Anaphylaxis Inservice


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  • As little as 1/70,000 of a peanut kernel can cause a reaction
    Consumption can happen in many different situations ie. When kids trade lunches at school or When they are unaware of ‘hidden’ allergens on food labels
    Inhalation can occur with allergies such as pollens, but can also happen with food allergies : i.e. on a field trip to the zoo, the trails are coated in walnut shells – when people walk on them, minute particles of the shell become suspended in the air and are inhaled
    Injection most often occurs with insect stings or medication allergies i.e. bee sting or penicillin allergies
    Contact can happen when a child picks up or brushes against their allergen. Playing with a balloon (latex allergy)
    It can also occur through contact with other children a game of basketball when the forward had a peanut butter sandwich for lunch and forgot to was their hands
  • upper respiratory system (hay fever)
    lower respiratory system (asthma-like symptoms)
    skin (swelling, hives)
    digestive system
    (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea)
    as a generalized reaction called anaphylaxis
  • Approximately 1-2% of Canadians live with the risk of an anaphylactic reaction.
  • An individual may have different symptoms at different times, and they may vary from reaction to reaction
    All of these symptoms need not be present in an anaphylactic reaction
    A child will usually know when they are having and allergic reaction – Believe them when they tell you
  • New situations call for heightened awareness to allergens. The environment is unknown or has changed and has not been screened for potential allergens
    Although anaphylaxis is more common in child hood, teenagers are ate greater risk. They are often embarrassed about their allergies and do not tell others about them. If they are having a reaction, they may go to a secluded place to avoid embarrassment in front of their friends. Teenagers are asserting their independence, and may forget or leave their epipen behind
  • 3-4% bleach solution is (½ tsp bleach in 4 cups water)
  • Ideally, a child who is diagnosed with a life-threatening allergy and requires an EpiPen should carry one with them at all times.
    A second EpiPen should be kept in an unlocked, convenient, central location that everyone knows.
    *do not attempt to take a child who is having an anaphylactic reaction in your car to the hospital
    *always call 911
    *most 911 call are responded to be ambulance with 16 minutes in Perth County (maximum of 23 minutes)
  • auto-injecting into digits may result in significant pain and discomfort because of severe vasoconstriction
  • The Epi pen can be administer through clothing – no need to remove pants
  • According to Paul Robinson of Perth County Ambulance Service on August 8 2005
    Never attempt to drive a student to the hospital after an anaphylactic reaction / administration of EpiPen
    The ambulance has adrenaline available and can administer appropriate dosages for age/ wt
    Therefore need enough EpiPens to last until ambulance arrives – usually within 16 minutes (23 min absolute max)
    Ambulance also can administer Ventolin to assist with any breathing difficulties
    *Information needed by EMS attendant
    -Where exposure occurred (ingestion, body part – for sting)
    -What was the symptomology
    -When was EpiPen given
    -How fast did reaction occur
    -What is the child's normal reaction to allergen
    As of late fall 2005 ambulances will be caring Benadryl to assist with milder reactions
  • There are no contraindication to the administration of and EpiPen during an anaphylactic reaction
  • EpiPens are effective for approximately 1 year
  • Sabrina Shannon was a 13 yr old girl from Pembroke with a sever allergy to dairy produces
    She hand an anaphylactic reaction at school after eating French fries that had come into contact with cheese
    As a result, MPP David Levac (a former school principal) introduced Bill 3 (private members bill)
    Passed unanimously on May 16th, 2005
    This bill will come into effect January 1st 2006
  • Anaphylaxis Inservice

    1. 1. Managing Allergies & Anaphylaxis At School Use of the EpiPen at school Punxsutawney Area School District
    2. 2. Allergies occur when your immune system becomes unusually sensitive and overreacts to common substances such as pollen, mould, dust or food. When these substances cause an allergic reaction, they are called allergens.
    3. 3. Allergens enter the body through: The Mouth The Nose Touch Injection
    4. 4. Allergic reactions can occur in the:  upper respiratory system  lower respiratory system  skin  digestive system  as a generalized reaction called anaphylaxis
    5. 5. Anaphylaxisis a sudden, severe, potentially life-threatening allergic reaction that may involve the skin, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract and/or cardiovascular system.
    6. 6. Common Causes of Anaphylaxis Food Medications Insect Venom Exercise Latex EpiPen
    7. 7. Symptoms of An Anaphylactic Reaction Symptoms usually occur within several minutes following contact with the allergen & proceed rapidly The most distinctive symptoms include:  hives  swelling of the throat, lips, tongue or around the eyes  difficulty breathing or swallowing • Hives may be entirely absent, especially in severe or near-fatal cases of anaphylaxis.
