Cholera scourge in Nigeria
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Cholera scourge in Nigeria

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Cholera and the situation so far in Nigeria

Cholera and the situation so far in Nigeria

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Cholera scourge in Nigeria Cholera scourge in Nigeria Presentation Transcript

  • CHOLERA By Dr. ANUGOM Emeka.
  • 1. WHAT IS CHOLERA? • An acute diarrhoeal disease that can kill within hours if untreated in both children and adults. • There are 3-5 million cases every year, with 100,000 to 120, 000 deaths from cholera every year. Common in Asia and Africa • Incubation period is from 6 hours to 5 days. • It’s caused by bacteria Vibrio cholerae, with two serotypes O1 (mainly) and O139 having the potential of causing outbreaks 2
  • 2. HOW IS CHOLERA SPREAD? • Poor Sanitation • Drinking Contaminated Water • Eating Contaminated Food • COMMON SOURCES • - Raw or poorly cooked seafood • - Raw fruit and Vegetables • - Other foods contaminated during preparation and storage. • Main source is bacteria in faeces of infected person. • Poor sewage and water treatment. • Over populated areas have highest risk. 3
  • 3. THE SITUATION IN NIGERIA • Nigeria reported Cholera epidemics in 2010 and 2011, with an estimated 2000 deaths during this period. • This was mainly due to poor sanitation and over population, scarcity of clean drinking water • It is usually prevalent in the rainy seasons between April to October. • Currently in 2013, there have been over 1600 reported cases, with an estimated 86 deaths from cholera. • Zamfara and Nasarawa states in Nigeria are the worst hit states. • However cases have also been reported in Kebbi, Sokoto, Plateau, Lagos, Ogun and Oyo state 4
  • 4. THE SITUATION IN NIGERIA 5
  • 5. SYMPTOMS OF CHOLERA • Mostly mild diarrhoea or no symptoms at all. • However in 5-10% of patients, very severe watery diarrhoea (rice-water stool) and vomiting may occur • If untreated, this leads to: • Severe dehydration from fluid loss and • Death within hours. 6
  • 6. PREVENTION OF CHOLERA • Simple Rule: • Boil it – Cook it – Peel it OR Forget it. • 1. Drink only properly treated water • N:B Beverages (tea/coffee), Wine, Beer, Carbonated water and Soft drinks, Bottled/packaged fruit juices are usually safe to drink. • 2. Avoid Ice unless you’re sure it’s from safe water source. • 3. Eat food that has been well cooked and served still hot. • (food at room temperature for several hours and served without reheating is a source of infection) 7
  • 7. PREVENTION OF CHOLERA • 4. Avoid raw seafood and other raw foods. (Fruits and Vegetables properly peeled and shelled by you is an exception) • 5. Boil unpasteurized milk before drinking it. • 6. If in doubt of reliability of source of ice cream, avoid it . • 7. Ensure meals bought from street vendors are thoroughly cooked in your presence and do not contain uncooked foods. • 8. Proper hand washing , especially before food preparation, during meals, work and after use of sanitary facilities 8
  • 8. TREATMENT FOR CHOLERA • 1. SEEK MEDICAL HELP URGENTLY • 2. REHYDRATION: • MOST important, especially for diarrhoea and vomiting, to replace water and salt lost early. • A. Use oral rehydration salts, if unavailable take water and other non-sweetened fluids e.g. soup. • B. Give intravenous fluid infusion in the severely dehydrated. 9
  • 9. TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR CHOLERA • 3. ANTIBIOTICS: • May be used in some cases to shorten illness duration. • However not recommended for MASS treatment as it doesn’t limit the spread • ANTIDIAARHOEAL DRUGS: • Loperamide (Imodium) use is NOT recommended and should NOT be given. 10
  • 10. IMMUNIZATION FOR CHOLERA • VACCINATION: • INJECTABLE CHOLERA VACCINE: • Formerly used and gives incomplete, unreliable protection for short period. With adverse effects and thus no longer recommended. • ORAL CHOLERA VACCINE: • There are two types that give good protection for up to 3years. • But doesn’t give 100% protection. Hygiene and sanitary precautions should also be applied. • Given in 2 doses for those above 6yrs old and 3 doses for those 2-6yrs old, 7days to 6 weeks apart. 11
  • 11. IMMUNIZATION FOR CHOLERA • They are both whole-cell killed vaccines, licensed for use in over 60 countries by WHO. • No meal should be taken 1 hour before and after taking it to ensure gut absorption. • No country requires proof of this vaccination. • SHANCHOL • This is gives long-term protection against V cholerae O1 and O139 in children under 5years. • DUKORAL • This has recombinant B-sub unit, with short term protection 85-90% against V. cholerae O1 in all age groups 4-6mths of immunization • Given in 150ml of water • Also useful in diarrhoea caused by Enterotoxigenic E.Coli (ETEC) 12
  • 12. REFERENCES • http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs107/en/ • http://www.who.int/topics/cholera/faq/en/ • http://www.patient.co.uk/health/cholera-immunisation • https://www.internationalsos.com/en/country-guides.htm • https://www.internationalsos.com/demo/CountryGuides/DiseasesPrevention.cfm?Img=Dp&Pg=Diseases%20Prevention • http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/cholera/Documents/CholeraFactSheet.pdf • http://news.yahoo.com/cholera-kills-nine-100-hospitalised-nigeria-195406146.html • http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2010/10/29/130923065/tracking-the-origins-of-haiti-s-cholera-strain • http://liveshots.blogs.foxnews.com/2011/01/10/haiti-one-year-later-the-cholera-crisis/ • http://www.cdc.gov/cholera/ • http://minustahphoto.blogspot.com/2010/11/cholera.html • http://intrd187-f11-grosovsky.wikispaces.umb.edu/Cholera • http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-11093831 • http://telegraphng.com/2013/10/cholera-outbreak-kills-47-zamfara/ • http://evatese.wordpress.com/ • http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/africahaveyoursay/2010/08/what-do-you-know-about-cholera-1.shtml • http://edition.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/africa/10/26/nigeria.cholera/ • http://scannewsnigeria.com/breaking-news/cholera-kills-50-in-northern-nigeria/ • http://www.nigeriahealthwatch.com/2010/09/nigeria-at-50-cholera-outbreak-and.html • http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=39145&Cr=cholera&Cr1 • http://www.rayur.com/cholera-causes-symptoms-and-treatment.html • http://www.msf.org.au/from-the-field/field-news/field-news/article/cameroon-chad-niger-nigeria-medecins-sans-frontieres-intervenes-in-several-cholera-outbreaks.html • http://newshopper.sulekha.com/nigeria-cholera_photo_1502991.htm • http://www.haiti.mphise.info/health-education?page=1 13
  • QUESTIONS 14