by                                         Niki Weber                                         Research Lead               ...
A look back at                                 my 2012 SXSW talk         5 REASONS YOU SHOULD                    STOP     ...
The topic seemed to                     connect with the audience3   Why your brain needs negative feedback               ...
Facebook seems                                             to be a fan4   Why your brain needs negative feedback          ...
I failed to account for                               the SXSW bubble5   Why your brain needs negative feedback           ...
At sxsw                          Kool-aid is guzzled6   Why your brain needs negative feedback             The set-up
But, too much           Kool-aid can be damaging7   Why your brain needs negative feedback                   The set-up
The perfect                                              sequence of events                              SXSW             ...
9   Why your brain needs negative feedback   The set-up
The perfect                                             sequence of events                             SXSW               ...
The positive benefits of                         –   negative feedback                           +11   Why your brain need...
POWER                  POWER                                     of                      of                               ...
The experts who                    helped make this a reality                    DR. CAROL DWECK                          ...
“Negativeinfeedback has onlybeen                                             helped me my career and has                  ...
Let’s lay                               the groundwork15 Why your brain needs negative feedback               The pre-empt...
The problem:                                                                                              Cultural kumbaya...
Regarding the elephant in the room:                                  I’m not advocating                                   ...
This is                                              negative feedback                                            in the s...
This is not                                       negative feedback                                     providing vague, u...
A quicklevel-set            The level-set
Brain basics:                            Operant                          conditioning                         A form of l...
Brain basics:                       Neuroplasticity                         "The principal activities of brains are       ...
Brain basics:                          Negative bias                          Negativity bias is the psychological        ...
A negative feedback                                            warm-up24 Why your brain needs negative feedback           ...
The Coach                    You gave great effort but25 Why your brain needs negative feedback               The level-set
The Tailor           That dress looks amazing but26 Why your brain needs negative feedback                The level-set
The Parent                                        Nice effort but27 Why your brain needs negative feedback                ...
28 Why your brain needs negative feedback
Fact#1                                            “The mother of all facts”                            GROWTH MIND-SETS LE...
Fixed   INTELLIGENCE                                            The mind-set   Growth                                     ...
Fixed    INTELLIGENCE                                            The mind-set   Growth                                    ...
Fixed    INTELLIGENCE                                            The mind-set   Growth                                    ...
Fixed    INTELLIGENCE                                            The mind-set   Growth                                    ...
Fixed    INTELLIGENCE                                            The mind-set   Growth                                    ...
Fixed    INTELLIGENCE                                            The mind-set   Growth                                    ...
Fixed    INTELLIGENCE                                            The mind-set   Growth                                    ...
Fixed    INTELLIGENCE                                            The mind-set   Growth                                    ...
Fact #2:      NEGATIVE FEEDBACK        TRIGGERS MORE      STIMULATION IN THE      BRAIN THAN POSITIVE           FEEDBACK38...
Fact #3:                                               NEGATIVE                                            REINFORCEMENT  ...
Fact #4:          NEGATIVE FEEDBACK            IS INSTINCTUAL40 Why your brain needs negative feedback   the facts   The f...
Fact #5:                ALL NEGATIVE                 FEEDBACK IS                 NOT EQUAL41 Why your brain needs negative...
Fact #6:     NEGATIVE IS STRONGER      THAN POSITIVE FROM      AN EMOTIONAL AND          COGNITIVE         STANDPOINT42 Wh...
Fact #7:                                              TOO MUCH POSITIVE                                              FEEDB...
Fact#8:                                                WE EXPERIENCE                                            BIOLOGICAL...
Fact #9:      NEGATIVE FEEDBACK IS       MORE INFORMATIVE         THAN POSITIVE45 Why your brain needs negative feedback  ...
Fact #10:                                            NEGATIVE EVENTS WEAR                                              OFF...
Fact #11:                                              WHEN YOU                                             LEARN, YOU    ...
Fact #12:     YOUR BRAIN SOMETIMES       RESISTS LEARNING            BECAUSE       IT TRIES TO AVOID          DISCOMFORT48...
Fact #13:                   FAILURE TO                   LEARN NEW                  THINGS KILLS                    NEURON...
Fact #14:             LEARN MORE             FROM DOING            AND EVEN MORE               SO FROM              TEACHI...
Fact #15:                 NEGATIVE               FEEDBACK CAN               MOLD EXPERTS51 Why your brain needs negative f...
Implications                                       toward a better you                                                    ...
Implications                                       toward a better you                                                    ...
To be a better you                         get your brain in shape54 Why your brain needs negative feedback               ...
To be a better you                           pay attention and focus55 Why your brain needs negative feedback             ...
To be a better you                               stock your brain                            with quality furniture56 Why ...
To be a better you                                            hone & expand                                              y...
To be a better parent                         try to foster the best                      feedback culture at home58 Why y...
To be a better leader, be comfortable                                  being a badass but                                 ...
Implications                                       toward a better you              HIGH             INNOVATION           ...
To be creative       go experience61 Why your brain needs negative feedback   The take-aways
To be creative                                            be surprised62 Why your brain needs negative feedback           ...
To be creative                               provide your brain                               with rest & balance63 Why yo...
To be creative                                            study failures64 Why your brain needs negative feedback         ...
To be creative                                  karate chop cynics65 Why your brain needs negative feedback               ...
Implications                                       toward a better you              HIGH             INNOVATION           ...
To be innovative                                    dare to take risks67 Why your brain needs negative feedback           ...
To be innovative        be open to feedback and criticism68 Why your brain needs negative feedback                      Th...
To be innovative      build a diverse team69 Why your brain needs negative feedback   The take-aways
To be an innovative leader     celebrate and     reward talent70 Why your brain needs negative feedback   The take-aways
To be a innovative leader        cultivate a premier brain culture71 Why your brain needs negative feedback               ...
To be innovative      befriend a neuroscientist72 Why your brain needs negative feedback              The take-aways
To be an innovative designer             design with the brain in mind73 Why your brain needs negative feedback           ...
To be innovative                           develop & use your                         internal bullshit meter74 Why your b...
“ I know nothing                                              except the fact                                             ...
Your mission:                      if you so choose to take it53 Why your brain needs negative feedback76                 ...
My challenge:                                            if you so choose                                                t...
And be prepared          to be wrong            yourself78 Why your brain needs negative feedback   The closing
How to be a                                 successful heretic                  by Aubrey de Grey                         ...
Shout-outs &        thank you’s        So many have helped to gather research and provide feedback        on the story sha...
A few                                            good reads                                            The Foundations of ...
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Why Your Brain Needs Negative Feedback - Niki Weber - SXSW Interactive 2013

