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Cakmakci Feb2011

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Transcript

  • 1. Is Innovation a Turks' Game
    to Avoid Middle Income Trap?
    A. Mete Çakmakcı
    GIST Initiative Leadership Circle Working Group Meeting, Kuala Lumpur
    February 23rd, 2011
  • 2. Where is the Brand Equity?
    A future mutual partnership?
    A place of limitless exotic fun?
    A curious tease?
    An economic partner from a safe distance?
  • 3. The Story : Demographics
    • In 2009, 2,731,878 students were registered in undergrad university programs. 397,884 graduated from undergrad programs.
    • 4. 28,681 master and 3,744 PhD degrees were awarded.
    Source : US Census Bureau, 2010
    • In 2009, 13,263 Turkish students were enrolled in the US universities, (10,2% increase from 2008 and 8th most populous group)
    • 5. Many return with business ideas.
  • Converting High-Tech to Low-Tech
    • Share of high-tech in manufacturingexports from 1992 to 2008 only increased from 1,2 % to 1,7 %. Poland’s increased from 3,7 % to 5,2 %; Brazil’s increased from 5,4 % to 12 %.
    Source : OECD STI Scoreboard, 2008
    Source : TUSİAD, (2008) “Türkiye Sanayiine Sektörel Bakış”
    • Turkey’s exports increased from 14,7 Billion USD in 1992 to 127 Billion USD in 2008. (2008 imports were 202 Billion USD )
    • Cheaperborrowingis trigerring more R&D investments & spending
    1416 Million TL in Public R&D Investments
    Investing in R&D
    X 5 in private R&D spending
    2002
    x 3,5 increase in TUBİTAK grants to private companies
    2009
    2010
    286 Million TL in Public R&D Investments
    Source : State Planning Organization, 2010
  • 6. Promoting Private Sector R&D
    • Law # 4691 on Technology Development Zone and Law # 5746 on R&D Promotion grants generous taxdeductions/exemptionsfor R&D activities.
    • 7. 28 active TDZs support 1515 firms employing 13,000 R&D staff generating 540 Million USD in exports. (mostly software companies)
    • 8. 76 R&D centers facilitated 1,9 Billion TL in R&D spending by the private sector
    Source : OECD STI Scoreboard, 2008
  • 9. SMEs andEntrepreneurship
    • The National SME Administration was established in 1990 as a SME support organization, over the years turned into a funding organization.
    • 10. In 2010 provided 260 Million TL in SME and Enterpreneurship supports as grants, loans and interest subsidies
    • 11. In 2009 themandatewas expanded to support non-manufacturing SMEs (+1,100,000 enterprises)
    • 12. The Ministry of Industry and Trade is operating a «Techno» Enterprenuership 100 K grant for recent university program graduates. Funding for 2011 is increased to 30 Million TL.
  • Evolving System of Supports
    Critical-Mass Development
    Investment and Infrastructure Development
    Institutional Capacity Development
    2000
    2005
    1990
    • The system reached a maturity level for an extensive review of programs andmandates. Develop linkages between S&T policies and other policy domains (regional, industrial etc.)
    TUBİTAK
    • Vertical (fast-track etc.) and horizontal (segmentation) linkages are missing between variousprograms
    KOSGEB
    RDAs
    SMEs
    MoIT
    MoIT
    KOSGEB
    RDAs
    UFT
    RDAs
    ?
    Entrepreneurship
    Clusters
  • 13. Technical & Non-technical Innovation
    Innovation Activities
    • For most companies purchasing technology is the innovation activity.
    Source : OECD STI Scoreboard, 2008
    Non-technical Innovation Activities
  • 14. Systemic Linkages
    Firms collaborating on innovation with higher education institutions by size, 2004-06
    Firms collaborating on innovation activities by size, 2004-06
    Firms collaborating on innovation with government institutions by size, 2004-06
    Source : OECD STI Scoreboard, 2008
  • 15. R&D Human Resources
    Number of FTE Researchers increased from 29,000 in 2002 to 73,500 in 2009.
    Source : OECD STI Scoreboard, 2008
  • 16. Global Benchmarking
    Source : www.worldbank.org/kam
  • 17. European Benchmarking
    Source : European Innovation Scoreboard 2008
  • 18. Knowledge Regions
  • 19. Lessons Learned
    • Top political ownership is essential; but does not guarantee good program practice (many «me too» programs)
    • 20. Program development should focus on «what should be done»; not «what can be done» (Law #4691 and Law #5746)
    • 21. More funding does not guarantee better projects («less with more» vs «more with less»)
    • 22. Programs should be alligned with the interests of the market players (i.e. focus on creating value, rather than «safe» accounting)
    • 23. More projects means more refereeing for professors. Should be careful not to distract research focus.
    • 24. Evaluation should be part of the support cycle, not «archeology» (hard to track money afterwards)
    • 25. System should be open, accountable and flexible toaccommodateprogram agencies (facilitate «innovation» in the system)
  • About TTGV
    Technology Development Funding
    Soft-Loan to Private Company’s Technology Development and Commercialization Projects
    Program Management Agency
    Co-finance Provider
    İş Girişim A.Ş.
    Shareholder
    TTGV
    iVCi
    “Istanbul Venture Capital Initiative”
    Turkey’s first and only dedicated fund of funds
    TURKVEN TPEF-1
    Investor
    Sponsor
    Teknoloji Yatırım A.Ş.
    Early Stage Technology Focus Investment Vehicle
    Shareholder
    Finance Provider
    Facilitator
    Environment and Energy Projects Funding
    Soft-Loans to Private Company Energy Efficiency, Clean Production and Renewable Energy Projects
    Demand Side Capacity Projects Supply Side Studies
    TTGV is foundation co-established by government agencies, Turkish blue chips,
    umbrella organisations.
  • 26. Türkiye Teknoloji Geliştirme Vakfı
    Cyberpark, Cyberplaza B-Blok Kat : 6
    Bilkent 06800, Ankara
    www.ttgv.org.tr

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