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environmental feature writing   dharman wickremaretne environmental feature writing dharman wickremaretne Presentation Transcript

  • mdrsirsl úfYaIdx. ,sms rpkhO¾uka úl%ur;ak
  • mqj;am;la m%Odk wxY 031 m%jD;a;s2 úfYaIdx.3 oekaùï m%Odk fmf<a iEu mqqj;am;lu fuu wxY 3 we;
  • mqj;am;l m%Odk ld¾hh ck;djg m%jD;a;s iemhsuhtfy;a" m%jD;a;s iemhQ muKskau mqj;am;lg mej;sh fkdyelm%jD;a;s j,ska muKla mdGl uki ;Dma;su;a lsÍug fkdyeltu ksid iEu mqj;am;lu mdfya m%jD;a;s j,g wu;rj úfYaIdx. msgq fjkalr we;m%Odk fmf<a cd;sl mqj;am;aj, l¾;D jdlH“ we;=,; msgq" úfYaIdx. ,sms m<lsÍug fhdod.efka thgwu;rj úfYaIdx. i|yd ;j;a msgq fjkaù ;sfí,laìu - fndÿuÕ" wd,lukaod" udOH ljqˆj" .sßysi" yh¾ msgqj" nodod l;sldj" iNd uKavmh" isiqìu" msgrjqu" ;Urú," iqjhyk" È.eis" rkafl;" keKmi" ikaki"ÈkñK -rcuxcßh" uxi," mß.Kl ±kqu" .fõIKh" i;rfoiska" ,shqï u,a,Èjhsk -nodod w;sf¾lh" mkai," isúfoi" foaYmd,lfhda fuf;la l;dj" úis±," idhkh" ,udmsgqj" foúueÿr" ireìu" fidndir" iriú Whk" úÿ ,l=K,xld§,xld§m -f,djjgd" fj<ofmd<" f.dúìu" YksÈ idoh" mqoiqk" riúkaok" rcùÈh" rˆúuk" <máfmd<" kjre,a," úuxid
  • fuhg wu;rj i;swka; mqj;am;a fndfyduhlau úfYaIdx. i|ydufjka flreK tajd f,i ye¢kaùug yelshbßod Èjhsk - is¿ñK - bßod ,xld§m - rdjh - ,laìu bßod ix.%yhjeks mqj;am;a Bg wu;rj nyq,j olakg ,efnk iskud- ldka;d-;reK mqj;am;a ish,a,u úfYaIdx. i|ydu lemjQ tajdfja Èjhsk brsod - úoaj;a yuqj" iudc úu¾IK" foaYmd,k" Wodr ld,Sk wdrlaIdj"úfoaY" ksñkh" ckyuqqj" ueofmrÈ." fj<o f,dj isˆñK - f;jk msgqj" ld,Sk" fldf,dñf;dg" ixjdo uKavmh" mqkal,i" is;au,ahdh" udOH flakaøh" iïm; rdjh - levm;" wjldY" ulrkaoh" ixjdo" iuìu ,xld§m bßod- ;lai,dj" wfmayv" ;dreKHh" keK; breÈk - fiai;" ridxc,S" iqjwrK ßúr - ßúoyr" ßúfk;" iqjfk;" rKìu" jdi, ú;a;s" ckfi; ,xld - Èÿ,k udkh" úÑ;%" wfma msgqj" iolv myK" uKavmh fkdolsk f,dalh bßod ,laìu - ukaodlsKsh" uxcqidj" fj<o ljh" lS%vd riÿk-óú; $ ishm;-rsoau-ieoe,a, $ osh;-rsjs;rK - rsjsiris" riÿk- m;- ;-
  • úfYaIdx.hla hkq l=ulao ?úfYaIdx.hl fjki y÷kd.; yels f,fyisu l%uh m%jD;a;shla iy ixikaokhlsÍuhsm%jD;a;shlska bÈßm;a jkafka ljod" fld;eko@ l=ulao@ hk lreKq ;=k muKhsWod( ;reKfhda ;sfofkla mq¿iaid urd oukq ,en isá;sfuh m%jD;a;shls fuys lshefjkafka wij,a Èk wij,a ;ek§ ;reKhkafofofkl= mq¿iaid urd oud we;s njhsfuys oelafjkafka b;du iSudiys; f;dr;=re m%udKhla muKs m%jD;a;shliajNdjh;a thuhs w;sf¾l jeä úia;r iemhSug m%jD;a;shlg mq¿jka lulake; m;%fha msgqj, bvlv;a b;d iSñ;h wju jYfhka ishhg 40 la muKoekajSuah
