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  1. 1. What is a Newspaper? <ul><li>Published regularly (usually more than once per month </li></ul><ul><li>Technologically reproduced </li></ul><ul><li>Available to all (who pay) </li></ul><ul><li>Written in the vernacular </li></ul><ul><li>Timely and topical </li></ul><ul><li>Stable </li></ul><ul><li>Of interest to a general public </li></ul>
  2. 2. Newspapers: Types <ul><li>International and national dailies </li></ul><ul><li>Metropolitan/regional dailies </li></ul><ul><li>Local dailies </li></ul><ul><li>Non-daily general audience papers </li></ul><ul><li>Minority papers </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary language papers </li></ul><ul><li>Religious papers </li></ul><ul><li>Military papers </li></ul><ul><li>Other specialty newspapers (e.g., Daily Variety ) </li></ul><ul><li>Student newspapers </li></ul>
  3. 3. Newspapers: Structure Advertising/Sales News/Editorial Circulation/Marketing Design/Creation Selection/Editing Newspaper Design and Layout Production/Printing Inserting/Bundling Distribution
  4. 4. Newspapers: Colonial History <ul><li>Boston News-Letter (1704) published: 1. By the postmaster 2. By authority 3. In Boston (urban trade center) </li></ul><ul><li>Trial of John Peter Zenger (1733): 1. Truth is a defense in a libel case 2. Jury nullfication </li></ul>
  5. 5. Newspapers: 19th Century <ul><li>Partisan Press (1789-1830): Political ideology as editorial policy </li></ul><ul><li>Penny Press (1833) </li></ul><ul><li>Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>The New Journalism (1865-1890) </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow Journalism (1880-1914) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Newspapers: 19th Century Penny Press: Developed from the combined forces of expanded literacy, steam-powered presses (and other technologies), immigration and the increased urban working class. First was Benjamin Day’s New York Sun , 1833 James Gordon Bennett, New York Herald , 1835 Sensationalism Human interest (esp. crime) Sports (Race tracks) Established news bureaus Use of telegraph (including trans-Atlantic
  7. 7. Newspapers: 19th Century Wire services (news gathering cooperative) : Associated Press, 1840 (formed as the Harbor News Service in New York City before the invention of the telegraph) Civil War Censorship (military v. public) Many reporters Photography (Matthew Brady) Pyramid style writing (for telegraph) Bulletins Feature syndicates (due to lack of help for small newspaper publishers)
  8. 8. Newspapers: 19th Century Yellow Journalism: the bridge between the 19th and 20th century, precursor of 1920s’ tabloids Joseph Pulitzer: St. Louis Post-Dispatch , 1878 New York World , 1883 idealist-crusader against corruption reflected interests of the common people sensationalism William Randolph Hearst: New York Journal , 1895 used Pulitzer’s formula with greater ruthlessness and less compassion. More aggressive in the circulation wars
  9. 9. Newspapers: 19th Century The New Journalism (1865-1914): birth of modern journalism 1. Emphasis on informing (Adolph Ochs, New York Times ): objective journalism 2. Reporting as craft: specialization in subject (beats) and functions 3. Technology improvements: trans-Atlantic cable two-sided presses telephone electric light (allows for night work)
  10. 10. Newspapers: 20th Century <ul><li>Progressive Era: Reform of the excesses of the free-market era -- newspapers played a major roll </li></ul><ul><li>The mass medium for advertisers up to World War II </li></ul><ul><li>Development of chains (economies of scale) </li></ul><ul><li>1920s: Tabloids and Jazz Journalism </li></ul><ul><li>1930s: Press-Radio War </li></ul><ul><li>Post-WW II: Decline in circulation and advertising revenue in competition with radio and television -- newspapers failing and merging </li></ul><ul><li>1972: Newspaper Preservation Act (Joint Operating Agreements to bolster local competition) </li></ul><ul><li>1990s: The newspaper confronts the Internet </li></ul>
  11. 11. Newspapers: Alternatives to the main stream <ul><li>Literary journalism: Tom Wicker on the Attica Prison Riot, Tom Wolfe on the counter-culture </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative journalists: I.F.Stone and Dorothy Day </li></ul><ul><li>Minority newspapers: For and about communities underserved by the general press, such as the African-American press and Alternative Weeklies for the young </li></ul>