Mergers and Acquisitions.
Difference between a Merger and an Acquisition.
Procedure for Mergers and Acquisitions.
Advantages behind Mergers and Acquisitions, or
Motives behind Mergers and Acquisitions
Effects on management.
Mergers and Acquisitions research and statistics for acquired organizations.
Major Mergers and Acquisitions.
Vodafone and Hutch Acquisition.
Background of Vodafone (Voice Date Fone).
Background of Hutch Essar.
Growth of Hutchison Essar.
Reasons for Hutchison’s Exit.
Why & How the deal came through.
Important details regarding Acquisition.
Principal Benefits for Vodafone.
Foreign Exchange and Management Act (FEMA)
Special comments by the top level officials regarding
Effect on Marketing Strategies..
GTE and Bell Atlantic Merger.
Background of GTI.
Background of Bell Atlantic.
Background of Verizon Communications Inc.
Important details regarding GTE and Bell Atlantic Merger
Credits / Presented by.
Mergers and Acquisitions.
Mergers and acquisitions refers to the aspect of corporate strategy, corporate
finance and management dealing with the buying, selling, dividing and combining
of different companies and similar entities that can aid, finance, or help an
enterprise grow rapidly in its sector or location of origin or a new field or new
location without creating a subsidiary, other child entity or using a joint venture.
The distinction between a ‘merger’ and an ‘acquisition’ has become increasingly
blurred in various respects (particularly in terms of the ultimate economic
outcome), although it has not completely disappeared in all situations.
An acquisition is the purchase of one business or company by another company or
other business entity. Consolidation occurs when two companies combine together to
form a new enterprise altogether, and neither of the previous companies survives
independently. Acquisitions are divided into "private" and "public" acquisitions,
depending on whether the acquiree or merging company (also termed a target) is or is not
listed on public stock markets. An additional dimension or categorization consists of
whether an acquisition is friendly or hostile.
Achieving acquisition success has proven to be very difficult, while various studies
have shown that 50% of acquisitions were unsuccessful. The acquisition process is very
complex, with many dimensions influencing its outcome.
Whether a purchase is perceived as being a "friendly" one or a "hostile" depends
significantly on how the proposed acquisition is communicated to and perceived by the
target company's board of directors, employees and shareholders. It is normal for M&A
deal communications to take place in a so-called 'confidentiality bubble' wherein the flow
of information is restricted pursuant to confidentiality agreements.
In the case of a friendly transaction, the companies cooperate in negotiations; in the
case of a hostile deal, the board and/or management of the target is unwilling to be bought
or the target's board has no prior knowledge of the offer.
Hostile acquisitions can, and often do, ultimately become "friendly", as the acquirer
secures endorsement of the transaction from the board of the acquiree company. This
usually requires an improvement in the terms of the offer and/or through negotiation.
‘Acquisition’ usually refers to a purchase of a smaller firm by a larger one.
Sometimes, however, a smaller firm will acquire management control of a larger and/or
longer-established company and retain the name of the latter for the post-acquisition
combined entity. This is known as a reverse takeover. Another type of acquisition is
the reverse merger, a form of transaction that enables a private company to be publicly
listed in a relatively short time frame. A reverse merger occurs when a privately held
company (often one that has strong prospects and is eager to raise financing) buys a
publicly listed shell company, usually one with no business and limited assets.
Difference between a merger and an acquisition:
Although often used synonymously, the terms merger and acquisition mean
slightly different things.
In the pure sense of the term, a merger happens when two firms agree to go
forward as a single new company rather than remain separately owned and
operated. This kind of action is more precisely referred to as a "merger of equals".
The firms are often of about the same size. Both companies' stocks are
surrendered and new company stock is issued in its place. A purchase deal will
also be called a merger when both CEOs agree that joining together is in the best
interest of both of their companies.
In case of 2 companies, for example, company A and company B, when they
merge then generally a new company, company C is created; both company A and
company B lose their identity to form company C.
In short, here, A + B = C. Size of company C is huge as compared to that of
company A and company B.
In practice, however, actual mergers of equals don't happen very often. Usually,
one company will buy another, it is technically an acquisition.
When the deal is unfriendly (that is, when the target company does not want to
be purchased) it is always regarded as an acquisition.
