Alfred Eisenstaedt (December 6, 1898 – August 24, 1995) was a German-American photographer and photojournalist. He is renowned for his candid photographs, frequently made using various models of a 35mm Leica rangefinder camera. He is best known for his photograph capturing the celebration of V-J Day.
THE WINDOW EXAMPLE Imagine your camera is like a window with shutters that open and close. Aperture is the size of the window. If it ’s bigger more light gets through and the room is brighter. Shutter Speed is the amount of time that the shutters of the window are open. The longer you leave them open the more that comes in. Now imagine that you ’re inside the room and are wearing sunglasses (hopefully this isn’t too much of a stretch). Your eyes become desensitized to the light that comes in (it’s like a low ISO) .There are a number of ways of increasing the amount of light in the room (or at least how much it seems that there is. You could increase the time that the shutters are open (decrease shutter speed), you could increase the size of the window (increase aperture) or you could take off your sunglasses (make the ISO larger)
Aperture and shutter speed are set by the camera, but can be shifted using the control dial, with the exposure staying the same Unlocks some other settings in your camera that gives you more control over the final image : ISO setting, white balance, exposure compensation Great for quickly getting a photograph without having to think too hard about settings
Why is the background all blurred in the right picture, and sharpest in the left ? Because if the exposure is made with a wide aperture ( like f2.8 ), then objects farther away from the subject are thrown farther out of focus. This effect is referred to as &quot;depth of field&quot; So.. if the aperture is small (like f22) then objects in the background (and foreground ) will appear sharper. However, since more light was required to make the exposure on the left ( 1/4 Second ) the subjects became blurred from MOTION. At 1/250th of a second, the shutter is fast enough to freeze motion. Take a stop, Give a stop.. Since f-stop and shutter are both measured in stops, keeping balance is easy. If you take away 2 stops from the aperture, you can give 2 stops back with the shutter and end up with the same exposure level.
+Essential Digital Photography Aperture, F-Stops, and More
+ “The important thing is not the camera but the eye.” ~ Alfred Eisenstaed
+ WAYS TO MAKE A GOOD PHOTOGRAPH Control exposure Aperture Shutter speed ISO
+ UNDERSTANDING The Camera as a Window example: EXPOSURE Aperture is the size of the window. If the window is bigger more light gets through and the room is brighter. Shutter Speed is the amount of time that the shutters of the window are open. The longer you leave them open the more that comes in. Imagine that you’re inside the room and are wearing sunglasses. Your eyes become desensitized to the light that comes in (it’s like a low ISO)
+ The Aperture Before light reaches film or a light sensor, it must pass through an opening called an Aperture. The aperture is like a pupil of the eye. You can control the aperture by setting the Aperture Opening, also known as an F-Stop. Small F-stop Number = Large Opening / More Light Large F-stop Number = Small Opening / less light
+ PROGRAM Mode • Aperture and shutter speed are set by the camera, but can be shifted using the control dial, with the exposure staying the same • Great for quickly getting a photograph without having to think too hard about settings
+ AV-APERTURE PRIORITY • AV means aperture value • Manually control the aperture while the camera sets the matching shutter speed • Particularly useful to control a stationary object where you don’t need to control the shutter speed • Choosing a larger aperture (f/stop) means the lens will get smaller and it will let less light in so a larger depth of field (more of the area in focus), but your camera will choose a faster shutter speed and vice versa
+ MANUAL • Full control over camera settings such: shutter speed, aperture, ISO, white balance and exposure compensation • Gives you the flexibility to set your shots the way you want them to be • Can result in creative and non-traditional exposures
+ PORTRAIT MODE An automatic mode with emphasis on settings for a perfect portrait shot. Sets a wide aperture of the lens so that the background behind your subject is softly focused (shallow depth of field)
+ LANDSCAPE MODE Narrows the aperture, so both the subject and background stay sharp (deep depth of field) Foreground, middle ground, and background are all in focus
+ MACRO/CLOSE-UP MODE An automatic mode with emphasis on settings for close-up photography Commonly used to photographing flowers, insects and other small items Creates a very shallow depth of field
+ APERTURE The aperture of a lens is the diameter of the lens opening Thelarger the diameter of the aperture, the more light reaches the film / image sensor Aperture is expressed as F-stop, e.g. F2.8 or f/2.8 The smaller the F-stop number (or f/value), the larger the lens opening (aperture) Controls depth of field
+Balancing Shutter For example, the following threeand Aperture pictures have been given anExposure is about equal amount of light, but thedifferent combinations of f-stop and shutter combinationsshutter speed and f-stop make each one unique.settings.These combinations candrastically affect thefinished picture.
+ Depth of Field EXERCISE – At Home The goal of the assignment is to demonstrate to yourself that you are capable of manipulating aperture on your camera. Take several photographs at different aperture settings of the same subject. With an SLR set it to Aperture priority (Av mode). Change the aperture from a wide aperture to a very narrow aperture. With a point and shoot try using, Macro mode, Portrait mode, and Landscape mode. Look for difference in depth of field
+ Depth of Field EXERCISE Pick a partner Stand away from your partner Take a photograph of their face only with your lens unzoomed Zoom in and shoot but only fill the frame with their entire face again See the difference in depth of field
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