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TRAINING FOR VACUUM DEGASSING AND SECONDARY METALLURGY BY CVS MAKINA
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TRAINING FOR VACUUM DEGASSING AND SECONDARY METALLURGY BY CVS MAKINA

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TRAINING FOR VACUUM DEGASSING AND SECONDARY METALLURGY BY CVS MAKINA

TRAINING FOR VACUUM DEGASSING AND SECONDARY METALLURGY BY CVS MAKINA

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  • 1. 05.01.2010 CVS MAKINA is happy to welcome all of you to our training in your offices CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 1 Training Objects Theoretical Training General description on VD plant layout - safe operation - technology - metallurgy in brief Explanation of individual VD equipment - explanation of equipment components - maintenance (including preventive maintenance, regular checks and lubrication) - safety Actions and repairs in cases of emergency (including power, cooling water and media failure, operational emergency cases) VD cooling water and gas media systems (incl. Standards, special valves, etc.) Review of previous days, concluding discussion on VD matters CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 2 1
  • 2. 05.01.2010 Training Contents From Ore / Scrap To VD – Plant Plant Overview / Plant Layout Metallurgy March Of Steel Temperature Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Suction Line System Condenser Waste Gas Measurement Vacuum Vessel Vacuum Cover Water Cooled Ladle Cover Vacuum Alloying Hopper Cover Lifting and Travelling Device Ladle Stirring Equipment / Furnace Camera Hydraulic System Temperature And Sampling Lance PIPING : Valves, Fittings, Hoses, Etc. Field Instruments CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 3 Training Contents From Ore / Scrap To VD – Plant Plant Overview / Plant Layout Metallurgy March Of Steel Temperature Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Suction Line System Condenser Waste Gas Measurement Vacuum Vessel Vacuum Cover Water Cooled Ladle Cover Vacuum Alloying Hopper Cover Lifting and Travelling Device Ladle Stirring Equipment / Furnace Camera Hydraulic System Temperature And Sampling Lance PIPING : Valves, Fittings, Hoses, Etc. Field Instruments CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 4 2
  • 3. 05.01.2010 From Ore/Scrap To VD-Plant Process Of Steel Production • process sequence: blast furnace - converter • process sequence: electric arc furnace CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 5 From Ore/Scrap To VD-Plant Nowadays pig iron produced in the so- called COREX REDUCTION MELTING PLANTS is refined to crude steel in converters or electric arc furnaces. Advantages Of Utilizing The Electric Arc Furnace Process Sequence • production of each kind of steel grade possible • independent on the charging (scrap, metallized iron ore, become hardened pig iron, liquid pig iron) • low investment requirements • process sequence can be automized • high efficiency CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 6 3
  • 4. 05.01.2010 From Ore/Scrap To VD-Plant Secondary Metallurgy Today converters and electric arc furnaces mostly serve as smelting plants and plants for carbon and phosphorus reduction. Nowadays secondary metallurgy is the most important process route for adjusting the required material properties. Vacuum Metallurgy • metallurgical treatment under reduced pressure (< 0,1MPa) CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 7 From Ore/Scrap To VD-Plant Results Of Vacuum Treatment: Steel Grades Of: • excellent purity • low contents of gas • small tolerances of alloying elements CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 8 4
  • 5. 05.01.2010 Training Contents From Ore / Scrap To VD – Plant Plant Overview / Plant Layout Metallurgy March Of Steel Temperature Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Suction Line System Condenser Waste Gas Measurement Vacuum Vessel Vacuum Cover Water Cooled Ladle Cover Vacuum Alloying Hopper Cover Lifting and Travelling Device Ladle Stirring Equipment / Furnace Camera Hydraulic System Temperature And Sampling Lance PIPING : Valves, Fittings, Hoses, Etc. Field Instruments CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 9 Training Contents From Ore / Scrap To VD – Plant Plant Overview / Plant Layout Metallurgy March Of Steel Temperature Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Suction Line System Condenser Waste Gas Measurement Vacuum Vessel Vacuum Cover Water Cooled Ladle Cover Vacuum Alloying Hopper Cover Lifting and Travelling Device Ladle Stirring Equipment / Furnace Camera Hydraulic System Temperature And Sampling Lance PIPING : Valves, Fittings, Hoses, Etc. Field Instruments CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 10 5
  • 6. 05.01.2010 Metallurgy VD - Treatment CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 11 Metallurgy VD - Treatment CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 12 6
  • 7. 05.01.2010 Metallurgy VD - Treatment CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 13 Metallurgy VD - Treatment CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 14 7
  • 8. 05.01.2010 Metallurgy VD - Treatment CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 15 Metallurgy VOD - Treatment CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 16 8
  • 9. 05.01.2010 Metallurgy VOD - Treatment CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 17 Metallurgy VOD - Treatment CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 18 9