In case of 2 companies, for example, company A and company B, company A
acquires company B then company A retains its identity and continues its business
in the same name while company B loses its identity as it has been acquired by
In short, here, A + B = A. Size of company A increases after it acquires B.
Procedure for Mergers and Acquisitions:
The Act lays down the legal procedures for mergers or acquisitions:-
Permission for merger: Two or more companies can amalgamate only when
the amalgamation is permitted under their memorandum of association.
Also, the acquiring company should have the permission in its object clause
to carry on the business of the acquired company. In the absence of these
provisions in the memorandum of association, it is necessary to seek the
permission of the shareholders, board of directors and the Company Law
Board before affecting the merger.
Information to the stock exchange: The acquiring and the acquired
companies should inform the stock exchanges (where they are listed) about
Approval of board of directors: The board of directors of the individual
companies should approve the draft proposal for amalgamation and
authorise the managements of the companies to further pursue the proposal.
Application in the High Court: An application for approving the draft
amalgamation proposal duly approved by the board of directors of the
individual companies should be made to the High Court.
Shareholders' and creators' meetings: The individual companies should hold
separate meetings of their shareholders and creditors for approving the
amalgamation scheme. At least, 75 percent of shareholders and creditors in
separate meeting, voting in person or by proxy, must accord their approval
to the scheme.
Sanction by the High Court: After the approval of the shareholders and
creditors, on the petitions of the companies, the High Court will pass an
order, sanctioning the amalgamation scheme after it is satisfied that the
scheme is fair and reasonable. The date of the court's hearing will be
published in two newspapers, and also, the regional director of the Company
Law Board will be intimated.
Filing of the Court order: After the Court order, its certified true copies will
be filed with the Registrar of Companies.
Transfer of assets and liabilities: The assets and liabilities of the acquired
company will be transferred to the acquiring company in accordance with
the approved scheme, with effect from the specified date.
Payment by cash or securities: As per the proposal, the acquiring company
will exchange shares and debentures and/or cash for the shares and
debentures of the acquired company. These securities will be listed on the
Advantages of Mergers and Acquisitions:
Motives behind Mergers and Acquisitions:
The following motives are considered to improve financial performance:
Economy of scale: This refers to the fact that the combined company can often
reduce its fixed costs by removing duplicate departments or operations,
lowering the costs of the company relative to the same revenue stream, thus
increasing profit margins.
Economy of scope: This refers to the efficiencies primarily associated with
demand-side changes, such as increasing or decreasing the scope of marketing
and distribution, of different types of products.
Increased revenue or market share: This assumes that the buyer will be
absorbing a major competitor and thus increase its market power (by capturing
increased market share) to set prices.
Cross-selling: For example, a bank buying a stock broker could then sell its
banking products to the stock broker's customers, while the broker can sign up
the bank's customers for brokerage accounts. Or, a manufacturer can acquire
and sell complementary products.
Synergy: For example, managerial economies such as the increased opportunity
of managerial specialization. Another example are purchasing economies due
to increased order size and associated bulk-buying discounts.
Taxation: A profitable company can buy a loss maker to use the target's loss as
their advantage by reducing their tax liability. In the United States and many
other countries, rules are in place to limit the ability of profitable companies to
"shop" for loss making companies, limiting the tax motive of an acquiring
company. Tax minimization strategies include purchasing assets of a non-
performing company and reducing current tax liability under the Tanner-White
PLLC Troubled Asset Recovery Plan.
Geographical or other diversification: This is designed to smooth the earnings
results of a company, which over the long term smoothens the stock price of a
company, giving conservative investors more confidence in investing in the
company. However, this does not always deliver value to shareholders (see
Resource transfer: resources are unevenly distributed across firms and the
interaction of target and acquiring firm resources can create value through
either overcoming information asymmetry or by combining scarce resources.
Vertical integration: Vertical integration occurs when an upstream and
downstream firm merge (or one acquires the other). There are several reasons
for this to occur. One reason is to internalise an externality problem. A
common example is of such an externality is double marginalization. Double
marginalization occurs when both the upstream and downstream firms have
monopoly power, each firm reduces output from the competitive level to the
monopoly level, creating two deadweight losses. By merging the vertically
integrated firm can collect one deadweight loss by setting the downstream
firm's output to the competitive level. This increases profits and consumer
surplus. A merger that creates a vertically integrated firm can be profitable.
