Biofuels analysis from Metrohm
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Biofuels analysis from Metrohm

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We offer you state-of-the-art instrumentation helping you to check and improve the quality of biofuels and corresponding blends as well as to comply with the standards – in your laboratory but also ...

We offer you state-of-the-art instrumentation helping you to check and improve the quality of biofuels and corresponding blends as well as to comply with the standards – in your laboratory but also atline and online in the process environment

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    Biofuels analysis from Metrohm Biofuels analysis from Metrohm Document Transcript

    • Biofuel analysisQuality assurance of biofuels
    • 02 Metrohm ... • is the global market leader in titration • is the only company to offer a complete range of ion analysis equipment – titration, voltammetry, and ion chromatography • is a Swiss company and manufactures exclusively in Switzerland • grants a 3-year instrument warranty and a 10-year warranty on chemical suppressors for ion chromatography • provides you with unparalleled application expertise • offers you more than 1300 applications free of charge • supports you with expert service through local representatives and regional support centers • is not listed on the stock exchange, but is owned by a foundation • gives the interest of customers and employees priority over maximizing profit
    • Metrohm – customized analysis for the biofuel industryA demanding industrySustainable use of biofuels requires reliable and precise You can count on our support Not only do we provide you with the right instrumenta- 03analytical methods throughout – from the choice of raw tion but with complete solutions for the particular task atmaterials through to process optimization and on to the hand. Your partners at Metrohm are experienced profes-compliant final product. sionals who help you with customized application sup- port and service.As a leading manufacturer of instruments for chemicalanalysis, we are quite aware of these challenges. We On the following pages, discover the solutions Metrohmoffer you state-of-the-art instrumentation helping you to offers the biofuel industry in general and you in particu-check and improve the quality of biofuels and corre- lar, to ensure the quality and safety of your products.sponding blends as well as to comply with the standards– in your laboratory but also atline and online in theprocess environment.
    • Quality assurance of biofuels04 Keen interest in biofuels Interest in biofuels has greatly increased in recent years. High quality standards Too much water and the presence of alkali metal or alka- The reasons are the diminishing reserves of crude oil and line earth metal ions as well as sulfate and chloride ions the simultaneous increasing demand for mineral oil as have a negative effect on the fuel quality and can dam- well as the environmental problems linked with burning age the fuel system of the vehicle. With biofuels based fossil fuels. In addition to a neutral CO2 balance, biogenic on fatty acids, there is an increased risk of polymerization fuels are generally characterized by their very good mi- at higher temperatures in the absence of antioxidants or crobiological degradability, which is why they are suitable in the presence of nonferrous metals. With the aim of for use in ecologically sensitive areas. Furthermore, alter- avoiding these problems, the manufacturers of biofuels native fuels can usually be produced locally and thereby and motor vehicles have developed quality standards in reduce dependence on imported raw materials. which testing methods and quality parameters for bio- fuels are defined. Biodiesel and bioethanol production Biodiesel is usually produced from vegetable oils or ani- A substantial number of the test methods that are stipu- mal fats. In an acid-, base-, or enzyme-catalyzed reaction, lated in international standards can be carried out with the triglycerides of the oil or fat are transesterified with Metrohm instruments and Metrohm application methods. methanol to form fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), which are also known generally as biodiesel. By contrast, bioethanol is made from products that con- tain sugar or starch. Microbial fermentation of the sugar within the biomass with the help of yeast cultures is a technology that is well-established and widely used com- mercially. A great hope for the future is cellulosic ethanol made from lignocellulose-containing waste materials, which has so far only been produced in pilot plants. Cel- lulosic ethanol is characterized by an especially favorable carbon footprint.
    • Selected standards from the field of biofuel analysisMinimum requirements and test methodsTo ensure the quality of (bio)fuels, there are standards in prescribed test methods listed below to check the limits. 05place that set minimum requirements in the form of lim- If an alternative test method is indicated for monitoringits for impurities and the test methods to be used. the limits, this is shown by the «√» symbol.Metrohm instruments are highly suitable to carry out theBiodieselBiodiesel is sold as a pure fuel and in blends with fossil minimum requirements for biodiesel used as heating oil.fuels. The minimum requirements are set out in the spe- EN 590 applies to diesel fuels that contain up to 7% bio-cifications EN 14214 (pure fuel and blend stock) and diesel and ASTM D 7467 applies to those that containASTM D 6751 (only blend stock). EN 14213 describes the between 6 and 20% biodiesel. Requirements and test methods EN 14214 ASTM D 6751 EN 590 Test method Method EN 14213 ASTM D 7467 Page Acid number Titration EN 14104 ASTM D 664 – 7 Iodine number Titration EN 14111 – – Water content KFTcoulometric EN ISO 12937 √ EN ISO 12937 10 EN 15751 EN 15751 Oxidation stability Oxidation stability EN 15751a 12 (EN 14112) (EN 14112) Free and total glycerol content Ion chromatography √ ASTM D XXXXb – 14 Alkali metal and alkaline earth metal content Ion chromatography √ √ – 15 Antioxidant content Ion chromatography recommended recommended recommended 15 Sulfur content CIC √ √ √ 18KFT = Karl Fischer Titration, CIC = Combustion ion chromatographya Applies to pure biodiesel and blends that contain at least 2% (v/v) biodieselb Test method is currently being validated in a round robin test and is only referenced in ASTM D 6751BioethanolThe minimum requirements for bioethanol as a blend com- and ASTM D 4806. ASTM D 5798 relates to ethanol-gaso-ponent in gasoline are documented in standards EN 15376 line blends E75-E85. Requirements and test methods ASTM D 4806 EN 15376 Test method Method ASTM D 5798 Page pHe value pHe value EN 15490 ASTM D 6423 6 Conductivity Conductivity DIN 51627-4 – Total acid number and acidity Titration EN 15491 ASTM D 1613 Inorganic chloride content Titration EN 15484 ASTM D 512 8 Total inorganic sulfate content Titration – ASTM D 7318 KFTcoulometric EN 15489 ASTM E 1064 Water content 11 KFTvolumetric – ASTM E 203 ASTM D 7319 Inorganic chloride content Ion chromatography EN 15492 16 ASTM D 7328 Total and potential inorganic ASTM D 7319 Ion chromatography EN 15492 16 sulfate content ASTM D 7328 Sulfur content CIC √ √ 18 Copper content Voltammetry √ √ 20KFT = Karl Fischer Titration, CIC = Combustion ion chromatography
    • pHe value and conductivity measurement06 Bioethanol pHe value Conductivity A combined pH glass electrode with ground-joint dia- Electrical conductivity is an important analytical sum phragm is recommended for measuring the pH value in parameter for detecting and monitoring corrosive organic solvents. Because pHe determination according ionic constituents in ethanol and ethanol fuel. to ASTM D 6423 and EN 15490 is time-controlled, it is Because of the considerably lower conductivity essential that the sensor has a rapid response time. The in nonaqueous systems, very sensitive meas- EtOH-Trode with a special membrane glass and the very uring systems are required. The stainless- precise fixed ground-joint diaphragm is particularly suit- steel conductivity measuring cell able for measuring the pHe values of biofuels. The double- (6.0916.040) with Pt 1000 temperature junction system allows the free choice of the electrolyte sensor, in conjunction with the flexible (e.g., 3 mol/L KCl in ASTM D 6423 and 1 mol/L LiCl in EN 856 Conductivity Module, is ideally 15490). The pH meter used for the measurement should suited for this application in accor- possess the following GLP functions, among others: dance with DIN 51627-4. • Three-point calibration with automatic buffer recognition • Temperature compensation • Calibration data monitoring • Automatic measured value recording • Result memory with identification The pH meter 827 pH lab for laboratory use and the handy, battery-operated 826 pH mobile offer all these functions with extremely comfortable operation. The electrode for measuring pHe values in ethanol The laboratory pH meter 827 pH lab
    • 07TitrationBiodieselAcid number Iodine numberThe acid number is a sum parameter for all acidic com- The iodine number is a measure for the number of doubleponents; at the same time it is a measure for the long-term bonds in a sample. It is the amount of iodine (in g/100 gstability and corrosiveness of the biofuel. The smaller the sample) that can be added to the sample under the givenvalue, the higher the quality. Standard EN 14104 stipu- conditions. The determination of the iodine number inlates a nonaqueous potentiometric acid-base titration for fatty acids or biodiesel is covered by European standarddetermining the acid number. This involves dissolving the EN 14111.sample in a bioethanol-diethyl ether mixture and titrat-ing it with potassium hydroxide dissolved in 2-propanol An aliquot of the fatty acid or biodiesel sample is dis-(0.1 mol/L). solved in a mixture of cyclohexane and glacial acetic acid and treated with Wijs reagent. After a defined time hasAs organic solvents are used, the manual working steps elapsed, potassium iodide and water are added. The re-should be reduced to a minimum. With its space-saving leased elemental iodine is then titrated with sodium thio-Dosino technology, the Titrando allows fully automatic sulfate solution. EN 14111 allows both optical (withand safe solvent addition. The Solvotrode, an excellently starch solution as the indicator) and potentiometric end-shielded combined pH glass electrode, has been specially point determination.developed for nonaqueous titrations. The separable ground-joint diaphragm guarantees stable potentials and is easyto clean.
    • 08 Bioethanol Chloride content Sulfate content The chloride content in bioethanol fuels is the subject of A proven method for sulfate determination according to ASTM D 512. Quantitation can be carried out by mercu- ASTM D 7318 is potentiometric titration with lead nitrate rimetric or argentometric titration or by direct determina- using a Pb-selective electrode. The pH value of the sample tion with a Cl-selective electrode. Argentometric titration is adjusted to pH 3...5 with perchloric acid and the sul- (with silver nitrate) is the method of choice because of its fate is then precipitated out with lead nitrate solution. environmental advantages and very high precision. A The Pb-selective electrode detects the first excess of lead defined volume of the sample is pipetted into the titra- ions at the equivalence point. tion cell, treated with 5 mL nitric acid (2 mol/L), and then titrated against silver nitrate solution (0.01 mol/L). Accor- dingly, EN 15484 in EN 15376 describes the potentiometric titration of inorganic chlorides with a 0.1 mol/L solution of silver nitrate after dissolving the evaporation residue in deionized water. Acidity and total acid number Standards ASTM D 4806, ASTM D 5798, and EN 15376 set out the maximum permissible acid content in bioeth- anol. The two test methods stipulated therein (ASTM D 1613, EN 15491) specify acid-base titration with visual indicator endpoint detection.