  • ;reKfhda ;sfofkla mq¿iaid urd oukq ,en isá;s ta m%jD;a;sfhka B<Õg u;=jkafka t;ekg isÿù we;af;a l=ulao@ isÿjQfha flfiao@ hkak ms<sn| l=;=y,hls fukak fï m%Yak j,g meyeÈ,s §¾> úia;r iemfhkafkaúfYaIdx. ,smshlskstu ;reKhka iriú isiqkao@ Tjqkaf.amjqf,a j;f.d;" >d;khg fya;=ù we;af;a ljr lreKqo@ñkS uereu isÿlr we;af;a flfiao@ wd§ f;dr;=re mska;+roiys;j bÈßm;a lrkafka úfYaIdx. f,aLlhd úisksñkS uereula" oreKq uxfld,a,hla ms<sn| úia;r iemhQmuKskau úfYaIdx. ,smshla jkafka ke;
  • úfYaIdx. ,sms j¾. lssysmhlg fnod oelaùug yelsh1 hï lsis isoaêhla ms<sn| úfYaIdx.2 ld,Sk iudc wd¾:sl ;;a;ajhka ms<sn| úfYaIdx.3 úfYaI mqoa.,hka ms<sn| úfYaIdx. ^fma%uodi - tkataï- úfÊùr- la,dla- ir;apkaø-.dñKS&4 mdGlhkag oekqu ,nd§fï úfYaIdx. Wod( Èjhsk nodod w;sf¾lh
  • ienúkau úfYaIdx.j, uQ,sl wruqK jkafka oekqu wjfndaOh ,nd§uhs m%jD;a;shlska ,efnkafka f;dr;=re muKhsm%jD;a;sh (- ljodo@ l=ulao@ fldfyaÈo@ fldá ixúOdkh iu. idu idlÉpd wdrïN lsÍug rch h<s leue;a; m< lrhs th m%jD;a;shls fuhg n,mE fya;= idOl bÈßm;a lrk ,smsh úfYaIdx.hls oekqu ,efnkafka ta ;=<sks
  • úfYaIdx.hl rpkd ú,dYh - bÈßm;a lrk ú,dYh - NdIdj - b;d jeo.;a foh w¾: l:kh - NdIdjhs - lreKq iys; nj - f,aLlhdf.a oekquúfYaIdx.hla fidhd.kafka flfiao@ -m%jD;a;shla miq mi ¨yq ne£u - ÿ¾,N ia:dk fidhd hEu - rfÜ fiiq ckhd fkdo;a úfYaIdx. mqj;am; - m%jD;a;s m;%h thska yefÕkafka m%jD;a;sj,g uq,a;ek ,efnk njh
  • ,xldfõ mqj;am;a jk (- 1860 - ,xld f,dalh" 1862 - ,lañKs myk" 1880 iriú i|/i" 1895 - Èkm;d m%jD;a;s iy1906 - isxy, fn!oaOhd uq,a wjÈh wm fufkys l< hq;=h uq,a ld,Sk mqj;am;aj, iajNdjhjQfha ( uQ,sl wruqK m%jD;a;s bÈßm;alsÍu fõ ksoiqka f,i( uy /ðkf.a ixpdr" wdKavqldrhdf.a ksfõok" fj<| øjH ñ, .Kk a ^l=re÷" fldmamrd" fldams" ñksrka jeks oEhs&- cd;sl ksoyi iy iajdëk;ajh b,a,d isàfï n,fõ. ìysùu" iajfoaYdkqrd.h iy bx.%Sis wdêm;Hfhka ñ§u fujeks lreKq Tiafia ,sms rpkd" lú" kjl;d mqj;am;aj,g we;=¿úh
  • mqj;am;m%jD;a;s ,sms - ;Sre,sms oekaùï lú - flál;d
  • úfYaIdx. fufia j¾. l< yelsh m%jD;a;s úYaf,aIK úfYaIdx. fm!oa.,sl Ôjk pß; weiqre lr.;a úfYaIdx. udkqIsl ye.Sï okjk úfYaIdx. Èú kid .ekSï - urd oeóï je,s f.dv oukakka" w,s urd oeóu w;aoelSï weiqßka ,shejqkq úfYaIdx.Wod(- ;%ia;jd§ m%ydrfha§ fírekq wfhl=f.a w;aoelSu .=jka fld,a,hl§ - lkaola kdh.sh úg§
  • - úu¾Ykd;aul úfYaIdx. ol=KqÈ. fjrf<a ysß .,a leãu fld<U .Ksld jHdmdrh uqvqlal= Ôú; <ud hdplfhda- ia:dk iy wdh;k miqìï lr.;a úfYaIdx. l;r.u" Y%Smdoh" uvqm,a,sh" w| f.d¿ ìysß mdi,- tÈfkod Ôú;hg m%fhdackj;a jk úfYaIdx. t<j¿ m<;=re j.dj" ud¿ we;s lsÍu" we÷ï fudaia;r- mdßißl úfYaIdx. iqkaor ia:dk$ m%foaY$ jk ixpdr ksoiqka f,i( isxyrdch" uq;=rdcfj," udÿ.Õ" Wvj,fõ jeks- PdhdrEm úfYaIdx.
  • úfYaIdx. rpkfha§ie<ls,su;aúh hq;= lreKq - lreKq /ia lsÍu ^igyka fmd;l Ndú;h& - b;d blauKska ,sùu ,shk wdldrh ^wdrïN l< hq;af;a isÿùï ud,dfõ fld;ekskaoehs ;SrKh lsÍu& - NdId ú,dih ^,shk ,smsfha iajNdjhg wkqj ni f;dard .ekSu& - iudchg fok mKsjqvh ^wjidkfha .uH jkfoa&
  • The End