Chapter Three : Traditional Strategies: Tests, Questionnaires and Visual Identification
Types of Tests
Common formats: multiple-choice, true-false, matching, completion and essay questions.
Identifying Instances Questions
Producing Examples Questions
Judging Credibility Questions
Deeper Issues of a Problem Questions
Student Generated Test Questions
Definition: “The student chooses a format that best addresses what he/she perceives as content or skill most worthy of assessment.”
Students create questions that best address what they feel is most important in the overall information presented to them.
“ The teacher allows students to include their individual questions as an item on a teacher-constructed test and gives points for the quality of both the question and answer.” (Exactly like what we are doing for this class! We get points for the presentation, handout, and 10 questions as well as points on the test that is based on what we teach each other in class.)
Definition- “constructed responses” or a student creates his or her own answer to a posed question. These can be in s hort-answer or extended-answer formats. Short-answer- concise and generally restricted through design and wording Extended-answer- enables students to write on many dimensions of the posed problem or task.
(I am almost positive we have all written at least one essay in our school careers.)
Why are essays used?: Essays help assess cognitive processes such as: explaining , comparing , contrasting , analyzing , creating , synthesizing , and evaluating .
Not appropriate for assessing factual information exclusively. (essays are too open to opinion and persuasion by the author.)
Make sure students know the criteria in which their essays will be graded beforehand.
A good essay may become a tool for assessing many skills simultaneously… - including arguments in the text, comparing, making judgments, constructing support, reasoning, inventing, describing, defining, presenting a position or argument, taking notes, structuring and organizing information, paraphrasing, making connections, outlining, recognizing underlying principles and concepts, reflecting, explaining to others, ALSO writing skills, organization, spelling, punctuation, and grammar!
Scoring an essay:
Choose a scoring style: holistic or analytic Holistic- one overall score for quality (best used for a task with no specific right answer) Analytic- several different elements are scored for quality (best used for a task with many dimensions)
Create a scoring guide (number of points for right answers)
Score essays anonymously!
Remain open-minded. Try not to be closed off to answers you did not predict.
Ask for a second scorer to review the essays. (couldn’t hurt)
Questionnaires and Inventories
Definition: “Self-Reports”- questionnaires and inventories indicate what students can do or what particular interests or attitudes they hold. -open ended questions & closed questions are used on questionnaires. Other types of self-reports : -fill-in the blacks -checklists (students mark all examples that apply) -scaled items (students rate provided examples) -ranking questions (students indicate order or preference)
A common scale used in questionnaires is the Likert scale . This indicates attitudes of respondents by having them mark whether they “ strongly agree,” “agree,” are “undecided,” “disagree,” or “strongly disagree .” This judges attitudes, beliefs, values, or feelings about art, and should be used to evaluate formatively but should not be used for giving grades.
Questionnaires and Inventories continued…
“ Questionnaire items can be used to show whether a student is able to:
Make appropriate comparisons among concepts by rating from least to most appropriate.
Rank most likely causes
Determine correct relationships between two events, principles, concepts, or facts.
Offer appropriate explanations for why something occurred by filling-in the blank with an appropriate explanation.
Determine correct examples of a principle or concept by checking all examples that apply.
Evaluate outcomes by rating degree of quality or intensity.” pg 53
Identifying an image or image that best matches a concept being presented. (you can remember this from art history classes!)
“ The strength of the visual identification strategy depends on what the art educator asks student to do with the selected images.”
Where is the Crown Fountain located?
How Useful are Conventional Testing Formats?
“ Many believe that it is not test format, but rather test content and standards that most impact educational excellence.”
Each type of assessment presented in this chapter serves to test different abilities among the students. Why not use many different types to our advantage in the art classroom?