    • The Titrando – the allrounder for potentiometric titrationThe wide range of potentiometric applications for bio-fuels requires a highly flexible titrator. No other titration • The space-saving Dosino technology with numerous liquid handling functions simplifies sample preparation 09system offers more flexibility and ease of use than the and allows automatic preparation and emptying ofTitrando. burets without operator intervention – it is no longer necessary to handle organic solvents.• With Touch Control or tiamoTM – titration and more • Intelligent dosing units and electrodes eliminate confu- – operation is perfectly easy. sion. Extensive GLP functions guarantee safe and error- free work. • The Titrando is unbelievably flexible – it covers the whole range from a simple stand-alone titrator up to a fully automatic titration system with sample changer, direct balance connection and barcode reader. The Titrando offers maximum flexibility and operating comfort.
    • Water determination according to Karl Fischer10 The presence of water in biofuels reduces their calorific value and increases the corrosion rate. Coulometer and Titrando The 756 and 831 KF Coulometers as well as the 851 and 852 Titrando from Metrohm easily meet all the specifica- Biodiesel tions stipulated in the standard and are outstandingly Water as a contaminant suitable for this application. In most cases, the sample can Water hydrolyzes the ester bonds of fatty acid methyl be injected directly into the reaction solution. To improve esters, leading to the formation of fatty acids. Consuming the solubility of the samples, xylene (dimethylbenzene) is additional NaOH, these acids form soaps, which make the added to the KF reagent. subsequent removal of glycerol more difficult. Biodiesel with a high water content has a clearly lower oxidation Karl Fischer oven method stability. The lower the latter, the greater the probability Some biodiesel fuels contain additives that could partici- that oxidation products will be formed during a longer pate in side reactions during the direct coulometric Karl storage period. These could damage the engine, in parti- Fischer titration. In such cases, Metrohm recommends cular the fuel injection system, by forming deposits. that the biodiesel sample is not injected directly into the reaction solution. Instead, the water contained in the Maximum permissible water content biodiesel should be driven off in a Karl Fischer oven. The To avoid the drawbacks mentioned above, EN 14214 860 KF Thermoprep is suitable for this. The water is driven limits the water content of biodiesel to 500 mg/kg. Test off at 120 °C and transported to the titration cell of the method EN ISO 12937 «Petroleum products – Determina- KF Coulometer in a stream of carrier gas (dry air or inert tion of water – Coulometric Karl Fischer titration method» gas). This process can be completely automated with the specified in EN 14214 describes the coulometric Karl 874 USB Oven Sample Processor. Fischer titration for determining the water content. 874 USB Oven Sample Processor with 851 Titrando for the 852 Titrando with coulometric and volumetric titration cell for automatic determination of the water content in samples determining trace amounts of water containing oil. Side reactions and contamination of the KF coulometer cell are avoided.
    • 11BioethanolGasoline-alcohol blendsBioethanol is mixed with gasoline in various ratios toreduce both the demand for gasoline and environmentalpollution. The gasoline-alcohol blend is known in the USAas gasohol and in Brazil as Gasolina Tipo C. In the USA,the mixtures E10 and E85, which contain 10 and 85%bioethanol respectively, are widespread. In Brazil, the bio-ethanol content of most blends lies between 21 and 23%.Test methodsThe ASTM E 1064 «Standard Test Method for Water inOrganic Liquids by Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration»and EN 15489 standards describe the coulometric KarlFischer titration for determining the water content. For awater content > 2%, the recommended test method isvolumetric titration as per ASTM E 203. The volumetricKF titrators from Metrohm meet all the specificationsrequired by the standards and are therefore extremelysuitable for this application. 901 Titrando with 900 Touch Control and 803 Ti Stand
    • Oxidation stability12 Biodiesel Fatty acid methyl esters are produced from a vegetable Measuring principle To determine the oxidation stability with the Rancimat oil, usually obtained from oil seed, by transesterification method, air is passed through the sample at an elevated with methanol. Both feedstock and biodiesel have a rela- temperature to cause artificial aging. During this process tively short storage life as they are slowly oxidized by long-chain organic molecules are oxidized by oxygen, atmospheric oxygen. The resulting oxidation products can whereby highly volatile organic substances form besides damage vehicle engines. For this reason, the oxidation insoluble polymer compounds. The former are driven out stability is an important quality criterion for biodiesel and by a stream of air, absorbed in water, and detected there vegetable oils and must therefore be checked regularly by measuring the conductivity. The time until these de- during manufacture and storage. composition products form is referred to as the induction time or the Oil Stability Index (OSI) and characterizes the International quality standards resistance of the sample to oxidative aging processes, The oxidation stability of fatty acid methyl esters is that is, the oxidation stability. included as an essential parameter in many standards, as indicated in the table on page 5. They define the mini- 873 Biodiesel Rancimat mum quality requirements of biodiesel that is sold as a The 873 Biodiesel Rancimat is a modern, PC-controlled fuel or heating oil. instrument that allows the simple and reliable determina- tion of oxidation stability in biodiesel and biodiesel blends. Up to eight samples can be measured simultane- ously. The effectiveness of antioxidants can also be deter- mined with the 873 Biodiesel Rancimat. The 873 Biodiesel Rancimat allows oxidation stability to be determined in accordance with numerous international standards.
