It would be impossible to do a presentation on Japan and not acknowledge the devastating effects of the recent earthquake andTsunami. This past Sunday we all remembered and honored the 10 year anniversary of September 11, but Japan recognized the day as the 6 month milestone of the tsunami which impacted the country in every way on March 11. As a result of the 9.0 earthquake and resulting tsunami, 20,000 people were reported dead or missing while almost 800,000 homes were destroyed. Many of the towns have only just cleared the rubble from the destruction and have not even begun to plan the rebuilding process. http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/story/2011-09-11/japan-earthquake-anniversary/50358958/1 Not only did the natural disaster affect the lives and homes of Japanese citizens, it also had a large impact on the economy. The Japanese GDP shrank by a pace of 2.1% from April to June which was larger than originally expected. Despite these disappointing reports, economists expect the GDP to increase in the 3 rd and 4 th quarter due to construction from rebuilding efforts. http:// flagship.luc.edu/login?url =http://search.proquest.com/docview/888071168?accountid=12163 In this globalized world, the Earthquake and Tsunami not only impacted Japanese companies but companies around the world. Companies such as Ikea, Nokia, and Siemens are just a few of the companies who had to deal with the urgent emergency of ensuring their employees were safe in the aftermath of the disaster. Many of these MNEs have now given their employees the option of returning home or relocating to other areas in the region. For example, Volvo reported 48 of its 66 expatriate employees chose to leave with the remaining employees being higher level executives needing to be onsite. While many felt they were make choices regarding personal safety, the decisions made by the MNE’s and the expatriates themselves have had repercussions. When many of the expatriates DID return to their jobs they were faced with ostracism and anger from co-workers who stayed through the disaster. In Japan, the word gaijin means flight of foreigners took on a different form of flyjin in this crisis. The expatriate personal concerns was a stark contrast to the Japanese culture who are known for their loyalty and dedication to company, family, and co-workers. For WSJ Article: Title Japan Economy Worse Than Reported Authors Mochizuki, Takashi Publication title Wall Street Journal (Online) Pages n/a Publication year 2011 Publication Date Sep 9, 2011 Year 2011 Section Business Publisher Dow Jones & Company Inc Place of Publication New York, N.Y. Country of publication United States Journal Subjects Business And Economics Source type Newspapers Language of Publication English Document type News
Global Hr Presentation Japan
Team 1 JapanPresented By: Supriya Dawra, Mark Fehrn, Lindsey Lukaszka, Erin McCormick, Ashley Miller, Rebecca Paluch and Leila Zaritzky
Customs in the Home• Table Manners• Chopsticks• Slippers• Bathing
Social and Respect Customs• Bowing• Interdependence• Non-verbal communication• No tipping
Business Practices in Japan• In Japan you do not question the boss.• Japanese accept and appreciate inequality• Usual work is 8hrs, but when your superior is still working you better leave after them.• Promotions are based on seniority.
Meetings and Negotiations• Team as opposed to an individual• Lower ranking individuals usually do the negotiating• Decisions are rarely made in meeting• Group consensus is important
Japanese Attitude to Women• Based on three philosophies:• Confucianism- “A woman is to obey her father as daughter, her husband as wife, and her son as aged mother.”• Buddhism- “No salvation for women.”• Samurai feudalism: “A women should look upon her husband as if he were heaven itself.”
Japanese Women at Home• Roles for mothers and fathers are segregated.• Women are responsible for their family budgets and make independent decisions about the education, careers, and life-styles of their families.• Women also take the social blame for problems of family members.• Husbands and wives have very little communication and conversation, as little as ten to fifteen minutes per day.
Japanese Working Women• Women are the last hired and first fired• Employment advertisements often specify age and sex.• Women often work as uniformed OLs ("office ladies"). OL jobs are generally, low-paying clerical and service positions with duties such as opening doors, serving tea and coffee.
Discrimination against Women Workers in Japan• Women workers in Japan typically make 30 to 40 percent less money and receive fewer benefits like vacation time and health insurance than their male counterparts for positions requiring equal training and experience.• Women lose their jobs when the word is out they are pregnant.• “Thick glass ceiling." Ko Sasaki for The New York Times.• Families with non-working wives • Yukako Kurose said she was receive a tax deduction of $3,000 forced into a dead-end clerical job after she had a baby
Difficulties Women Face in Corporate Japan• Promotions sometimes are based on exams that men but not women prepare with special company- sponsored classes.• Hard for Japanese women to advance when employers expect them to go on heavy drinking binges.• Many business meetings extend past 6:00pm, when women are expected to be home.
Can Women Be a Catalyst for Japans Renewal?• The country can no longer afford massive gender inequality if it wants to recover from the devastating earthquake• The impact of this differential treatment is a significant loss of economic growth, according to a 2010 economic study by Goldman Sachs If the gender employment gap could be closed then more than 8 million additional people would participate in the economy which, the study argues, would increase Japans GDP by 15 percent.
