In the Loop - Lone Star Ruby Conference
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In the Loop - Lone Star Ruby Conference

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The Reactor Pattern's present in a lot of production infrastructure (Nginx, Eventmachine, 0mq, Redis), yet not very well understood by developers and systems fellas alike. In this talk we'll have a ...

The Reactor Pattern's present in a lot of production infrastructure (Nginx, Eventmachine, 0mq, Redis), yet not very well understood by developers and systems fellas alike. In this talk we'll have a look at what code is doing at a lower level and also how underlying subsystems affect your event driven services.

Below the surface : system calls, file descriptor behavior, event loop internals and buffer management

Evented Patterns : handler types, deferrables and half sync / half async work

Anti patterns : on CPU time, blocking system calls and protocol gotchas

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In the Loop - Lone Star Ruby Conference In the Loop - Lone Star Ruby Conference Presentation Transcript

  • In the Loop W 5 R 10 Lone Star 6 Ruby R Conference 9 R 2011 7 W 8 W Lourens Naudé Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Agenda System calls File descriptor semantics Blocking, nonblocking and async I/O The Reactor Pattern Patterns and gotchas Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Caveats Can’t run before you walk Patterns are framework agnostic KISS read, write and connect only Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Head count ? Eventmachine (or any client libs) Redis Nginx node.js ZeroMQ Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Reactor Pattern sweet spot ? Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Soft realtime systems where throughput is more important than processing Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • What does that mean ? Lots of in flight I/O Little CPU per request - proxies Improve ON:OFF cpu time NEVER about speed for a single client or request Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • "Upgraded to Thin, my apps flying!" Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • EDOINGITWRONG Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • To maintain acceptable response times for more clients, with the same or less infrastructure Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Example app Client 1 Client 2 Broker Client 3 Client 4 Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • FIX FIX client Financial Information eXchange Compact protocol - encodes a lot of domain info Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • FIX message 8=FIX.4.49=4535=049=AB56=CD34=352=20000426-12:05:0610=22 8=FIX.4.4 # FIX version 9=45 # body length 35=0 # Heartbeat msg 49=AB # sender 56=CD # receiver 34=3 # sequence number 52=20000426-12:05:06 # sent at 10=220 # checksum Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • The kernel Mediates access to system resources : I/O, memory and CPU Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • User mode Sandboxed execution for security and stability requirements Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • How do we access resources ? System calls ( syscalls ) read(5, &buf, 4000) Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Syscalls Ruby process Kernel disk Ruby process read(5, &buf, 4000) Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Definition A protected function call from user to kernel space with the intent to interact with a system resource Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Characteristics Uniform API on POSIX systems Ditto for behavior LIES ! Slow emulations Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Syscall performance MUCH slower than function calls 20x and more Definite context switch Calls can block - slow upstream peers Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Who doesnt know what file descriptors or file handles are ? Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • open syscall fd = open(“/path/file”, O_READ) read(fd, &buf, 4000) Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Examples local file socket directory pipe Consistent API, semantics differ Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Definition Numeric handle References a kernel allocated resource Kernel buffer User space buffer Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Blocking I/O A request to read a chunk of data from a descriptor may block depending on buffer state Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Blocked buffer state read(5, &b, 4000) Kernel User buffer buffer 2000 1000 Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Nonblocking I/Ofd = socket (PF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0);fcntl (fd, F_SETFL, O_NONBLOCK) Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Nonblocking I/O A read request would only be initiated if the system call won’t block Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • EAGAIN or EWOULDBLOCK Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Not a silver bullet Guideline only Not free - invokes a syscall Not supported by all devices Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Async I/O myth Nonblocking I/O IS NOT asynchronous I/O Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Async I/O Windows I/O Completion Ports AIO: POSIX Realtime Extension Async I/O often skip double buffering Supports file I/O only Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Recap O_NONBLOCK is a guideline only Invoked in user space Data transfer in user space Blocking and nonblocking I/O terms Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Reactor Pattern Remember, the primary use case is increased throughput Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Challenges Large number of file descriptors Respond to descriptor state changes Execute domain logic Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • WHILE maintaining acceptable response times Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • The Reactor Loop while true do # shortened for brevity add_new_descriptors # attach new client descriptors modify_descriptors # update descriptor state break if terminate? # conditional loop break end Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Registered descriptors W 5 R 10 R 6 Reactor 9 R 7 W 8 W Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Multiplexed I/O Whos familiar with select, poll, epoll or kqueue ? Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Multiplexed I/O Nonblocking I/O is inefficient Retry on EAGAIN is polling Multiplexed I/O: concurrent blocking Notified of state changes on any registered fd Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Multiplexed I/O fd 5 fd 6 fd 7 fd 8 I/O bound App Multiplexer fd 9 fd 10 fd 11 fd 12 User space Kernel space Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Multiplexed I/O 1. Tell me when fds 1..200 are ready for a read or a write Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Multiplexed I/O 2. Do other work until one of thems ready Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Multiplexed I/O 3. Get woken up by the multiplexer on state changes Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Multiplexed I/O 4. Which of fd set 1..200 are in a ready state ? Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Multiplexed I/O 5. Handle all fds ready for I/O Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Event driven I/O These notifications, or rather state changes in readiness for reading or writing, thats the Events in Event Driven I/O Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Event handlers / callbacks module MyFixApp def connection_completed end def receive_data(buffer) end end Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Callbacks Reactor provides I/O concurrency NO concurrent handling of user code Fire on the reactor thread Runs within the reactor loop Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Ticks A turn through the event loop The reactor can do several thousand ticks per second Time slice for doing work Aim to use minimal CPU per tick Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Best practices, patterns and gotchas Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • #1: Coupling Layers App handler Dispatch handler I/O Multiplexer Kernel Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Dispatch Handler Handles low level events from the multiplexed I/O framework eg. readiness for read or write Hide complexities from apps Buffering Transfer Conversion to and from Ruby strings Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Dispatch Handler class EventableDescriptor def read; end # Tell dont ask interface def write; end def heartbeat; end def select_for_read; end # I/O multiplexer def select_for_write; end # agnostic end Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Application Handlers Domain layer Higher level events Connection accepted, read, disconnected Encode and decode protocols Perform business logic Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Application Handlers class FixConnection def receive_data(data); end # callbacks def connection_completed; end def unbind; end end Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Glue class FixConnection def receive_data(buffer) # Encapsulate excess business logic in callbacks @queue.push *FIX::Parser.parse(buffer) end end Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • #2: Testing You don’t need a transport for testing Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Testing class FixConnection def receive_data(data) @queue << data end end def test_enqueue_on_receive conn.receive_data "stub data" assert_equal 1, conn.queue.size end Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • #3: Confusing sync and async Events occur asynchronously, but theyre handled synchronously Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • App handler Dispatch handler I/O Multiplexer Kernel Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Defer work to a thread pool class FixConnection def receive_data(buffer) # enqueue to a thread pool EM.defer{ FIX::Parser.parse(buffer) } end end Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Schedule on the reactor thread class FixConnection def receive_data(buffer) # allow the reactor to service other clients also EM.schedule{ FIX::Parser.parse(buffer) } end end Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • #4: Too much ON cpu time Reactor is single threaded Single core on SMP systems Pegging the core blocks the event loop Time sharing Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Tight loops [1..n].each do |i| process(i) # expensive work end Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Prefer a tick loop work = [1..n] EM.tick_loop do if work.empty? :stop else process(work.shift) # expensive work end end Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Slow Protocol parsers Protocol parsers incur a cost for both encoding and decoding from buffers Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Negate encoding / decoding costs Prefer a fast C extension / parser to native Ruby code Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • #5: Name resolution and connects EM.connect("slow-broker.net", 2000, FixConnection) Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Async resolver d = EM::DNS::Resolver.resolve "slow-broker.net" d.callback do |addrs| # connect to broker API when resolved EM.connect(addrs.first, 2000, FixConnection) end Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Async HTTP APIs conn = EM::HttpRequest.new(http://api.a-broker.net) req1 = conn.get :path => “x”, :keepalive => true req1.callback { req2 = conn.get :path => “y” req2.callback { # same connection as req1 } } Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • #6: Blocking I/O Not all file descriptors support O_NONBLOCK Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Ruby wrapper for libeio $ gem install eio EIO.open(__FILE__) do |fd| EIO.read(fd, 1000) do |buf| p buf EIO.close(fd) end end http://github.com/methodmissing/eio Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • #7: All libs have to be evented redis = EM::Protocols::Redis.connect redis.errback do |code| puts "Error code: #{code}" end redis.set "a", "foo" do |response| redis.get "a" do |response| puts response end end Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Evented MySQL client = Mysql2::EM::Client.new defer = client.query "SELECT sleep(3) as query" defer.callback do |result| puts "Result: #{result.to_a.inspect}" end Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • #8: Memory The Garbage Collector could be invoked at any time during request processing Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Minimize GC pressure Be careful with sloppy allocation patterns Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Connection level proxy module ProxyConnection def initialize(client, request) @client, @request = client, request end def post_init EM::enable_proxy(self, @client) end def connection_completed send_data @request end def proxy_target_unbound close_connection # end Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • #9: Buffer sizes class FixConnection def receive_data(inbound) # inbound.size can be a single protocol # message or a batch - stream of data end def send_data(outbound) # enqueued on a write queue end end Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Scheduled parsing class FixConnection def receive_data(buffer) # buffer packs multiple FIX messages Parser.parse(buffer).each do |msg| EM.next_tick { process(msg) } end end end Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Takeaways Time sharing for I/O bound services System call overheads and behavior Blocking, nonblocking and async I/O Schedule through ticks OS, dispatch and app layers Transport last, interfaces first Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Questions ? Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Wildfire Interactive, Inc. is hiring Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011
  • Thanks ! http://wildfireapp.com/buzz/jobs follow @methodmissing fork github.com/methodmissing Wildfire Interactive, Inc. | 1600 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Redwood City, CA 94063 | (888) 274-0929sábado, 13 de Agosto de 2011