  • 10. 05.01.2010 Metallurgy VOD - Treatment CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 19 Metallurgy VOD - Treatment CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 20 10
  • 11. 05.01.2010 Metallurgy VOD - Treatment CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 21 Metallurgy VOD - Treatment Temperatures changes due to addition of alloys CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 22 11
  • 12. 05.01.2010 Metallurgy VOD - Treatment Temperature changes due to addition of 1% alloying material Al, Si and Mn CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 23 Metallurgy VOD - Treatment CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 24 12
  • 13. 05.01.2010 Metallurgy VOD - Treatment CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 25 Metallurgy VOD - Treatment CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 26 13
  • 14. 05.01.2010 Metallurgy VOD - Treatment CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 27 Metallurgy VOD - Treatment CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 28 14
  • 15. 05.01.2010 Metallurgy VOD - Treatment CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 29 Metallurgy VOD - Treatment CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 30 15
  • 16. 05.01.2010 Metallurgy VOD - Treatment CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 31 Metallurgy VOD - Treatment CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 32 16
  • 17. 05.01.2010 Metallurgy VOD - Treatment CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 33 Metallurgy VOD - Treatment CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 34 17
  • 18. 05.01.2010 Metallurgy VOD - Treatment CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 35 Metallurgy VOD - Treatment CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 36 18
  • 19. 05.01.2010 Metallurgy VOD - Treatment CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 37 Metallurgy VOD - Treatment CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 38 19
  • 20. 05.01.2010 Metallurgy VOD - Treatment CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 39 Metallurgy VOD - Treatment CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 40 20
  • 21. 05.01.2010 Metallurgy VOD - Treatment CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 41 Metallurgy VOD - Treatment CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 42 21
  • 22. 05.01.2010 Metallurgy VOD - Treatment CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 43 Metallurgy VOD - Treatment CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 44 22
  • 23. 05.01.2010 Metallurgy Stainless Steel Grades CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 45 Metallurgy Stainless Steel Grades CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 46 23
  • 24. 05.01.2010 Metallurgy Stainless Steel Grades CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 47 Metallurgy Stainless Steel Grades CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 48 24
  • 25. 05.01.2010 Metallurgy Stainless Steel Grades CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 49 Metallurgy Stainless Steel Grades CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 50 25
  • 26. 05.01.2010 Metallurgy Stainless Steel Grades CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 51 Metallurgy Stainless Steel Grades CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 52 26
  • 27. 05.01.2010 Metallurgy Stainless Steel Grades CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 53 Metallurgy Stainless Steel Grades CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 54 27
  • 28. 05.01.2010 Metallurgy Stainless Steel Grades CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 55 Metallurgy Stainless Steel Grades CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 56 28
  • 29. 05.01.2010 Metallurgy Stainless Steel Grades CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 57 Metallurgy Stainless Steel Grades CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 58 29
  • 30. 05.01.2010 Metallurgy Stainless Steel Grades CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 59 Metallurgy Stainless Steel Grades CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 60 30
  • 31. 05.01.2010 Metallurgy Steel Production Mix Example CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 61 Metallurgy Steel Production Mix Example CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 62 31
  • 32. 05.01.2010 Training Contents From Ore / Scrap To VD – Plant Plant Overview / Plant Layout Metallurgy March Of Steel Temperature Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Suction Line System Condenser Waste Gas Measurement Vacuum Vessel Vacuum Cover Water Cooled Ladle Cover Vacuum Alloying Hopper Cover Lifting and Travelling Device Ladle Stirring Equipment / Furnace Camera Hydraulic System Temperature And Sampling Lance PIPING : Valves, Fittings, Hoses, Etc. Field Instruments CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 63 March Of Steel Temperature Temperature loss due to: • heating up of the refractory of the ladle • radiation loss during vacuum treatment, ladle transportation and tapping Formula for heat loss by radiation: M = weight of steel inside ladle; (example:80 t) C = spec. Heat capacity of liquid steel; (example: 0,23Wh/kgC°) = emission factor of liquid steel; (example 0,4) = radiation factor of black body; 5,775*10-8 [W / m2 K4] T = steel temperature: 1617°C = 1800 K = time [min] F = radiating surface of liquid steel: - casting spout (example: approx. 1 m2) - tapping stream (example: approx. 2,5 m2) - inside ladle (example: approx. 5 m2) CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 64 32