Management Styles• “Bottom up” approach with respect to flow of info• More supervisory in nature; less “hands on”• Mainly responsible for creating a dynamic work environment where team can thrive.• Expects team to work well together and communicate often thus creating a highly successful and efficient work environment.• Source: www.worldbusinessculture.com
Japanese Labor Laws• Labor standards that are guaranteed in Japan’s Constitution include: - Right and obligation to work - Ban on child labor - Right of workers to organize, bargain, and act collectively.• Source: www.ilo.org
Major Labor Laws Defined• Labor Standards Law (LSL) : mainly regulates working conditions and safety.• Trade Union Law (TUL) : Ensures worker’s have the right to collectively bargain and organize.• Labor Relations Adjustment Law (LRAL) : Covers labor disputes, and any modification to labor laws.• Source: www.ilo.org
Work – Life Balance Issues• 2008 inaugural year for work-life initiatives as declared by the Minister of Health, Labor, and Welfare (MHLW)• Government target objective for workers is 1,800 hours per year; however recent reports show employees working on average 2,200 hours per year.• Despite working regular and some overtime hours, not all time worked was equitably compensated.• Source: www.bc.edu
Expatriation Selection• Common Misconceptions – Previous success – Local language ability – Previous international experience – Women will not be interested• Recommended Considerations – The Big Five: openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism – Arthur and Bennett: job knowledge, motivation, relational skills, flexibility, extra cultural openness and family situation – Cultural empathy, emotional stability and open- mindedness
Training for Expatriates and Families• Time to learn language and culture• Transportation• English services• Should not stop upon deploymenthttp://www.japantimes.co.jp/
Professional Interactions• Business cards• Emotional stability• Body language• Long hours• Outsiders vs. insiders• Career path
Support of the Employee and Family• Language classes on site• Social Network• Get to know the city• Job opportunities for the Spouse• Going Back homehttp://www.internations.org/japan-expats/americans
Compensation• Home country living standards• Allowances – Relocation – Food – Education• Spousal Assistance
Expatriate Failure• Definition• Family adjustment – Differences in living arrangements• Problem with responsibilities
Job-related Factors• Career Anxiety Post-assignment employment Out of Sight, Out of Mind Changes at home• Work Adjustment Employment Relationship Re-Entry Position Devaluing the overseas experience
Job-related Factors• Coping with new role demands Role: set of behaviors that are assigned to a particular position• Loss of Status and Pay Kingpin effect
MNE Objectives• Staff Availability Boundaryless careers• Return on Investment Difficulties of measuring ROI• Knowledge Transfer One way Under utilized once at home
Social Factors• Reverse Culture Shock• Social Networking• Family Adjustment• Repatriation Plans
Reverse Culture Shock• Reverse culture shock is the unexpected difficulty readjusting to one’s home country• Individual Changes Values, beliefs, behavior Standard of living• Environmental Changes Technology, economic conditions, social norms
Social Networks• Unrealized expectations• Difficulty re-establishing social networks Example: Japanese expatriates labeled “kokusaijin”• Feelings of isolation
Family Issues• Dual-career spouse Long furlough Difficulty re-entering workforce• Children Education “Fitting in” with peers
Repatriation Programs• Assign a mentor Eliminates “out of sight, out of mind” feeling Sets realistic expectations • Provide counseling for entire family Career Cultural Education • Grant an adjustment period Vacation Reduced workload
Current Affairs• 6 Month Anniversary of Earthquake and Tsunami• Economical Position• Impact on Expatriate activity – Gaijin -> flyjin
Reference List• Acuff, F. L. (1993). How to negotiate anything with anyone anywhere around the world. New York: American Management Association.• Andors, A. (2010, March). Happy returns. HRMagazine, pp. 61-63.• Axtell, R. E., & Fornwald, M. (1998). Gestures: The dos and taboos of body language around the world. New York: Wiley.• Brookfield Global Relocation Services. (2011). Global Relocation Trends 2011 Survey Report. USA• Common Customs of Japan. (n.d.). Retrieved September 8, 2011, from Teaching in Asia: www.jobmonkey.com• Dowling, P.J., Festing, M., Engle, Sr. A.D. (2009) International Human Resources Management. Mason: South-Western Cengage Learning• Hill, Charles W. L. "Chapter 16: Global Human Resources Management." Global Business Today. 5e ed. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2008. 508-30. Print.• Hurn, B. J. (1999). Repatriation - the toughest assignment of all. Industrial and Commercial Training, 224-228.• Japan - Language, Culture, Customs, and Etiquette. (n.d.). Retrieved September 8, 2011, from Kwintessentail: http://www.kwintessential.co.uk• Mochizuki, T. (2011, September 9). Japan Economy Worse Than Reported. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from: http://search.proquest.com.flagship.luc.edu/docview/888071168? accountid=12163• Mol, S., Born, M., Willemsen, M., & Van, D. M. H. (January 01, 2005). Predicting Expatriate Job Performance for Selection Purposes. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 36, 5, 590-620.• Morrison, T., & Conaway, W. A. (2006). Kiss, bow, or shake hands: The bestselling guide to doing business in more than 60 countries. Avon, Mass: Adams Media.
Reference List• Noe, Raymond A. "Chapter 10: Special Issues in Training and Employee Development." Employee Training and Development. 4th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2008. 357-95. Print.• Perraud, P. (n.d.). Repatriating with family. Retrieved September 09, 2011, from FAWCO Alumnae USA: http://www.fausa.org• Peltokorpi, V. (September 01, 2008). Cross-cultural adjustment of expatriates in Japan. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19, 9, 1588-1606.• Sandstrom, G., Pearson, D. (2011, March 16). Expat Workers Continue Japan Exodus. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703899704576204461491208284.html• Sanchata, M. (201, March 23). Expatriates Tiptoe Back to the Office. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704461304576216301249128570.html• Wright, T. (2008, May 27). 10 customs you must know before a trip to Japan. Retrieved September 8, 2011, from Matador Abroad: www.matadornetwork.com• www.japan-guide.com• www.worldbusinessculture.com• www.ilo.org• www.bc.edu• http://www.howto.co.uk/abroad/japanese-people/the_cultural_values_of_japan/• http://factsanddetails.com/japan.php?itemid=624&catid=18