    • Reaction vesselDisposable reaction vessels reduce the cleaning expenditurefor accessories to an absolute minimum. This saves bothtime and costs. In addition, the accuracy and precision ofthe measurements is significantly improved. The part pro-jecting from the measuring block acts as a condenser andreduces distillation losses.Cover with built-in conductivity cellThe conductivity electrode is built into the measuring cellcover. Fragile glass conductivity electrodes belong to thepast. The built-in conductivity cell makes tedious cablingunnecessary. The measuring cell is extremely robust andeasy to clean, which simplifies handling even more.Software functionsAll the functions of the third Rancimat generation are con-trolled by the Rancimat software, which is clearly laid out inonly a few windows. Operation is intuitive and thereforeextremely user-friendly. With automatic data acquisitionand evaluation as well as a measurement database, theRancimat software permits the straightforward manage-ment of large amounts of data.
    • Ion chromatography14 State-of-the-art ion chromatography (IC) permits the efficient separation and determination of inorganic and (monoglycerides and diglycerides) as by-products after transesterification of the triglycerides. Incomplete trans- low-molecular weight organic anions and cations. Diffe- esterification and/or separation of glycerol causes glycerol rent separation mechanisms and detection types as well contamination in the biodiesel, which speeds up fuel as the possibility of automation and sample preparation aging and leads to deposits in the engine and blocked render IC a versatile analytical technique for the biofuel filters. To ensure engines operate properly, the American and petrochemical industry. ASTM D 6751 and the European EN 14214 limit the maximum total glycerol content (i.e., free and bound Biodiesel glycerol) to 0.24 and 0.25% (v/v), respectively. Free and Glycerol bound glycerol is determined by ion chromatography The production of biodiesel from vegetable oils and animal and subsequent pulsed amperometric detection in fats leads to the formation of free and bound glycerol accordance with a currently validated ASTM test method. 5 glycerol; 10.0 mg/L 4 Current [µA] 3 2 Glycerol determination using pulsed amperometric detection; 1 column: Metrosep Carb 1 - 150/4.0; eluent: 100 mmol/L NaOH, 1 mL/min; column temperature: 35 °C, sample volume: 20 μL; 0 PAD parameters (gold working electrode): E1/t1 = +50 mV/ 0 1 2 3 4 5 400 ms, E2/t2 = +750 mV/200 ms, E3/t3 = –150 mV/400 ms, Time [min] measuring time: 100 ms, measuring range: 5 μA
    • Alkali metals and alkaline earth metalsWhereas sodium and potassium contaminants stem from Antioxidants The oxidation stability of fatty acids and of the fatty acid 15the hydroxides used in transesterification, calcium and methyl esters synthesized from them can be significantlymagnesium impurities result mainly from the use of the improved by adding antioxidants. Biodiesel based onwater employed in biodiesel washing to extract water- rapeseed oil already contains a natural protection againstsoluble foreign substances such as methanol and glycer- oxidation – vitamin E (d-α-tocopherol). In addition, oneol. In higher concentrations, these metals cause operating of the Baynox® products, whose structures were inspiredproblems in the engine, which is why their concentration by that of vitamin E, is added to the biodiesel as a stabi-in the fuel is regulated by international specifications. lizer. Both antioxidants inhibit both oxidation to corrosiveBoth EN 14 214 and ASTM D 6751 allow a maximum acids and formation of insoluble polymers and thus pre-total concentration of 5 mg/kg for the two alkali metals vent the injection nozzles from being blocked. Antioxi-and the two alkaline earth metals, respectively. dants are determined in the course of quality control, especially for monitoring and assessing storage stability. The chromophores present in vitamin E and Baynox® allow sensitive spectrophotometric detection without prior post-column derivatization. 581.4 140 581.6 calcium; 4.7 mg/L 120 581.8 Baynox®; 48.7 mg/L Conductivity [µS/cm] 582.0 100 potassium; 1.4 mg/L Intensity [mV] magnesium; 0.7 mg/L 582.2 80 582.4 tocopherol; 4.8 mg/L sodium; 0.2 mg/L 582.6 60 582.8 40 583.0 583.2 20 583.4 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 19 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Time [min] Time [min]Alkali and alkaline earth metals in a biodiesel sample. The Biodiesel fuel spiked with 50 mg/L Baynox® and 5 mg/Lsamples are extracted with dilute nitric acid, dialyzed, and α-tocopherol. To improve solubility, dichloromethane is added tothen injected directly into the IC system. The complete sample the eluent and analyte solutions. Column: Prontosil 120-5-C18;preparation procedure and analysis takes place fully automati- eluent: 90% acetonitrile and 10% dichloromethane, 1.0 mL/cally. Column: Metrosep C 4 - 150/4.0; eluent: 2 mmol/L HNO3 min; column temperature: 35 °C; wavelength: 220 nm; samplewith 10% acetone, 0.9 mL/min; column temperature: 30 °C; volume: 10 μL; sample dilution 1:1000 (w/w)sample volume: 10 μL 881 Compact IC pro – Cation for fully automatic cation determination with Metrohm Inline Extraction and Inline Dialysis