Absorption of similar businesses under single management: Similar portfolio
invested by two different mutual funds namely united money market fund and
united growth and income fund, caused the management to absorb united
money market fund into united growth and income fund.
‘Acqui-hire’: An ‘acq-hire’ (or acquisition-by-hire) may occur especially when
the target is a small private company or is in the start-up phase. In this case, the
acquiring company simply hires the staff of the target private company, thereby
acquiring its talent (if that is its main asset and appeal). The target private
company simply dissolves and little legal issues are involved. Acqui-hires have
become a very popular type of transaction in recent years.
Effects on management:
A study published in the July/August 2008 issue of the Journal of Business
Strategy suggests that mergers and acquisitions destroy leadership continuity in
target companies’ top management teams for at least a decade following a deal.
The study found that target companies lose 21 percent of their executives each year
for at least 10 years following an acquisition – more than double the turnover
experienced in non-merged firms. If the businesses of the acquired and acquiring
companies overlap, then such turnover is to be expected; in other words, there can
only be one CEO, CFO, et cetera at a time.
Mergers and Acquisitions research and statistics for acquired
Given that the cost of replacing an executive can run over 100% of his or her
annual salary, any investment of time and energy in re-recruitment will likely pay
for itself many times over if it helps a business retain just a handful of key players
that would have otherwise left.
Organizations should move rapidly to re-recruit key managers. It’s much easier to
succeed with a team of quality players that you select deliberately rather than try to
win a game with those who randomly show up to play.
The economic history has been divided into Merger Waves based on the merger
activities in the business world as:
Period Name Facet
1897–1904 First Wave Horizontal mergers
1916–1929 Second Wave Vertical mergers
1965–1969 Third Wave Diversified conglomerate mergers
1981–1989 Fourth Wave Congeneric mergers; Hostile takeovers; Corporate Raiding
1992–2000 Fifth Wave Cross-border mergers
2003–2008 Sixth Wave Shareholder Activism, Private Equity, LBO
Horizontal Merger: Horizontal Merger refers to the merger of two companies who
are direct competitors of one another. They serve the same market and sell the
Vertical Merger: Vertical Merger is effected either between a company and a
customer or between a company and a supplier.
Diversified Conglomeration Merger: Conglomeration refers to the merger of
companies, which do not either sell any related products or cater to any related
markets. Here, the two companies entering the merger process do not possess any
common business ties.
Congeneric Merger: A type of merger where two companies are in the same
or related industries but do not offer the same products. In a congeneric merger,
the companies may share similar distribution channels, providing synergies for the
merger. As a general rule, mergers fall into one of several categories, such as
horizontal, vertical, congeneric or conglomerate.
Hostile Takeover: The acquisition of one company (called the target company) by
another (called the acquirer) that is accomplished not by coming to an agreement with
the target company's management, but by going directly to the company’s
shareholders or fighting to replace management in order to get the acquisition
approved. A hostile takeover can be accomplished through either a tender offer or a
Corporate Raiding: An attempt to purchase a sufficient number of shares of a
company's stock through a tender offer so that control of the target's operations can be
taken away from its current management. Also called venture arbitrage.
Cross Border Merger: A cross-border merger is a transaction in which the assets and
operation of two firms belonging to or registered in two different countries are
combined to establish a new legal entity.
In a cross-border acquisition, the control of assets and operations is transferred from a
local to a foreign company, with the former becoming an affiliate of the latter.
Shareholder Activism: A person who attempts to use his or her rights as a shareholder
of a publicly-traded corporation to bring about social change. Some of the issues most
often addressed by shareholder activists are related to the environment, investments in
politically sensitive parts of the world and workers' rights (sweatshops).
The term can also refer to investors who believe that a company's management is
doing a bad job and who attempt to gain control of the company and replace
management for the good of the shareholders.
Private Equity: Equity capital that is not quoted on a public exchange. Private equity
consists of investors and funds that make investments directly into private companies
or conduct buyouts of public companies that result in a delisting of public equity.
Capital for private equity is raised from retail and institutional investors, and can be
used to fund new technologies, expand working capital within an owned company,
make acquisitions, or to strengthen a balance sheet.
Leveraged Buyout (LBO): The acquisition of another company using a significant
amount of borrowed money (bonds or loans) to meet the cost of acquisition. Often, the
assets of the company being acquired are used as collateral for the loans in addition to
the assets of the acquiring company. The purpose of leveraged buyouts is to allow
companies to make large acquisitions without having to commit a lot of capital.