  • 33. 05.01.2010 March Of Steel Temperature Temperature Loss Of Liquid Steel During Tapping (Example 80 t Ladle) Formula For Heat Loss By Radiation Example for 80 t steel ladle: Example for 80 t steel ladle: ( without covering powder) Loss to refractory material T = 56 °C T = 2,27 x T = 33 °C (cold ladle 0°C) Tapping time: 10 min. T = 23 °C, loss by radiation Example for 80 t steel ladle: Example for 80 t steel ladle: ( with covering powder) Loss to refractory material T = 0,15 x T = 33 °C (cold ladle 0°C) T = 34,5 °C Tapping time: 10 min. T = 1,5 °C, loss by radiation CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 65 March Of Temperature Temperature Loss Of Liquid Steel Due To „Cold“ Ladle Temperature of refractory material Temperature Loss Of Liquid Steel Due Temperature Loss Of Liquid Steel Due To „Cold“ Refractory Of The Ladle To „Cold“ Refractory Of The Ladle (40t-ladle) (80t-ladle) CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 66 33
  • 34. 05.01.2010 March Of Temperature Temperature Change Due To Adding Of Alloying Material Temperature Change Due To Adding Of Alloying Material CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 67 March Of Temperature Temperature Change Due To Adding Of Alloying Material Temperature Change Due To Adding Of Alloying Material CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 68 34
  • 35. 05.01.2010 Training Contents From Ore / Scrap To VD – Plant Plant Overview / Plant Layout Metallurgy March Of Steel Temperature Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Suction Line System Condenser Waste Gas Measurement Vacuum Vessel Vacuum Cover Water Cooled Ladle Cover Vacuum Alloying Hopper Cover Lifting and Travelling Device Ladle Stirring Equipment / Furnace Camera Hydraulic System Temperature And Sampling Lance PIPING : Valves, Fittings, Hoses, Etc. Field Instruments CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 69 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Electrical Energy CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 70 35
  • 36. 05.01.2010 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Electrical Energy CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 71 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Electrical Energy CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 72 36
  • 37. 05.01.2010 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Gas, Dust, Steam, Smoke CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 73 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Gas, Dust, Steam, Smoke CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 74 37
  • 38. 05.01.2010 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Gas, Dust, Steam, Smoke CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 75 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Gas, Dust, Steam, Smoke CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 76 38
  • 39. 05.01.2010 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Gas, Dust, Steam, Smoke CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 77 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Gas, Dust, Steam, Smoke CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 78 39
  • 40. 05.01.2010 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Gas, Dust, Steam, Smoke CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 79 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Gas, Dust, Steam, Smoke CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 80 40
  • 41. 05.01.2010 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Gas, Dust, Steam, Smoke CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 81 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Gas, Dust, Steam, Smoke CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 82 41
  • 42. 05.01.2010 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Gas, Dust, Steam, Smoke CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 83 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Gas, Dust, Steam, Smoke CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 84 42
  • 43. 05.01.2010 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Hydraulic-, Pneumatic Equipment CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 85 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Noise, Vibration CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 86 43
  • 44. 05.01.2010 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Noise, Vibration CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 87 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Noise, Vibration CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 88 44
  • 45. 05.01.2010 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Oil, Grease And Other Chemical Substances CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 89 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Unexpected Malfunctions / Mechanical Hazards CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 90 45
  • 46. 05.01.2010 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Thermal Hazards CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 91 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Fire And Fire Fighting / Emergency Procedures CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 92 46
  • 47. 05.01.2010 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Fire And Fire Fighting / Emergency Procedures CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 93 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Fire And Fire Fighting / Emergency Procedures CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 94 47