    • 16 Bioethanol Chloride and sulfate Bioethanol is either used in pure form as a fuel or blend- In addition, there are also the ion chromatographic ed with fossil fuels. Contaminants in the form of inorga- methods described in ASTM D 7328 and EN 15492: be- nic chloride and sulfate salts are corrosive and lead to fore injection, the denatured ethanol sample is evapo- deposits and blockages in the fuel filter and injection rated to dryness and then diluted for injection with 1% nozzles. The international ethanol specifications EN 15376, solution of hydrogen peroxide (ASTM D 7328) or with ASTM D 4806, and ASTM D 5798 regulate the sulfate deionized water (EN 15492). and chloride content in bioethanol and in bioethanol fuel blends. denaturant: methyl ethyl ketone 10 chloride; 2.5 mg/L 9 According to ASTM D 7319, the total content of inorga- Conductivity [µS/cm] 8 nic chloride and sulfate is determined after direct injec- 7 tion of the ethanol sample and separation on an anion- 6 sulfate; 1.0 mg/L 5 exchange column by conductivity detection. If hydrogen 4 peroxide is previously added, sulfur-containing species 3 such as sulfites, sulfides, or thiosulfates can be oxidized 2 1 to form sulfate and are quantified as potential sulfate 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 content. The analytical system is extremely robust and Time [min] guarantees outstanding reproducibility and repeatability Chromatogram of a denatured ethanol sample spiked with even after 1500 determinations carried out in round 2.5 mg/L chloride and 1 mg/L sulfate; column: Metrosep A Supp robin tests. 5 - 150/4.0; eluent: 3.2 mmol/L Na2CO3, 1 mmol/L NaHCO3, 0.7 mL/min; column temperature: 35 °C; sample volume: 10 μL
    • Cellulosic ethanolCarbohydrates and organic acids 17Cellulosic ethanol is one of the second-generation biofu- ment before fermentation and then has to be convertedels and is produced in pilot plants from lignocellulose- into fermentable sugars using special enzymes. Fre-containing waste materials such as straw, wood, and quently, during pretreatment of the plant material, fer-bagasse. Compared with bioethanol made from starch mentation inhibitors appear in the form of carbohydratesand sugar cane, it has a considerably better carbon foot- and organic acids (e.g., gluconic acid), which kill theprint. Furthermore, the cheap raw materials needed to microorganisms used in the subsequent fermentation.produce it are not in competition with food production. Fast and sensitive ion chromatographic determination ofThe biomass, however, which is made up of complex organic acids and carbohydrates contributes substantiallysugars, needs to undergo chemical or thermal pretreat- to the optimization of the fermentation process.
    • 18 Fuel blends Sulfur content The burning of sulfur-containing fuels leads to the emis- the determination of the sulfur and halogen content in sion of air-polluting sulfur oxides into the atmosphere. combustible solid and liquid matrices by combining com- Furthermore, high sulfur concentrations have an adverse bustion digestion (pyrolysis) with subsequent ion chro- effect on the ease of ignition of fuels and their stability matography. It can be fully automated and excels in its during storage. A fast and reliable method for determin- high sample throughput and excellent precision and ing the sulfur content is required. Combustion IC allows accuracy. Sample Combustion Absorbent Analysis sulfur compounds SOX SO2-4 ion chromatography halogen compounds HX, X2 X- liquids or solids oven T > 900°C gas inlet sample introduction combustion absorption analysis by IC In combustion digestion (pyrolysis), sulfur compounds are converted into sulfur dioxide, and halogen compounds are converted into hydrogen halides and elemental halogens. These gaseous combustion products are fed into an oxidizing absorption solution and detected as sulfate and halide by way of the ion chromatography that follows.
    • 19Determination of the sulfur and chlorine content in a) B100 biodiesel sample and b) B5 biodiesel blend; column: Metrosep A Supp5 - 150/4.0; eluent: 3.2 mmol/L Na2CO3, 1.0 mmol/L NaHCO3, 0.7 mL/min; column temperature: 30 °C; sample volume: 100 μL,absorption solution: 30 mg/L H2O2, 1 mg/L phosphate as internal standard
    • Voltammetry20 Voltammetric trace analysis is used for determining elec- trochemically active substances. These can be inorganic Voltammetry is suitable in particular for laboratories in which, with a medium sample throughput, only a few or organic ions or even neutral organic compounds. Vol- parameters need to be controlled. It is often used for tammetry is often used for supplementing and validating specific applications that are either not feasible or too spectroscopic methods and is characterized by low costly using other techniques. equipment costs, comparably low investment and oper- ating costs, short analysis times, and an outstanding 797 VA Computrace accuracy and sensitivity. Unlike spectroscopic methods, The 797 VA Computrace is a modern voltammetric meas- voltammetry can also differentiate between different oxi- uring stand that allows voltammetric and polarographic dation states of metal ions or between free and bound determinations to be carried out. The analyses can also metal ions. This is referred to as speciation analysis. be easily automated by adding Dosinos and a sample changer. Broad application range Voltammetric measurements can be carried out both in aqueous solutions and in organic solvents. Heavy metal determinations are usually carried out in aqueous solu- tions after digestion of the sample.
