Non-Carious Tooth Substance Loss

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Non-Carious Tooth Substance Loss

  1. 1. Non-Carious Tooth Substance LossDr. Manil Fonseka BDS, MS (Restorative Dentistry) Department of Restorative Dentistry 27th January 2011
  2. 2. Definition Loss of dental hard tissue due to causes NOT attributed to bacterial action on fermentable carbohydrates
  3. 3. Historical Perspective• Normal physiologic process• Some tooth-wear essential for efficient function of teeth which is seen in many herbivores• Important to establish unhindered guidance during mastication• However the level of tooth wear minimal
  4. 4. Rates of tooth-wear• 2500 years for 1mm of enamel wear with normal function• Estimated the level of tooth wear to be 29µm for molars and 15µm for premolars (Lambrechts et al, 1989)• Physiological wear poses minimal problems• If the rate of wear challenges the viability of teeth TSL considered pathologic
  5. 5. Factors precipitating wear
  6. 6. Factors precipitating tooth-wear• Multi-factorial aetiology• Increase in life expectancy Increased functional demand Longer exposure to erosive foods Recession and exposure of relatively weaker cementum Increased use of medication Quantitative and qualitative reduction in salivary flow Loss of teeth increases demand on the remaining teeth
  7. 7. Diet• Dietary changes have resulted in the diets being less abrasive• Should theoretically reduce the levels of tooth-wear• Excessive consumption of erosive beverages and foods has had a potentiating effect on the increased prevalence of NCTSL
  8. 8. Implicated foods• Fizzy drinks (pH 2.2 – 3.8)• Fruit juices (pH 3.0 – 4.0)• Wines (pH 3.2 – 4.8)• Cider and Beer (pH 3.5 – 4.0)• Citrus fruits• Increased prevalence among children and adolescents in the UK (35%)• Condition of affluent in Sri Lanka (Ratnayake N & Ekanayake L. 2010)
  9. 9. Extrinsic Acid ErosionIntrinsic Acid Erosion
  10. 10. Intrinsic Acid• pH of Gastric acid is 1-2 Gastric Regurgitation Bulaemia and anorexia VomittingClassically presents as palatal/lingual erosive defects
  11. 11. Para-function• Stress induced parafunction• Bruxism• Object biting
  12. 12. Problems of para-function• 700 times the normal masticatory load• Force used is considerably greater than during normal mastication• Seen as wear in non functional cusps Molars may be severely affected Prominant masseters Marked antigonial notching Tenderness of muscles of mastication
  13. 13. Other factors contributing to tooth surface loss• Defective enamel and dentine deposition and maturation ( E.g AI, DI, Hypoplasias)• Abrasive restorative material (Unglazed porcelain)• Abrasive dentifrices and hard brushing in horizontal strokes• Habits – Instrument biting, Needles etc
  14. 14. Defective enamel formation
  15. 15. Scale of the Problem• 98% of individuals in the UK have some amount of tooth wear• Increased prevalence among children, deciduous teeth• 30% of individuals in the UK have severe tooth wear (Tooth Wear Index scores of 3 & 4)• Problem of affluent in Sri Lanka
  16. 16. Types of tooth-wear• Erosion - Intrinsic or Extrinsic acid• Attrition - Tooth to tooth contact• Abrasion- Due to foreign objects• Abfraction - Repeated cyclic flexion of teeth• Mostly multi-factorial thus cannot home-in on one cause
  17. 17. Erosion• Due to intrinsic or extrinsic acid• Intrinsic acid regurgitation due to gastric reflux disease (Bullaemia, Anorexia, Gastritis, GORD)• Extrinsic acid consumption (Coke, Fizzy drinks, Fruit juices, tamarind)• Increasingly seen in young due to change in lifestyles
  18. 18. Extrinsic Acid Erosion •Buccal and Labial surfaces •Lingual and palatal spared Intrinsic Acid Erosion•Palatal and lingual surfaces•Lower incisors spared•Etched like appearance•Cupping•Discoloured if historical•“Proud” restorations
  19. 19. Attrition• Tooth to tooth contact• Accelerated due to para-function• Wear on non-functional cusps• Seen in anterior teeth when posteriors are lost• No loss of OVD due to dento-alveolar compensation• Erosion potentiates attrition (De-mastication)
  20. 20. Attrition
  21. 21. Abrasion• Due to improper brushing technique• Abrasive dentifrices• Foreign objects (e.g. Needles, Clips etc)• Erosion may potentiate abrasion (Abrosion)
  22. 22. Abrasion
  23. 23. Abfraction• Continuous cyclic loading of teeth• Enamel micro-fractures in the cervical regions• Precipitated by premature contact of teeth• Seperation of enamel rods• V shaped defects
  24. 24. Abfraction
  25. 25. Effects of NCTSL• Sensitivity of teeth• Pulpal and Periodontal complications• Poor aesthetics• Impeded function• Prone to fracture• Low self esteem (OHRQoL)
  26. 26. Aides to Diagnosis• Detailed history – Occupation, Social, Dietary analysis, Medical history• Examination – Masticatory apparatus, MAN, Wear facets and their location, “proud” restorations• Investigations – Radiographs, Photographs, Dated study casts
  27. 27. Strategies in the management of NCTSL• Psycho-social support• Medical referrals (GERD)• Habit intervention• Reduction in consumption of erosive beverages• Using a straw• Soft mouth guards to protect teeth during gastric regurgitation (Addition of Fluoride gel)• Michigan splints to reduce effects of bruxism
  28. 28. Soft bite guards/ Michigan splints
  29. 29. Challenges in management• Lack of vertical space due to dento-alveolar compensation mechanisms• Excessive loading of restorations• If the cause continues tooth-wear would continue• Frequent recall and maintenance Primary aim in treatment prevent/reduce the causes and replace what is lost
  30. 30. Methods of Gaining Space• Conforming to existing occlusion• Re-organising the occlusion• Concept of “Dahl”• Crown lengthening• Orthodontic intrusionHow to gain space would depend on Where space is needed Assessment of each individual case Should be based on principles of occlusion
  31. 31. Dahl Appliance
  32. 32. Management of Localized tooth wear
  33. 33. Re-organization of occlusion Case 1
  34. 34. Re-organization of occlusion Case 2
  35. 35. Re-organization Case 3
  36. 36. Re-organization Case 4
  37. 37. Thanks

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