  • 48. 05.01.2010 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Personal Protective Equipment (P.P.E.) CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 95 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Personal Protective Equipment (P.P.E.) CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 96 48
  • 49. 05.01.2010 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Personal Protective Equipment (P.P.E.) CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 97 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Personal Protective Equipment (P.P.E.) CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 98 49
  • 50. 05.01.2010 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Personal Protective Equipment (P.P.E.) CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 99 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Localization Of Risks And Hazards CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 100 50
  • 51. 05.01.2010 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Localization Of Risks And Hazards CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 101 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Localization Of Risks And Hazards CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 102 51
  • 52. 05.01.2010 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Localization Of Risks And Hazards CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 103 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Localization Of Risks And Hazards CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 104 52
  • 53. 05.01.2010 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Localization Of Risks And Hazards CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 105 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Localization Of Risks And Hazards CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 106 53
  • 54. 05.01.2010 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Localization Of Risks And Hazards CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 107 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Reasons For Preventive Maintenance CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 108 54
  • 55. 05.01.2010 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Reasons For Preventive Maintenance CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 109 Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Reasons For Preventive Maintenance Planning Of Maintenance Works CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 110 55
  • 56. 05.01.2010 Training Contents From Ore / Scrap To VD – Plant Plant Overview / Plant Layout Metallurgy March Of Steel Temperature Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Suction Line System Condenser Waste Gas Measurement Vacuum Vessel Vacuum Cover Water Cooled Ladle Cover Vacuum Alloying Hopper Cover Lifting and Travelling Device Ladle Stirring Equipment / Furnace Camera Hydraulic System Temperature And Sampling Lance PIPING : Valves, Fittings, Hoses, Etc. Field Instruments CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 111 Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Vacuum Vessel Ejectors/Condensers Water Ring Pumps Waste Gas Line Condenser Booster/ejector Water ring pump Vacuum Vessel Vacuum pump system (typical) CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 112 56
  • 57. 05.01.2010 Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Function Of Vacuum Pump CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 113 Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Function Of Vacuum Pump CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 114 57
  • 58. 05.01.2010 Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Function Of Vacuum Pump CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 115 Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Function Of Vacuum Pump CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 116 58
  • 59. 05.01.2010 Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Function Of Vacuum Pump CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 117 Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Function Of Vacuum Pump CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 118 59
  • 60. 05.01.2010 Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Function Of Vacuum Pump CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 119 Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Function Of Vacuum Pump CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 120 60
  • 61. 05.01.2010 Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Function Of Vacuum Pump CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 121 Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Function Of Vacuum Pump CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 122 61
  • 62. 05.01.2010 Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Function Of Vacuum Pump CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 123 Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Function Of Vacuum Pump: Water Ring Pump CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 124 62
  • 63. 05.01.2010 Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Function Of Vacuum Pump: Water Ring Pump CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 125 Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Function Of Vacuum Pump: Water Ring Pump CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 126 63
  • 64. 05.01.2010 Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Function Of Vacuum Pump: Water Ring Pump CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 127 Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Function Of Vacuum Pump: Condenser C 1 CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 128 64