    • 21BioethanolCopperEthanol is used increasingly in gasoline as a blendingcomponent. Contaminants can cause problems in theengine. For example, traces of copper catalyze the oxida-tion of hydrocarbons. As a consequence, polymer com-pounds can form that can lead to deposits and block-ages in the fuel system. Specifications EN 15376 andASTM D 4806 describe the minimum requirements forethanol that is blended with gasoline and allow a coppercontent of 100 μg/kg. By contrast, standard ASTM D5798 sets the copper content in ethanol-gasoline blendsE75-E85 at 70 μg/L. Using voltammetry, copper can bemeasured without any sample preparation in pure ethanolor ethanol-gasoline blends (E85, 85% ethanol and 15%gasoline) in the range between 2 and 500 μg/kg. Voltammetric determination of copper
    • Potentiostats and galvanostats22 Corrosion resistance in biofuels and biofuel blends The corrosion resistance of storage tanks, process pipe- Biodiesel shows a high corrosion potential Biodiesel has a higher electrical conductivity and is more work, and pipelines is an important material requirement hygroscopic than conventional diesel fuel. This means for the storage and transportation of fuels. The materials that, when stored for a long time, it absorbs more water, along which fuels are conveyed, especially, can suffer which in turn leads to hydrolysis of the ester bonds and considerable damage due to stress corrosion cracking thus to the formation of free fatty acids. The pH value (SCC) and microbially-induced corrosion (MIC). Whereas falls and the microbiological activity responsible for deg- the corrosion behavior occurring in relation to fossil fuels radation increases. With the biotic degradation reactions, has been adequately studied and documented – like, for the properties of the biodiesel also change; in particular, example, in ASTM D 7548 – systematic studies of biofuel the corrosion potential at the material-fuel interface in- corrosion are still lacking to a large extent. What is clear, creases. is that, owing to the various chemical and physical prop- erties, fossil fuels and biofuels differently influence the corrosion behavior at the interface between the material and fuel. Corrosion behavior is generally expressed in terms of the corrosion potential as a characteristic elec- trochemical value.
    • 23The material-fuel interfaceElectrochemical methods provide the possibility for de- that incorporates a large number of preprogrammedtermining the corrosion resistance of various materials in methods. For example, the corrosion processes takingfuels easily and conveniently. The Autolab PGSTAT100N place on the conducting material-fuel interface can bepotentiostat/galvanostat combined with the FRA2 Impe- determined effectively by linear polarization or electro-dance Analyzer Module is a powerful analytical system chemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).The Autolab PGSTAT100N – a potentiostat/galvanostat for electrochemical determinations (maximum 100 V compliance voltage) inmedia with low conductivity www.metrohm-autolab.com
    • Process analysis24 Customized process control In the biofuel industry, continuous control of the produc- Network integration The online analyzers from Metrohm Applikon are all tion process as well as the monitoring of the product equipped with possibilities for digital as well as analog quality and the composition of any waste streams is outputs. Results, for example, can be transferred via crucial. With the process analyzers of Metrohm Applikon, 4…20 mA outputs, whereas alarms can be transmitted this is possible 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. The analyz- via digital outputs. Digital inputs, in turn, can be used for ers are used directly on-site, as close as possible to the remote start-stop purposes. process, and run completely stand-alone without opera- tor intervention. Moreover, it does not make a difference Robust design whether a single parameter is to be determined in a sin- In many cases, the IP66-NEMA4 housing of the analyzers gle sample stream or several different parameters are to will be sufficient. In some cases in the biofuel industry, be determined in complex, multiple sample streams – the however, explosion-proof systems are required. For those Metrohm Applikon engineers provide you with the ap- circumstances, the ADI 2045Ti is available in a stainless- propriate online or atline analyzer. steel explosion-proof version for Zone I or Zone II accord- ing to the explosive atmosphere directives (ATEX). Proven wet-chemistry methods The Applikon analyzers are based on wet-chemical analysis techniques such as titration, colorimetry, or ion-selective electrode measurements. In online analysis, sampling and sample preconditioning are at least as important as the analyzer itself. Metrohm Applikon has a lot of expertise in this area and is capable of offering customized sampling systems, for example, for pressure reduction, filtering, and degassing. www.metrohm-applikon.com