Major Mergers and Acquisitions:
Top 10 Mergers and Acquisitions deals worldwide by value (in mil. USD) from 1990 to 1999:
Rank Year Purchaser Purchased Transaction value (in mil. USD)
1 1999 Vodafone Airtouch PLC Mannesmann 183,000
2 1999 Pfizer Warner-Lambert 90,000
3 1998 Exxon Mobil 77,200
4 1998 Citicorp Travelers Group 73,000
5 1999 SBC Communications Ameritech Corporation 63,000
6 1999 Vodafone Group AirTouch Communications 60,000
7 1998 Bell Atlantic GTE 53,360
8 1998 BP Amoco 53,000
9 1999 Qwest Communications US WEST 48,000
10 1997 Worldcom MCI Communications 42,000
Top 10 Mergers & Acquisitions deals worldwide by value (in mil. USD) from 2000 to 2010:
Rank Year Purchaser Purchased
Transaction value (in mil.
1 2000 Fusion: America Online Inc. (AOL) Time Warner 164,747
2 2000 Glaxo Wellcome Plc. SmithKline Beecham Plc. 75,961
3 2004 Royal Dutch Petroleum Co. Shell Transport & Trading Co 74,559
4 2006 AT&T Inc. BellSouth Corporation 72,671
5 2001 Comcast Corporation
AT&T Broadband & Internet
6 2009 Pfizer Inc. Wyeth 68,000
: Nortel Networks
8 2002 Pfizer Inc. Pharmacia Corporation 59,515
9 2004 JP Morgan Chase & Co Bank One Corp 58,761
10 2008 Inbev Inc.
(1) Spin-off: An independent company created from an existing part of another company through
a divestiture, such as a sale or distribution of new shares.
Practical examples for Mergers and Acquisitions:
We will now take one practical example each for a merger and an acquisition.
Acquisition - Vodafone + Hutch = Vodafone.
Merger - Brooke Bond + Lipton = Brooke Bond Lipton.
Vodafone and Hutch acquisition.
Vodafone purchased stake in Hutch (Hutchison Telecom International) for USD
11.08 billion Merger & Acquisition.
Background: Vodafone (Voice Date Fone)
Founded: 1983 as Racal Telecom, Independent 1991.
Group: Vodafone Plc.
Headquarters: Berkshire, UK.
Key People: Vittorio Colao, CEO & Sir John Bond, Chairman.
Industry: Mobile Telecommunications.
Presence: Equity Interest in 25 Countries & Network Partner in 42 Countries.
Strength: 230,000 (Employees).
Revenue: £ 35,478 Million (14.1% Growth).
Net Income: £ 10,047 Million (10.1% Growth).
EPS: 7.51 Pence Dividend Per Share (11.1% Growth).
Background – Hutch Essar
Circles: 16 + license for 6 circles.
Revenue: $ 1,282 Million.
EBITDA: $ 415 Million.
Operating Profit: $ 313 Million.
Subscriber Base: 29.2 Million.
ARPU: Rs. 340.15
Growth of Hutchison Essar
1992: Hutchison Whampoa and Max Group established Hutchison Max.
2000: Acquisition of Delhi operations Entered Calcutta and Gujarat markets
through ESSAR acquisition.
2001: Won auction for licenses to operate GSM services in Karnataka,
Andhra Pradesh and Chennai.
2003: Acquired AirCel Digilink (ADIL - Essar Subsidiary) which operated
in Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh East and Haryana telecom circles and renamed it
under Hutch brand.
2004: Launched in three additional telecom circles of India namely Punjab,
Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.
2005: Acquired BPL, another mobile service provider in India .
2007: Vodafone acquired HTIL stake in Hutchison-Essar.
2008: Vodafone acquired Dishnet Wireless, a service provider in Orissa and
has successfully launched its services in the following circle. Vodafone
launched the Apple iPhone 3G to be used on its 17 circle 2G network.
Reasons for Hutchison’s Exit
Urban markets in the country had become saturated.