    8. 8. Symptoms of An Anaphylactic Reaction Other common symptoms include: a metallic taste or tingling in the mouth flushing, itching, or redness of the skin nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea dizziness or lightheadedness increased heart rate feelings of fear or panic loss of consciousness
    9. 9. Remember… It takes only 1 to 2 minutes for a mild allergic reaction to escalate to anaphylaxis
    10. 10. When is anaphylaxis most likely to occur? New situations Normal daily routines are interrupted eg. birthday parties and school trips During teenage years (increasing independence, relaxed precautions, reluctance to carry medication)
    11. 11. Preventing Anaphylaxis 1. Awareness  Know causes and triggers  Know emergency plan 2. Avoidance  Do not let student come in contact with allergen  Check ingredients every time  if unsure, do not let student eat it  offer students an alternative choice in food  Do not let students share lunches, snacks, containers or utensils  Avoid bulk foods  Be aware of cross-contamination - wash surfaces with board approved solutions 3. Action  Administer EpiPen & Call 911
    12. 12. Have An Emergency Plan  A child with a life-threatening allergy should carry an EpiPen at all times.  An additional EpiPen(s) should be easily accessible  It is important to have one EpiPen available for every 10 -20 minutes
    13. 13. What is an EpiPen? An EpiPen is a disposable drug delivery system with a spring-activated, concealed needle designed for emergency administration. EpiPens are available in 2 strengths:  EpiPen Jr Smaller amount of epinephrine  EpiPen Larger amount of epinephrine
    14. 14. What is in an EpiPen?  EpiPens are an effective way to administer a drug called Epinephrine (Adrenaline)  Epinephrine by injection is the treatment of choice for anaphylactic reactions.  Epinephrine works quickly to:  constrict blood vessels  relax smooth muscles in the lungs to improve breathing  stimulate the heart beat  reverse hives and swelling around the face and lips.  Adrenalin may cause some tremor & increased heart rate, but does not have major adverse reaction  Play it safe. Administer the adrenalin. The child will not be harmed if it is not a genuine allergic reaction.
    15. 15. Using an Epi-Pen  Grasp EpiPen with the black tip pointing down( 911 is being called at same time)  With your other hand pull off the blue safety cap.
    16. 16. Using an Epi-Pen  Hold the black tip near the outer thigh.  Swing and jab firmly into the outer thigh.  Hold firmly in thigh for approx. 10 seconds (Count to 10).  Remove Epi-Pen and massage injection area.
    17. 17. After the Administration of the EpiPen Seek emergency medical attention as EpiPen is being administered If symptoms return or there is no improvement in 10-20 minutes a second dose may be required. Side effects of Epinephrine include: • Nervousness • Increased heart rate • Sweating • Nausea / Vomiting • Headache • Dizziness
    18. 18. Special Tips About Using EpiPens If you suspect an anaphylactic emergency, administer the EpiPen and call 911 The effects of epinephrine when not needed:  Increased Heart Rate  Nervousness The possible effect of not administering epinephrine in anaphylaxis:  Death *Always seek medical attention after the administration of an EpiPen
    19. 19. Special Tips About Using EpiPens  Never put fingers over the black tip when removing the safety cap, or after the safety cap has been removed.  Periodically check the expiry date and condition of stored EpiPens.  Keep EpiPens at room temperature. Do not expose them to extreme cold, heat or direct sunlight.  Place the EpiPen on bare skin if possible. In an emergency, the EpiPen can be used directly through clothing.
    20. 20. References Anaphylaxis Canada 416 Moore Ave., Suite 306, Toronto, Ontario M4G 1C9 Telephone: 416-85-566 E-mail: Canadian School Boards Association 130 Slater Street, Suite 350, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 6E2 Telephone: 613-235-3724 E-mail: Allergy Asthma Information Association (National Office) P.O. Box 100, Etobicoke, Ontario M4K 5K9 Telephone: 416-679-9521 E-mail:, Canadian Society of Allergy & Clinical Immunology 774 Echo Dr., Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5N8 Telephone: 613-730-8177 E-mail: The Hospital for Sick Children 555 University Ave, Toronto, Ontario Telephone: 416-813-5300 E-mail: Collins Consulting E-mail: Toronto Catholic District School Board Superintendent of Special Services Telephone: 416-222-8282 ext. 2486
    21. 21. The End of the PASD Anaphylaxis Inservice Slideshow PASD is not affiliated with other slideshows that may be highlighted as a viewable show after this one.