    • Many of the analysis methods that are used in the labo-ratory can be transferred to an online analyzer. Typical 23applications are:Water contentPresence of too much water in the fuel reduces the calo-rific value, promotes corrosion, encourages bacterialgrowth, and increases the likelihood that oxidation prod-ucts will form. As in the laboratory, Karl Fischer titration,particularly coulometry, is the method of choice for theonline determination of the water content in any biofu- Cuvette for colorimetric determinationsels. Analyzers from Metrohm Applikon allow determina-tion in either one or more than one sample streams. by the penetration of water. FFA determination is also used in initial checking of the vegetable oils used in trans- esterification. Determination is carried out in the ADI 2045Ti analyzer using colorimetric titration or, if there is severe turbidity, potentiometric titration. Total phosphate content Phosphate contamination in biodiesel results from the phospholipids that occur ubiquitously in vegetable oils and from the phosphoric acid added during the produc- tion process. After UV digestion in the presence of sulfu- ric acid, the resulting orthophosphate is determined col- orimetrically. The combination of digestion and colori- metric determination is only possible in the ADI 2045Ti analyzer.ADI 2045Ti Analyzer for coulometric determination of watercontent according to Karl FischerPotassiumPotassium residues in biodiesel result from the catalystand lead to deposits in the fuel injection system. They aredetermined with ion-selective electrodes. Depending onthe required limit of detection, the determination can becarried out either with an ALERT analyzer or with the ADI2018 analyzer, which is equipped with high-precisionpiston burets and is therefore more precise.Free fatty acids (FFA)An excessively high proportion of free fatty acids pro-motes corrosion and, together with the catalyst, leads tosoap formation. In addition, a rising concentration offree fatty acids in the biodiesel is usually a sign of thehydrolysis of the fatty acid methyl esters that is initiated ADI 2045Ti analyzer for determining the total phosphate content
    • 26 Service you can rely on – Metrohm Quality Service Reliable results for the lifetime of your analytical Metrohm Compliance Service instruments Benefit from the Metrohm Compliance Service when it Chemical analysis accompanies the biofuel industry from comes to the professional Initial Qualification of your the choice of raw materials, through specification-com- analytical instruments. Initial Qualification/Operational Qua- pliant production, and on to end product quality control. lification carried out by our experts saves you time and Whoever is responsible in the laboratory for the accuracy money, as your analytical system is configured according of the results must not make compromises. The golden to your needs and put into operation fast and reliably. rule here is that professionally installed and commissio- ned systems that are serviced regularly guarantee the Initial instructions and user trainings ensure error-free greatest possible reliability. operation of your new instruments by your staff. The Metrohm Compliance Service includes comprehensive Relying on the Metrohm Quality Service gives you peace documentation and guarantees compliance with the of mind from the very start. From the professional instal- standards of quality management systems such as GLP/ lation of your instruments to regular maintenance care, GMP and ISO. we do everything to make sure that you can rely 100 percent on results produced during the entire lifetime of your Metrohm instruments.
    • Metrohm Quality ServiceMetrohm Quality Service is available worldwide. Preven- tract that suits you best. With a full service contract, for 27tive maintenance carried out on a regular basis extends example, you can rely on the optimum performance ofyour instrument’s lifetime while providing for trouble- your Metrohm instruments, incur no additional costs andfree operation. All maintenance work done under the benefit from complete and compliant verification docu-label Metrohm Quality Service is carried out by our own ments.certified service experts. You can choose the service con-An overview of Metrohm Quality ServiceOur Services Benefit for the CustomerApplication support by means of our vast selection ofApplication Bulletins, Applications Notes, monographs, Quick and professional solution to all arising applicationvalidation brochures, technical posters, and articles questions and complex analytical challengesPersonal consultation by our specialists per telephoneor e-mail Competent users contribute substantially to reliableTraining courses results Accurate measurementsCertified calibrations, for example, of dosing and Verification documentation for compliance withexchange units regulations and for efficient auditsRemote maintenance Fast resolution of software questionsBack-up support High data security Short response times and thus rapid problem resolutionEmergency service, for example, express on-site repairs Minimization of downtimesOriginal spare parts, made in Switzerland and availableworld wide Lasting, successful repair; short delivery timesGuaranteed spare parts available for at least 10 years Minimization of downtimesbeyond instrument discontinuation dateDecentralized repair workshops located around the Quality repairs done quickly, so your instruments areworld and a central workshop in Switzerland ready for use againThanks to Metrohm Quality Service, you can relyon your results for the lifetime of your analyticalinstrument.