Future expansion would have had to be only in the rural areas, which would
lead to falling average revenue per user (ARPU) and consequently lower
returns on its investments
HTIL also wanted to use the money earned through this deal to fund its
businesses in Europe
The sale of its interests in India will enable Hutchison Telecom to become
one of Asia’s best capitalized companies
Relations between Hutchison Telecom and the Essar group of India will be
key to the sale of Hutch's 67% stake in Hutch-Essar
Why & How the deal came through
None of its recent global acquisitions, including those of the German
business of Mannesmann, telecom businesses in Japan and Belgium were
performing up to the mark.
Markets, including the US, were maturing and were not growing in a big
Stiff competition among almost all major players in the industry, including
global telecom majors like BT,O2 of UK, Verizon from the US, Maxis
Telecommunications of Malaysia, Orascom from Egypt, the Hinduja group,
Reliance and Bharti Airtel from India.
Important details regarding acquisition:
Deal size and stake: It was the fourth largest deal of the year 2007 (to date)
at $13.3 billion ($11.1 billion plus $2 billion debt). Hutchison Essar was
valued at $18.8 billion.
Regulatory Approvals: Vodafone acquisition is subject to a number of
approvals including from the Department of Telecommunications and the
Foreign Investment Promotion Board(FIBP): Application for an approval
from the FIPB still not been approved due to issues relating to the total
direct and indirect foreign holding in Hutchison Essar.
Foreign Direct Investment Policy: It provides that direct and indirect foreign
shareholding in a telecom company cannot exceed 74%.
Department of Telecom: The Department of Telecommunication has given
its nod. All licensing conditions are to be met by Vodafone.
Principal Benefits for Vodafone
Accelerates Vodafone’s move to a controlling position in a leading operator
in the attractive and fast growing Indian mobile market.
India is the world’s 2nd most populated country with over 1.1 billion
India is the fastest growing major mobile market in the world, with around
6.5 million monthly net adds in the last quarter.
India benefits from strong economic fundamentals with expected real GDP
growth in high single digits.
Increases Vodafone’s presence in higher growth emerging markets.
Potential for Hutch Essar to bring Vodafone’s innovative products and
services to the Indian market, including Vodafone’s focus on total
communication solutions for customers.
Vodafone and Hutch Essar both expected to benefit from increased
purchasing power and the sharing of best practices.
Foreign Exchange and Management Act (FEMA)
HTIL financed the loan to minority shareholders, i.e. , Asim Ghosh &
Analjith Singh for 15 % stake in Hutch-Essar.
The loan is a violation of External Commercial Borrowings (ECB) norms
issued under FEMA. This is because the multi-layered transaction (for
Ghosh and Singh's stake) has been funded by a local finance company,
backed by a stand-by letter of credit issued by a Hong Kong entity at the
instance of HTIL.
Since both the shareholders are fronting for HTIL, the 15 % minority
shareholding is interpreted as foreign stake.
Finance Bill 2008 also proposes to ensure that capital gains tax should be
levied on acquisitions in India.
Buyer will be responsible for paying the tax after purchasing any capital
asset - a share or debenture of a company in India.
The buyer will have to deduct TDS and failure to do so would leave him
liable to pay the tax. The tax will have to be paid with a retrospective effect
from June 2002.
Department sent a notice to Vodafone, asking for about $1.7 billion as
capital gains tax in the sale of 52% stake in Hutchison Essar to Vodafone.
It argues that the company should have deducted tax at source while
making payment to HTIL.
Special comments by the top level officials regarding acquisition:
"The announcement is a clear evidence of how we are executing our strategy of
developing our presence in the emerging markets. Hutch Essar is an impressive,
well-run company that will fit well into the Vodafone Group
-Arun Sarin, CEO, Vodafone Ltd., in February 2007
"We exit the Indian market as one of the best capitalized telecom companies in the
region which will enable us to react swiftly to new opportunities and to accelerate
growth in our existing markets.
-Canning Fok, Chairman, HTIL, in May 2007
Effect/Changes in marketing stratergy.
The Vodafone to capture the market first used the advertisement campaign used by
Hutch i.e., Pug(breed of a dog); but later on replaced by its own, i.e., ZooZoos.
General Telephone & Electronics Corporation (GTE) and Bell
The Bell Atlantic–GTE merger, priced at more than $52 billion
Background of GTE Corporation.