  • 65. 05.01.2010 Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Function Of Vacuum Pump: Condenser C 2 CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 129 Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Failure / Malfunction / Maintenance Failure / malfunction Reason Countermeasures Steam ejectors Problems with steam, condenser Refer to “Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump” cooling water, valves etc. Water ring pumps Problems with the performance of the Refer to “Water Ring Pumps” water ring pumps Hotwell pumps Problems with the performance of the Refer to “Hotwell Pumps” hotwell pumps Refer to “Automatic Aspirator” Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Equipment that needs Once per Daily Weekly Monthly Yearly maintenance half-year Leakage test X Performance test X Cleaning of the ejectors X CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 130 65
  • 66. 05.01.2010 Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Failure / Malfunction / Maintenance CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 131 Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Failure / Malfunction / Maintenance CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 132 66
  • 67. 05.01.2010 Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Failure / Malfunction / Maintenance Hot well Pump And Automatic Aspirator Automatic Aspirator Hot well Pumps Need To Be Flooded With Water! Hot well Tank Equipment that needs Once per Daily Weekly Monthly Yearly maintenance half-year Cleansing inside X Valves X Sealings of pipe work X CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 133 Training Contents From Ore / Scrap To VD – Plant Plant Overview / Plant Layout Metallurgy March Of Steel Temperature Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Suction Line System Condenser Waste Gas Measurement Vacuum Vessel Vacuum Cover Water Cooled Ladle Cover Vacuum Alloying Hopper Cover Lifting and Travelling Device Ladle Stirring Equipment / Furnace Camera Hydraulic System Temperature And Sampling Lance PIPING : Valves, Fittings, Hoses, Etc. Field Instruments CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 134 67
  • 68. 05.01.2010 Suction Line System Failure / Malfunction / Maintenance Equipment that needs Once per Daily Weekly Monthly Yearly maintenance half-year Vacuum sealing X Chain hoist X Sealing at manholes X CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 135 Suction Line System Failure / Malfunction / Maintenance CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 136 68
  • 69. 05.01.2010 Suction Line System Failure / Malfunction / Maintenance Failure / malfunction Reason Countermeasures Lowering/lifting of elbow is not A) Problems with the hoist A) refer to “Chain Hoist For Elbow” possible Moving of elbow is not possible A) Problems with the hoist A) refer to “Chain Hoist For Elbow” CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 137 Training Contents From Ore / Scrap To VD – Plant Plant Overview / Plant Layout Metallurgy March Of Steel Temperature Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Suction Line System Condenser Waste Gas Measurement Vacuum Vessel Vacuum Cover Water Cooled Ladle Cover Vacuum Alloying Hopper Cover Lifting and Travelling Device Ladle Stirring Equipment / Furnace Camera Hydraulic System Temperature And Sampling Lance PIPING : Valves, Fittings, Hoses, Etc. Field Instruments CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 138 69
  • 70. 05.01.2010 Condenser Failure / Malfunction / Maintenance CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 139 Training Contents From Ore / Scrap To VD – Plant Plant Overview / Plant Layout Metallurgy March Of Steel Temperature Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Suction Line System Condenser Waste Gas Measurement Vacuum Vessel Vacuum Cover Water Cooled Ladle Cover Vacuum Alloying Hopper Cover Lifting and Travelling Device Ladle Stirring Equipment / Furnace Camera Hydraulic System Temperature And Sampling Lance PIPING : Valves, Fittings, Hoses, Etc. Field Instruments CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 140 70
  • 71. 05.01.2010 Waste Gas Measurement Failure / Malfunction / Maintenance Cabinet of Waste Gas Analyser CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 141 Waste Gas Measurement Failure / Malfunction / Maintenance Waste gas composition – VD process CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 142 71
  • 72. 05.01.2010 Waste Gas Measurement Failure / Malfunction / Maintenance Waste gas composition – VD/VCD process CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 143 Training Contents From Ore / Scrap To VD – Plant Plant Overview / Plant Layout Metallurgy March Of Steel Temperature Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Suction Line System Condenser Waste Gas Measurement Vacuum Vessel Vacuum Cover Water Cooled Ladle Cover Vacuum Alloying Hopper Cover Lifting and Travelling Device Ladle Stirring Equipment / Furnace Camera Hydraulic System Temperature And Sampling Lance PIPING : Valves, Fittings, Hoses, Etc. Field Instruments CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 144 72
  • 73. 05.01.2010 Vacuum Vessel Failure / Malfunction / Maintenance Clean vessel inside depending on accumulated slag and dust inside ! Minimum once per week. CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 145 Vacuum Vessel Failure / Malfunction / Maintenance Failure / malfunction Reason Countermeasures Vacuum cannot be established Leakage at the sealing ring Clean the sealing flange or exchange the sealing Stirring system does not work a) Damage to the hoses a) Exchange the hoses b) Damage to the quick couplings b) Exchange the quick coupling c) Porous plugs are stuck c) See “Ladle stirring equipment” d) Malfunction at the argon/nitrogen valve d) See “Valves/Argon Rack/Nitrogen Rack” CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 146 73
