recommendations: HCC • Best for data that is inserted in large batches (data warehouses for example) • Also useful with time-based partitions: re-compress old, no-longer-modified data • There are 4 levels; ARCHIVE HIGH has significant CPU overhead so use for data that’s rarely accessed • Use DBMS_COMPRESSION to predict compression ratios, and see results afterwards © 2013 Pythian16
  17. 17. Flash cache • Designed for OLTP • Flash memory has 5x better read latency than hard drives • Transparent to applications • Smart enough not to cache RMAN backup I/O, ASM secondary extents, and other non-repeatable reads • DBAs can use resource manager and SQL to prioritize cache objects © 2013 Pythian17
  18. 18. Flash cache: recommendations • With new Exadata X3, you may fit entire DB in flash. Enjoy! • Entirely different from the similarly-named Database Smart Flash Cache in 11gR2 • You can put ASM disks on flash, but ASM redundancy reduces usable space • You can use back-end commands to actually see what’s being cached © 2013 Pythian18
  19. 19. I/O Resource Management • You can use DBRM in Oracle 11g to manage CPU time, and manage runaway queries • But what if your system is bottlenecked on I/O • In Exadata, just turn on IORM and your CPU priorities apply to I/O too • Can also allocate I/O capacity across databases © 2013 Pythian19
  20. 20. Management tools • OEM 12c: put a lot of work into managing Exadata • Can now manage all Exadata components (incl switches etc) • Consolidation planning tools to evaluate workloads © 2013 Pythian20
  21. 21. Management tools (2) • Command-line tools all there: SQL*Plus etc • For storage servers, a new tool: cellcli to manage storage servers • cellcli can be combined with dcli to run a command on multiple machines. • cellcli changes to one storage server aren’t visible to others © 2013 Pythian21
  22. 22. Hardware management • Like other enterprise hardware, Exadata has out-of- band management • ILOM lets you access hung servers without driving to the datacenter • Very useful when doing patches and reboots • Monitors system health and can send alerts when metrics are out of range • Most configuration changes made thorough Exadata cellcli © 2013 Pythian22
  23. 23. Backups • Backups run through RMAN – no snapshot support • Similar RMAN configuration to non-Exadata • Use high-speed InfiniBand network if you can • Oracle ZFS appliance can be configured for InfiniBand for example • Use IORM to manage backup I/O to avoid performance degradation at backup time • Use multiple channels to keep the disks busy © 2013 Pythian23
  24. 24. Disaster recovery • No storage-level replication like SRDF • Data guard is the overwhelming favourite • Active data guard works well with Exadata • Non-Exadata standby: watch HCC • Most common approach: two datacenters with identically configured Exadata machines © 2013 Pythian24
  25. 25. Data migration • Like backups: no storage-level replication • Physical copies – Data guard physical standby – Transportable tablespaces – Cross-platform incrementals • Logical transfers – Data Pump – Direct path over DB Link – GoldenGate – Data guard logical standby – External tables / SQL*Loader © 2013 Pythian25
  26. 26. Patching • Exadata has many components • All of which have periodic patches • Major work has been done to improve patching • Recommended quarterly full-stack patches include patches for all equipment • Do not apply CPU/PSU patches – Exadata bundle patches include security fixed, plus high-priority bug fixes • Different patching options involve different levels of downtime, data-loss risk, and execution time • Review the options © 2013 Pythian26
  27. 27. Diagnostic tools • exachk is developed by Oracle development to compare your configuration with Oracle- recommended values • Large library of tests, and regularly being added • Good idea to run before and after system changes like patches or configuration updates • Download from My Oracle Support • Required root access for full information © 2013 Pythian27
  28. 28. New Exadata install – what to expect • PDF configuration questionnaire – How you want your system built out • Hardware requirements – Exadata is very dense – look at power, weight, cooling etc • Site survey • Equipment delivered • Hardware configuration • Software configuration • Installation report © 2013 Pythian29
  29. 29. Decisions to make • High performance / high capacity • ASM normal / high redundancy • Data/FRA storage split • Hot/cold diskgroups? © 2013 Pythian30
  30. 30. Working with Oracle Support • Oracle Support manages all Exadata components: database, hardware, OS, network • Even hard disk failures must go through Oracle Support for triage and troubleshooting • Dedicated engineered systems team handles front-line support • Much better experience than ordinary support • Ordinary support-management skills are doubly important though: creating SRs properly, escalations, etc © 2013 Pythian31
  31. 31. Organizational support models • Exadata blurs the lines • Oracle support procedures are new for admins used to dealing with other vendors • Generally most Exadata work is DBAs • Most common support model is to create a team with mostly DBAs to manage entire Exadata stack • Organizational reasons may require a more traditional model though • For you as a DBA: reach out © 2013 Pythian33
  32. 32. But overall • As a DBA, you’ll still be doing much the same work as you’re used to on Exadata • Performance tuning, backups, code deployments, disaster recovery all exist in Exadata land © 2013 Pythian34
  33. 33. Gaining Exadata skills • Not many of us have datacenters in our basements to try out new technologies • Learn technologies like RAC, and “real” ASM with redundancy, direct-attach disk • But there are plenty of resources: – Exadata courses: Oracle university workshop, and others – Exadata books, particularly Expert Oracle Exadata – Conference presentations – even if you can’t attend, try and download the slides © 2013 Pythian35
  34. 34. A word about the IOUG • The IOUG is bring you today’s user group day • By Oracle users, for Oracle users • Collaborate 2014: April 7-11, Las Vegas • Master class events this fall: Milwaukee, Rochester, Chicago, Atlanta • IOUG Kiosk: Moscone West, 2nd floor © 2013 Pythian36
  35. 35. Thank you and Q&A © 2013 Pythian37 fielding@pythian.com 1-877-PYTHIAN pythian.com/blog http://is.gd/PythianFacebook @mfild @pythian http://linkedin.com/company/pythian My upcoming sessions: Database Private Clouds with Oracle 12c Tuesday, high noon Moscone South 236 It’s a solid state world: How Exadata X3 leverages flash storage Wednesday 3:30pm Westin SF Metropolitan I

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