Former type Public
Fate Merged with Bell Atlantic
Successor Verizon Communications
Headquarters Irving, Texas, USA
Products Telephone, Internet, Television
Background of Bell Atlantic Corporation
Former type Public
Industry Telecommunications and global broadband
Fate Merged with GTE
Successor Verizon Communications
Products Telephone, Internet, Television
Bell Atlantic and GTE merged together to form Verizon Communications Inc.
Background of Verizon Comnmunications Inc.
Traded as NYSE: VZ
Dow Jones Industrial Average Component
Founded October 7, 1983
Headquarters Verizon Building, New York City, New York, US
Key people Ivan Seidenberg (Chairman)
Lowell McAdam (President and CEO)
Services Fixed-line and mobile telephony, broadband and fixed-
line internet services,digital
television and networkservices
Revenue US$ 106.565 billion (2010)
Net income US$ 10.217 billion (2010)
Total assets US$ 220.005 billion (2010)
Total equity US$ 86.912 billion (2010)
Important details regarding GTE and Bell Atlantic Merger:
Bell Atlantic merged with GTE on June 30, 2000 and changed its name
to Verizon Communications Inc. It was among the largest mergers in
United States business history. It was the result of a definitive merger
agreement, dated July 27, 1998, between Bell Atlantic, based in New York
City since the merger with NYNEX in 1996, and GTE, which was in the
process of moving its headquarters from Stamford, Connecticut, to Irving,
The Bell Atlantic–GTE merger, priced at more than $52 billion at the time
of the announcement, closed nearly two years later, following analysis and
approvals by Bell Atlantic and GTE shareowners, 27 state regulatory
commissions and the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), and
clearance from the United States Department of Justice and various
The merger of Bell Atlantic and GTE, to form Verizon Communications,
became effective on June 30, 2000. Verizon began trading on the NYSE
under its new "VZ" symbol on Monday, July 3, 2000.
Bell Atlantic's CEO Ivan Seidenberg and GTE's Charles Lee were co-CEO's
from 2000 to 2002 when Seidenberg became sole CEO, a position he held
until July 2011 when he was succeeded by Lowell McAdam.
Meanwhile, on September 21, 1999, Bell Atlantic and UK-based Vodafone
AirTouch Plc (now Vodafone Group Plc) announced that they had agreed to
create a new wireless business with a national footprint, a single brand and a
common digital technology – composed of Bell Atlantic's and Vodafone's
U.S. wireless assets (Bell Atlantic Mobile (which was previously called Bell
Atlantic-NYNEX Mobile by 1997),AirTouch Cellular, PrimeCo Personal
Communications, and AirTouch Paging).
This wireless joint venture received regulatory approval in six months, and
began operations as Verizon Wireless on April 4, 2000, kicking off the new
"Verizon" brand name. GTE's wireless operations became part of Verizon
Wireless – creating what was initially the nation's largest wireless company
before Cingular Wireless acquired AT&T Wireless in 2004 – when the Bell
Atlantic–GTE merger closed nearly three months later. Verizon then
became the majority owner (55%) of Verizon Wireless.
Verizon shares were made a component of the Dow Jones Industrial
Average on April 8, 2004.
Verizon currently has 140.3 million land lines
in service. With the MCI merger, it has more than 250,000 employees.
Verizon serves customers throughout much of the United States.
Let's recap what we learned in this tutorial:
One size doesn't fit all. Many companies find that the best way to get ahead is
to expand ownership boundaries through mergers and acquisitions. For others,
separating the public ownership of a subsidiary or business segment offers more
advantages. At least in theory, mergers create synergies and economies of scale,
expanding operations and cutting costs. Investors can take comfort in the idea that
a merger will deliver enhanced market power.
By contrast, de-merged companies often enjoy improved operating performance
thanks to redesigned management incentives. Additional capital can fund growth
organically or through acquisition. Meanwhile, investors benefit from the
improved information flow from de-merged companies.
M&A comes in all shapes and sizes, and investors need to consider the complex
issues involved in M&A. The most beneficial form of equity structure involves a
complete analysis of the costs and benefits associated with the deals.
We would like to thank ********* who provided us with such a
project work with the main intention to make us experience the practical
and theoretical application. The preparation of the project ‘Mergers and
Acquisitions’ gave us an opportunity to get an over on glance primarily
focusing on all the mergers and acquisitions taking place in today’s
We would also like to thank our college for providing all the
facilities & our friends with whom we have completed the project
A special thanks to all the people who have helped us to complete
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