  • 74. 05.01.2010 Vacuum Vessel Failure / Malfunction / Maintenance CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 147 Vacuum Vessel Failure / Malfunction / Maintenance Equipment that needs Once per Daily Weekly Monthly Yearly maintenance; cleansing half-year Sealing Flange X Sealing Ring X Water Cooled Channel X Ladle Support X Thermocouples X Bolts X Refractory X Argon hoses/quick coupling/ pipework X Vessel X CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 148 74
  • 75. 05.01.2010 Vacuum Vessel Failure / Malfunction / Maintenance Check : wiring, screws, for damage CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 149 Training Contents From Ore / Scrap To VD – Plant Plant Overview / Plant Layout Metallurgy March Of Steel Temperature Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Suction Line System Condenser Waste Gas Measurement Vacuum Vessel Vacuum Cover Water Cooled Ladle Cover Vacuum Alloying Hopper Cover Lifting and Travelling Device Ladle Stirring Equipment / Furnace Camera Hydraulic System Temperature And Sampling Lance PIPING : Valves, Fittings, Hoses, Etc. Field Instruments CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 150 75
  • 76. 05.01.2010 Vacuum Cover Failure / Malfunction / Maintenance The cover requires refractory lining with monolithic castable installation. The refractory lining can be repaired by warm or hot spraying also in operating state. The binders must be composed such that the material. CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 151 Vacuum Cover Failure / Malfunction / Maintenance CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 152 76
  • 77. 05.01.2010 Vacuum Cover Failure / Malfunction / Maintenance Equipment that needs Once per Daily Weekly Monthly Yearly maintenance half-year leaning the cover, sweep off X Checking the cooling water X channels for leakage Checking the cover sealing for X X leakage CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 153 Vacuum Cover Failure / Malfunction / Maintenance Failure / malfunction Reason Countermeasures Cover cannot be raised/lowered A) Problems with hydraulic lifting A) Refer to “Hydraulic System A)” equipment B) Refer to “Hydraulic System C)” B) Cover and ladle stick together due to slag and steel splashes C) Flood cover by air C) Cover still under vacuum (pressure < 950 mbar) Cooling water not available A) Fittings do not respond A) Refer to “Piping: Valves, Fittings, Hoses, etc.“ B) Water supply interrupted B) Look for problem in water supply Vacuum cannot be established A) Glasses of sight glass device A) Replace immediately, damaged Refer to Annex “Glasses for Sight Glass Device” CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 154 77
  • 78. 05.01.2010 Training Contents From Ore / Scrap To VD – Plant Plant Overview / Plant Layout Metallurgy March Of Steel Temperature Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Suction Line System Condenser Waste Gas Measurement Vacuum Vessel Vacuum Cover Water Cooled Ladle Cover Vacuum Alloying Hopper Cover Lifting and Travelling Device Ladle Stirring Equipment / Furnace Camera Hydraulic System Temperature And Sampling Lance PIPING : Valves, Fittings, Hoses, Etc. Field Instruments CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 155 Water Cooled Ladle Cover Failure / Malfunction / Maintenance Cover Water cooled ladle cover CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 156 78
  • 79. 05.01.2010 Water Cooled Ladle Cover Failure / Malfunction / Maintenance CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 157 Water Cooled Ladle Cover Failure / Malfunction / Maintenance Equipment that needs Once per Daily Weekly Monthly Yearly maintenance half-year Search leak X Remove deposits (slag, dust, etc.) from top of inner shieldings X X Check hoses for leakage and damage X CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 158 79
  • 80. 05.01.2010 Water Cooled Ladle Cover Failure / Malfunction / Maintenance Behandlungsverlauf Behandlungsverlauf [min] [min] March Of Temperature 50,00 50,00 During Treatment 40,00 40,00 outlet temperature 30,00 30,00 Temperatur °C Temperatur °C Ausgangstemperatur Ausgangstemperatur [°C] [°C] T T (inlet temp. = 17 °C) 20,00 20,00 10,00 10,00 T 0,00 0,00 10:59:33 11:03:44 11:09:45 11:13:26 11:22:28 11:34:11 11:39:52 11:51:34 10:14:16 10:18:26 10:24:28 10:27:38 10:30:29 10:47:52 11:01:15 11:09:27 Zeit in Minuten Ze it in Minuten CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 159 Water Cooled Ladle Cover Failure / Malfunction / Maintenance Water cooled ladle cover CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 160 80
  • 81. 05.01.2010 Water Cooled Ladle Cover Failure / Malfunction / Maintenance Failure / malfunction Reason Countermeasures Loss of pressure Leakage - Break off the process - Replace water cooled ladle cover and repair No cooling water flowing A) Fittings do not respond A) Refer to “Valves/Argon-Nitrogen Rack“ B) Water supply interrupted B) Look for problem in water supply Water temperature too high A) Flow of water too low A) Look for problem in water supply (water too hot) B) Water supply interrupted B) Check if fittings are opened CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 161 Water Cooled Ladle Cover Alternative: Partially Refractory Lined Ladle Cover CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 162 81
