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  • Metaphor Festival 2009

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  • 1. T HINK and BELIEVE in Polish : A search for semantic motivation in construction patterns Iwona K okorniak Małgorzata Fabiszak Anna Hebda School of English , Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Polan d
  • 2. Overview
    • Cognitive Grammar (CG) assumptions
    • The Polish PWN Corpus
    • The adopted methodology
    • Results:
    • a. Quantitative analysis
    • b. Qualitative analysis
    • Research perspectives
  • 3. 1. CG assumptions: Construal vs. coding
    • An event can be construed in many ways
    • A number of lexical items and grammatical constructions can be used to convey these construals
    • “ construal is partly a matter of linguistic convention and partly of the speaker’s communicative objectives” (Dąbrowska 1997: 115) :
    • (1) a. Peter has bought a red bike from his friend Tom.
    • b. His friend Tom has sold Peter a red bike.
    • c. A red bike has been sold to Peter (by Tom).
    • d. *Peter has been bought a bike from Tom.
  • 4. 1. CG assumptions: Coding of THINK and BELIEVE
    • relations represented by the verbs are constrained by sentential context
    • semantics and aspect of the verbs contribute to the construction patterns they go into
    • mental verbs , i.e, they represent what originates in the subject’s mind , the ‘internal reality’ ( Shinzato 2004: 862)
  • 5. 1. CG assumptions: Coding by means of cases
    • characteristics of the entities designated to interact with one another in the relation s contribute to the construal of the event
    • case markers depicting the relationships between the participants involved in the processes are semantically motivated
    • one case may be used to convey quite a number of relationships between or among participants of an event
    • different cases may represent the same or similar construals, each being motivated semantically
    • In Polish, there are six grammatical cases:
    • NOMINATIVE (NOM), GENETIVE (GEN), DATIVE (DAT), ACCUSATIVE (ACC), INSTRUMENTAL (INSTR), LOCATIVE (LOC)
  • 6. 2. The Polish PWN Corpus
    • extracts from 386 books, 977 issues of 185 newspapers and magazines, 84 recorded conversations, 207 websites and several hundred promotional leaflets
    • 40 million words; demo online version of the corpus used – 7.5 million words
    • 1048 out of 2882 random hits of myśleć
    • 1008 out of 1147 random hits of wierzyć
  • 7. 3. The method: tagging
    • Tagging categories :
    • Object case: ACC, DAT, o+LOC, w+ACC, INSTR
    • Object type: ObjNP, ObjPro, ObjPropname, ObjcompINCI, ObjINFph
    • Object semantics: ObjHUM, ObjINSTIT, ObjCONCR, ObjLOCAT, ObjABSTRACT
    • Object number: Obj1stSG, Obj2ndSG, Obj3rdSG, Obj1stPL, etc.
  • 8. 3. The method: Problems
    • Object case :
    • (2)a. Będę myślał o tym, że przed laty ten festiwal uratował mi Zycie
    • [(I) will thought about this-LOC that before years this festival saved me life]
    • ‘ I will be thinking about the fact that years ago this festival saved my life’
    • b. wierzyliśmy w to, ze stary Marczewski ma pistolet pod poduszką
    • [(we) believed-1stPL in this-ACC that old Marczewski has gun under pillow]
    • ‘ we believed that old Marczewski had a gun under the pillow’
  • 9. 3. The method: Solutions
    • Object semantics :
    • (3) Pamiętasz? Obsesyjnie wierzył w Sokołów. (ObjLOCAT)
    • ‘ Do you remember? He obsessively believed in Sokołów.’
    • (4) Czyli żyje się ze skrzatów, ale się w nie nie wierzy?
    • ‘ So one lives off brownies, but they don’t believe in them’ (ObjPro but ObjABSTRACT)
    • (4)a. Nie myślelismy wtedy o obaleniu komuny, lecz o poprawie życia.
    • ‘ We didn’t think about overthrowing the communism’
    • b. nie podobna było myśleć o ustawianiu rusztowania
    • ‘ It was impossible to think about mounting the scaffolding
    • c. nie potrafiłem juz myśleć o rozmowie naszej jako o zwykłej wymianie zdań .
    • ‘ I couldn’t think about our conversation as a mere exchange of opinions’
    • d. Wszyscy próbują nie myśleć o tym horrorze.
    • ‘ They all are trying not to think about this horror’ (ObjABSTRACT)
  • 10. 3. The method: Solutions
    • Object type :
    • (5)a. myślałam, że już wstałaś. Też myślałam .
    • [(I) thought that already got-2ndSG up. Also thought-1stSG]
    • ‘ (I) thought that you got up already. I thought so too.’ (ObjcompINCI)
    • b. Tego dnia Irek nie myślał już więcej o sobie. Nie myślał też i w nocy.