    • Ordering information28 pHe and conductivity measurement pHe measurement in bioethanol 2.827.0X1X 827 pH lab with Pimatrode or Unitrode 2.826.0010 826 pH mobile 6.0269.100 EtOH-Trode 6.2104.020 Electrode cable Conductivity measurement in bioethanol 2.856.0110 856 Conductivity Module with 900 Touch Control 6.0916.040 Conductivity measuring cell (stainless steel) c = 0.1 cm–1 with Pt 1000 6.1418.250 Titration cell with thermostat jacket 6.1414.010 Titration cell lid with 5 openings Titration Acid number in biodiesel 2.905.0010 905 Titrando 2.900.0010 900 Touch Control 2.801.0040 801 Magnetic Stirrer 2.800.0010 800 Dosino (2 × for addition of titrant and solvent) 6.3032.220 Dosing Unit 20 mL (titrant) 6.3032.250 Dosing Unit 50 mL (solvent) 6.0229.010 Solvotrode easyClean, fixed cable, plug F 6.2320.000 Electrolyte TEABr = 0.4 mol/L in ethylene glycol Iodine number in biodiesel 2.905.0010 905 Titrando 2.900.0010 900 Touch Control 2.801.0040 801 Magnetic Stirrer 2.800.0010 800 Dosino 6.3032.220 Dosing Unit 20 mL (titrant) 6.0471.300 iPt-Titrode Chloride in bioethanol 2.905.0010 905 Titrando 2.900.0010 900 Touch Control 2.801.0040 801 Magnetic Stirrer 2.800.0010 800 Dosino (2 × for addition of titrant and nitric acid) 6.3032.220 Dosing Unit 20 mL (titrant) 6.3032.210 Dosing Unit 10 mL (nitric acid) 6.0470.300 iAg-Titrode Sulfate in bioethanol 2.905.0010 905 Titrando 2.900.0010 900 Touch Control 2.801.0040 801 Magnetic Stirrer 2.800.0010 Dosino (2 × for addition of titrant and perchloric acid) 6.3032.220 Dosing Unit 20 mL (titrant) 6.3032.210 Dosing Unit 10 mL (perchloric acid)
    • 6.0502.170 Pb-selective electrode6.0750.100 LL ISE Reference6.2104.020 Electrode cable, 1 m, F6.2106.020 Cable strand, 1 m, 2 × BWater determination according to Karl Fischer 29Coulometric KF Titration2.831.0010 831 KF Coulometer including generator electrode with diaphragm and 728 Magnet Swing-out Stirrer2.756.0010 756 KF Coulometer including generator electrode with diaphragm, 728 Magnetic Swing-out Stirrer, and integrated printer2.851.0010 851 Titrando including generator electrode with diaphragm and 801 Magnetic StirrerVolumetric KF Titration2.870.1010 870 KF Titrino plus komplett2.890.0110 890 Titrando including 803 Ti-Stand and Touch Control2.901.0010 901 Titrando2.803.0010 803 Ti Stand2.800.0010 800 Dosino6.3032.210 Dosing Unit 10 mL (titrant)Coulometric and volumetric KF titration2.852.0050 852 Titrando including generator electrode with diaphragm and 801 Magnetic StirrerKF Oven2.874.0010 874 USB Oven Sample Processor2.860.0010 860 KF Thermoprep2.885.0010 885 Compact Oven Sample ChangerOxidation stability2.873.0014 873 Biodiesel Rancimat (230 V) including software and accessories2.873.0015 873 Biodiesel Rancimat (115 V) including software and accessoriesIon ChromatographyGlycerol in biodiesel2.871.0010 871 Advanced Bioscan for pulsed amperometric detection2.838.0010 838 Advanced IC Sample Processor2.818.0110 818 Advanced IC Pump6.1013.010 Metrosep Carb 1 - 150/4.06.1011.030 Metrosep RP2 Guard/3.5Alkali metals and alkaline earth metals in biodiesel2.881.0010 881 Compact IC pro – Cation2.858.0030 858 Professional Sample Processor – Pump – Injector2.850.9010 850 Professional IC Detector – iDetector2.800.0010 800 Dosino (3 x)2.801.0010 801 Magnetic Stirrer2.772.0110 772 Pump Unit6.3032.210 Dosing Unit 10 mL (2 x)6.3032.120 Dosing Unit 2 mL (1 x)6.5330.020 IC equipment for dilution6.5330.000 IC equipment for dialysis6.2057.130 Dialysis cell holder6.2744.080 M6 thread/UNF 10/32 coupling
    • 6.2744.060 Threaded stopper for UNF 10/32 6.2041.440 Sample rack 148 × 11 mL 6.1050.420 Metrosep C 4 - 150 /4.0 6.1050.500 Metrosep C 4 Guard/4.0 6.6059.221 MagIC NetTM 2.2 Compact CD: 1 License30 Antioxidants in biodiesel 2.881.0010 881 Compact IC pro – Cation 2.887.0010 887 Professional UV/VIS Detector 2.858.0020 858 Professional Sample Processor – Pump 6.2041.440 Sample rack 148 × 11 mL 6.2061.120 System Connector 6.2061.110 Tray with sensor for Professional IC Instruments 6.6059.222 MagIC NetTM 2.2 Professional CD: 1 License Chloride and sulfate in ethanol 2.881.0030 881 Compact IC pro – Anion – MCS 2.850.9010 850 Professional IC Detector – iDetector 2.858.0020 858 Professional Sample Processor – Pump 6.2041.440 Sample rack 148 × 11 mL 6.5330.010 IC equipment for ultrafiltration 6.1006.530 Metrosep A Supp 5 - 250/4.0 6.1006.500 Metrosep A Supp 4/5 Guard/4.0 6.6059.221 MagIC NetTM 2.2 Compact CD: 1 License Sulfur content in fuel blends – Combustion IC 2.881.0030 881 Compact IC pro Anion – MCS 2.850.9010 850 Professional IC Detector – iDetector 6.6059.221 MagIC NetTM 2.2 Compact CD: 1 License 6.2148.010 Remote Box MSB 6.2141.370 Cable for connecting Metrohm IC – PAC Combustion System 6.2141.140 Cable for connecting Metrohm IC – Mitsubishi Combustion System 6.1006.520 Metrosep A Supp 5 - 150/4.0 6.1006.500 Metrosep A Supp 4/5 Guard/4.0 Equipment for combustion can be purchased from PAC, L.P., and Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation. Voltammetry 2.797.0010 797 VA Computrace for manual operation MVA-2 VA Computrace system with automatic standard addition consisting of 797 VA Computrace and two 800 Dosinos MVA-3 Fully automated VA Computrace system consisting of 797 VA Computrace with 863 Compact VA Autosampler and two 800 Dosinos for automatic addition of auxiliary solutions. Allows the automatic processing of up to 18 samples. This system is the optimum solution for automatic analysis of small sample series. Further test methods for the fuel sector that comply with the standards can be found in the brochure «Petrochemical analysis» (8.000.5041EN).
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    • Subject to changeLayout by Ecknauer+Schoch ASW, printed by Metrohm AG, CH-9101 Herisau8.000.5013EN – 2011-05 biofuels.metrohm.com