  • 82. 05.01.2010 Training Contents From Ore / Scrap To VD – Plant Plant Overview / Plant Layout Metallurgy March Of Steel Temperature Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Suction Line System Condenser Waste Gas Measurement Vacuum Vessel Vacuum Cover Water Cooled Ladle Cover Vacuum Alloying Hopper Cover Lifting and Travelling Device Ladle Stirring Equipment / Furnace Camera Hydraulic System Temperature And Sampling Lance PIPING : Valves, Fittings, Hoses, Etc. Field Instruments CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 163 Vacuum Alloying Hopper Failure / Malfunction / Maintenance CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 164 82
  • 83. 05.01.2010 Vacuum Alloying Hopper Failure / Malfunction / Maintenance CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 165 Vacuum Alloying Hopper Failure / Malfunction Failure / malfunction Reason Countermeasures Hoppers cannot be loaded Problems with alloying equipment Look for problem in alloying equipment Hoppers cannot be unloaded A) Compressed air supply to pneumatic A) Make sure compressed air is provided to cylinders interrupted pneumatic cylinders B) Pneumatic cylinders faulty B) Replace cylinders Hoppers cannot be evacuated A) Fittings leaky A) Refer to “Valves/Argon-Nitrogen Rack“ B) Leakage B) Search leak Hoppers cannot be flooded A) Compressed air supply to valves A) Make sure compressed air is provided to interrupted pneumatic cylinders B) valves faulty B) Replace valves CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 166 83
  • 84. 05.01.2010 Vacuum Alloying Hopper Maintenance Equipment that needs Once per Daily Weekly Monthly Yearly maintenance half-year Search leak X Replace sealing of shut off device X CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 167 Training Contents From Ore / Scrap To VD – Plant Plant Overview / Plant Layout Metallurgy March Of Steel Temperature Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Suction Line System Condenser Waste Gas Measurement Vacuum Vessel Vacuum Cover Water Cooled Ladle Cover Vacuum Alloying Hopper Cover Lifting and Travelling Device Ladle Stirring Equipment / Furnace Camera Hydraulic System Temperature And Sampling Lance PIPING : Valves, Fittings, Hoses, Etc. Field Instruments CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 168 84
  • 85. 05.01.2010 Cover Lifting and Travelling Device Failure / Malfunction / Maintenance CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 169 Cover Lifting and Travelling Device Failure / Malfunction / Maintenance Failure / malfunction Reason Countermeasures Cover travelling device A) Limit switches are not made A) Check limit switches cannot be moved Interlock is not released => replace/repair B) Problems with the geared brake B) Refer to Annex 11.1.4 A motors Car overruns the halts A) limit switch out of order A) check limit switches => repair/exchange them B) braking torque not sufficient B) Refer to Annex 11.1.4 A Equipment that needs Once per Daily Weekly Monthly Yearly maintenance half-year Check the tread of the wheels for X wear Check the rails for abrasion and X wear Check the rail mounting X Lubricate bearings of the wheel X CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 170 85
  • 86. 05.01.2010 Cover Lifting and Travelling Device Lubrication CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 171 Training Contents From Ore / Scrap To VD – Plant Plant Overview / Plant Layout Metallurgy March Of Steel Temperature Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Suction Line System Condenser Waste Gas Measurement Vacuum Vessel Vacuum Cover Water Cooled Ladle Cover Vacuum Alloying Hopper Cover Lifting and Travelling Device Ladle Stirring Equipment / Furnace Camera Hydraulic System Temperature And Sampling Lance PIPING : Valves, Fittings, Hoses, Etc. Field Instruments CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 172 86
  • 87. 05.01.2010 Ladle Stirring Equipment / Furnace Camera Mechanism Of Degassing Of Dissolved Gases Mechanism Of Degassing Of Dissolved Gases The following mechanism can be mentioned: • heterogeneous nucleation; gas bubbles arise at solid interfacials; for instance at the refractory material (negligible for the steel making process) • homogeneous nucleation; gas bubbles arise in the liquid steel (negligible for the steel making process) • degassing via circulation gas CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 173 Ladle Stirring Equipment / Furnace Camera Mechanism Of Degassing Of Dissolved Gases Mass transfer inside liquid steel can be influenced by the pressure above the melting charge, ratio of surface/volume and time. Prolongation of treatment time causes a higher temperature loss by heat radiation and heat conduction. Thus creating higher costs resulting from the measurements to compensate the temperature loss (for instance aluminothermic heating). => Depending on the final pressure inside the vacuum vessel the major interest is focused on a high ratio of specific surface/volume and creating at the same time an intensive bath circulation in order to achieve a high number of mass-transfer coefficient. CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 174 87
  • 88. 05.01.2010 Ladle Stirring Equipment / Furnace Camera Mechanism Of Degassing Of Dissolved Gases An enlargement of the degassing surface is created by boiling. This boiling comes from CO origination and by flushing with argon/nitrogen bubbling. The degassing surface consist of the accumulation of the bath surface and the surface of all gas bubbles. CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 175 Ladle Stirring Equipment / Furnace Camera Types Of Ladle Stirring Plugs CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 176 88