    • [That day Irek not thought-3rdSG yet more about himself-LOC. Not thought-3rdSG also and in night]
    • ‘ On that day Irek didn’t think about himself any more. He didn’t think at night either.’ (ObjPro)
  • 11. 4a. Quantitative analysis: myśleć
    • Table 1: Myśleć: Direct object characteristics
  • 12. 4a. Quantitative analysis: wierzyć
    • Table 2: Wierzyć: Direct object characteristics
  • 13. 4a. Quantitative analysis: wierzyć
    • Table 3: Wierzyć: Indirect object characteristics
  • 14. 4a. Object type vs. verb type: Pearson's chi-square
    • CompINCI: myśleć (633) vs. wierzyć (248) p<0.001
    • NP : myśleć (180) vs. wierzyć (280) p<0.001
    • Pro: myśleć (96) vs. wierzyć (98) p=0.663, p>0.05
  • 15. 4a. Object semantics vs. verb type: Pearson's chi-square
    • ABSTRACT: myśleć (115) vs. wierzyć (281) p<0.001
    • HUMAN: myśleć (71) vs. wierzyć (27) p<0.001
    • CONCRETE: myśleć (31) vs. wierzyć (7) p<0.001
  • 16. 4a. DObj & IObj semantics vs. verb type: Pearson's chi-square
    • ABSTRACT: myśleć (115) vs. wierzyć (327) p=0.004, p<0.01
    • HUMAN: myśleć (71) vs. wierzyć (160) p=0.759, p>0.05
    • CONCRETE: myśleć (31) vs. wierzyć (20) p<0.001
  • 17. 4b. Wierzyć : Object semantics continuum
    • (6)a. A w co wierzysz?... w Boga wierze!
    • ‘ And what do you believe in? I believe in God.’
    • b. Niezbyt wierzą w szczerość intencji liderów tej organizacji.
    • They do not quite believe in honesty of the leaders of this organization
    • c. Wszystkie kobiety wierzą w Roberto.
    • ‘ All women believe in Roberto’ (PERSON FOR SKILLS)
    • d. W biskupów popierających Radio Plus wierzą tez niektórzy szefowie lokalnych stacji .
    • ‘ Also some bosses of local radio stations believe in the bishops supporting Radio Plus’ (PERSON FOR SPEECH ACT )
    • e. Związkowcy twierdzą ponadto, że nie wierzą zapewnieniom rządowym.
    • Union members claim that they do not believe in government declarations’
    • (SPEECH ACT FOR INSTITUTION)
    • f. Nie wierz ą żadnej ekipie.
    • ‘ They do not believe any crew.’ (INSTITUTION FOR PEOPLE)
    • g. Zadeklarował więc, iż nie wierzy papieżowi.
    • ‘ He declared that he did not believe the pope . ’
  • 18. 4b. Wierzyć : Qualitative analysis
    • wierzyć : imperfective aspect
    • The internal aspect of the mental process i s displayed by the w +LOC nominal phrase
    • w +ACC - being in a privileged position , not easy to gain access to ; “being valued or judged as positive in some way” (Evans –Tyler 2004: 26)
    • the social interaction aspect is reflected by the dative construction
    • Dative nominal phrase – cause of the experience
  • 19. 4b. Myśleć : Object type continuum
    • (7)a. „śpi, odsypia wczorajsze&quot;, myślałem, wchodząc po schodach
    • ‘ “ s /he is sleeping, making up for yesterday”, I was thinking as I was climbing up the stairs ’
    • b. Myślałem, że żartuje, a ona mówiła to serio
    • ‘ I thought she was joking , but she was serious ’
    • c. do końca myślał tylko o swojej dziewczynie
    • ‘ he thought of/about his girlfriend till the end’
    • d. Myślał nad ścisłym, rozumnym wyjaśnieniem…
    • ‘ He was thinking about a logical and accurate explanation… ’
    • e. Niezależnie od tego, co naprawdę czuli i myśleli...
    • ‘ Regardless of what they felt and thought…’
  • 20. 4b. Myśleć: Qualitative analysis
    • Myśleć : imperfective aspect
    • o +LOC - an indefinite constant circular movement round the focal point
    • nad +LOC – extendedness of the LM
  • 21. 5. Research perspectives
    • Subject continuum
    • Impersonal constructions ( myśli się myślano ‘It is/was thought’ wierzy się, wierzono ‘It is/was believed’)
    • Aspectuality
    • Genre specificity
    • Discourse markers ( wierz mi… ‘believe me…’, myślę, że ‘I think that …’
    • ...
  • 22. Selected Bibliography
    • Danielewiczowa, Magdalena. 2002. Wiedza i niewiedza: Studium polskich czasowników epistemicznych. Warszawa: Katedra Lingwistyki Formalnej UW.
    • Gries, St. 2006. Corpus-based Methods and Cognitive Semantics: The many meanings of to run. Corpora in Cognitive Linguistics: Corpus-based approaches to syntax and lexis. Gries, St. & Stefanowitsch, A. (eds) 57-99. Berlin:Mouton de Gruyter.
    • Janda, Laura. 1993. A geography of case semantics: The Czech dative and the Russian instrumental. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    • Langacker, Ronald. 1991. Foundations of cognitive grammar: Descriptive application. Vol. 2. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
    • Rudzka-Ostyn, Brygida. 2000. Z rozważań nad kategorią przypadka [Ruminating on the case category]. (transl. Elżbieta Tabakowska). Kraków: Universitas.
    • Verhagen A. 2007, Construal and perspectivization, The Oxford handbook of cognitive linguistics, Oxford University Press