  • 89. 05.01.2010 Ladle Stirring Equipment / Furnace Camera Argon / Nitrogen Valve Rack CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 177 Ladle Stirring Equipment / Furnace Camera Argon / Nitrogen Valve Rack Argon/Nitrogen Valve Racks • Operated Via LEVEL 1 / HMI HMI = Human Being – Machine - Interface MMI = Man – Machine - Interface CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 178 89
  • 90. 05.01.2010 Ladle Stirring Equipment / Furnace Camera Quick Coupling And Corrugated Hose Alternative quick coupling CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 179 Ladle Stirring Equipment / Furnace Camera Failure / Malfunction Failure / malfunction Reason Countermeasures Flushing does not work on all 1. Hose/coupling leaky 1. Replace hose/coupling plugs 2. Ladle flushing plug obstructed 2. Flush plug by higher pressure (by-pass) Plug cannot be flushed open 1. Infiltration of metal bath a) 2 flushing plugs still working: Process can be continued b) only 1 flushing plug is working; abort process Valves do not close/open 1. Control air not available 1. make control air available 2. Energy supply interrupted 2. make energy supply available 3. Others 3. we refer to “Valves/Argon/Nitrogen Rack” Quick coupling cannot be 1. Coupling damaged 1. exchange coupling opened/closed 2. Coupling gripes 2. we refer to “Vacuum Vessel Equipment CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 180 90
  • 91. 05.01.2010 Ladle Stirring Equipment / Furnace Camera Maintenance Equipment that needs Once per Daily Weekly Monthly Yearly maintenance half-year Check for leakage X Check paint for damage X Check screwed connections for tightness and presence of safety X screws Check hoses / quick couplings X Check functionality of valves X CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 181 Ladle Stirring Equipment / Furnace Camera Stirring Observation Device CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 182 91
  • 92. 05.01.2010 Ladle Stirring Equipment / Furnace Camera Stirring Observation Device Sight Glass Device Smoke: disappears at a pressure < 80 mbar CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 183 Training Contents From Ore / Scrap To VD – Plant Plant Overview / Plant Layout Metallurgy March Of Steel Temperature Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Suction Line System Condenser Waste Gas Measurement Vacuum Vessel Vacuum Cover Water Cooled Ladle Cover Vacuum Alloying Hopper Cover Lifting and Travelling Device Ladle Stirring Equipment / Furnace Camera Hydraulic System Temperature And Sampling Lance PIPING : Valves, Fittings, Hoses, Etc. Field Instruments CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 184 92
  • 93. 05.01.2010 Hydraulic System Hydraulic System For Cover Lifting And Travelling Moving CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 185 Training Contents From Ore / Scrap To VD – Plant Plant Overview / Plant Layout Metallurgy March Of Steel Temperature Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Suction Line System Condenser Waste Gas Measurement Vacuum Vessel Vacuum Cover Water Cooled Ladle Cover Vacuum Alloying Hopper Cover Lifting and Travelling Device Ladle Stirring Equipment / Furnace Camera Hydraulic System Temperature And Sampling Lance PIPING : Valves, Fittings, Hoses, Etc. Field Instruments CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 186 93
  • 94. 05.01.2010 Temperature And Sampling Lance T & S – Lance CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 187 Temperature And Sampling Lance T & S – Lance CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 188 94
  • 95. 05.01.2010 Temperature And Sampling Lance T & S – Lance CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 189 Training Contents From Ore / Scrap To VD – Plant Plant Overview / Plant Layout Metallurgy March Of Steel Temperature Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Suction Line System Condenser Waste Gas Measurement Vacuum Vessel Vacuum Cover Water Cooled Ladle Cover Vacuum Alloying Hopper Cover Lifting and Travelling Device Ladle Stirring Equipment / Furnace Camera Hydraulic System Temperature And Sampling Lance PIPING : Valves, Fittings, Hoses, Etc. Field Instruments CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 190 95
  • 96. 05.01.2010 PIPING : Valves, Fittings, Hoses, Etc. Standards, Special Valves, etc. CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 191 PIPING : Valves, Fittings, Hoses, Etc. Standards, Special Valves, etc. CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 192 96
  • 97. 05.01.2010 PIPING : Valves, Fittings, Hoses, Etc. Standards, Special Valves, etc. CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 193 PIPING : Valves, Fittings, Hoses, Etc. Standards, Special Valves, etc. CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 194 97
  • 98. 05.01.2010 Training Contents From Ore / Scrap To VD – Plant Plant Overview / Plant Layout Metallurgy March Of Steel Temperature Special Risks / Hazards & Countermeasures Steam Ejector Vacuum Pump Suction Line System Condenser Waste Gas Measurement Vacuum Vessel Vacuum Cover Water Cooled Ladle Cover Vacuum Alloying Hopper Cover Lifting and Travelling Device Ladle Stirring Equipment / Furnace Camera Hydraulic System Temperature And Sampling Lance PIPING : Valves, Fittings, Hoses, Etc. Field Instruments CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 195 Field Instruments CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 196 98
  • 99. 05.01.2010 Thank You For Listening CVS MAKINA - VD CLASSROOM TRAINING 197 99