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There is beauty in the brain's electric, neural storm when it knows what you’re doing just isn’t good enough. Yet many people abhor criticism, direct conflict resolution, or a task that truly challenges their brains. Generations have grown up with a never-ending supply of trophies, and this constant positive feedback can have an adverse effect on the way our brains function. We often forget our brains are wired for the type of survival where conflict and struggle are the norm. As a result, when it comes to the brain and feedback, negative is more revealing than positive. Scientific research confirms that negative feedback can be stronger, more effective and requires more thinking and neural processing than positive. Too much positivity can actually re-wire the brain, making people less tolerant of risk, criticism, and even creativity. This session will help shed light on the science of negativity, and the direct implication it has on experiential design, culture, and innovation. PLEASE NOTE: In order for the hyperlinks in the presentation to work, you must download the PDF. Unfortunately, Slideshare's UI doesn't tolerate them. Many thanks.

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  • Niki - Thanks so much for such a thought-provoking presentation. It was my favorite session of the entire SXSW conference. I personally thought your pace to be perfect and your tone to be engaging. Thanks again.
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  • Pam - Thanks for the great feedback. I too am disappointed I had to fly through the last section. It sounds like I may be giving the presentation again and your feedback will be taken into account. Many thanks again.
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  • Niki - I really enjoyed your topic at SXSW. It was very thought provoking and I found it very applicable to the work I do for my company.

    However, I was frustrated that you rambled on in some of your personal examples and therefore ran out of time. For example, you could have cut out a lot of the Facebook info that you covered at the start. Enough said that you presented a controverial topic last year and you were dissapointed you didn't get feedback. Crisp it up and keep your tangents controlled and ensure that you have enough time allocated to get through all your materials. Time at the end for questions would have been nice too.
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Why Your Brain Needs Negative Feedback - Niki Weber - SXSW Interactive 2013

  1. 1. by Niki Weber Research Lead Adam Wiese Date March 9, 2013 Email NikiWeber@Me.com Linked In linkedin.com/in/NikiWeber Hashtag #badbrain Feedback Url sxsw.tv/cqpWhy your brain needs negative feedback
  2. 2. A look back at my 2012 SXSW talk 5 REASONS YOU SHOULD STOP INVESTING IN FACEBOOK2 Why your brain needs negative feedback The set-up
  3. 3. The topic seemed to connect with the audience3 Why your brain needs negative feedback The set-up
  4. 4. Facebook seems to be a fan4 Why your brain needs negative feedback The set-up
  5. 5. I failed to account for the SXSW bubble5 Why your brain needs negative feedback The set-up
  6. 6. At sxsw Kool-aid is guzzled6 Why your brain needs negative feedback The set-up
  7. 7. But, too much Kool-aid can be damaging7 Why your brain needs negative feedback The set-up
  8. 8. The perfect sequence of events SXSW BUBBLE CREATIVE CULTURE FULL-TIME START-UPS BRAIN TRAINING START-UP MANAGING MILLENNIALS FIGHT CLUB8 Why your brain needs negative feedback The set-up
  9. 9. 9 Why your brain needs negative feedback The set-up
  10. 10. The perfect sequence of events SXSW BUBBLE CREATIVE CULTURE FULL-TIME START-UPS BRAIN TRAINING START-UP MANAGING MILLENNIALS FIGHT CLUB10 Why your brain needs negative feedback The set-up
  11. 11. The positive benefits of – negative feedback +11 Why your brain needs negative feedback The set-up
  12. 12. POWER POWER of of POSITIVITY FAILING POSITIVE NEGATIVE The sweet spot12 Why your brain needs negative feedback The pre-emption
  13. 13. The experts who helped make this a reality DR. CAROL DWECK TERESA AMABILE Professor of Psychology at Stanford University Edsel Bryant Ford Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Ph.D. Social and Developmental Psychology, Yale University Director of Research DR. CHRISTIAN STADLER DR. KEITH WILCOX Associate Professor in Strategic Management Assistant Professor of Marketing, Columbia University, 2012 – Present Warwick Business School, University of Bath School of Management, Assistant Professor of Marketing, Babson College, 2009 – 2012 Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth, and Innsbruck University Lecturer, Baruch College, 2005 –2009 DR. JASON MOSER ANDREW STEPHENS Assistant Professor at Michigan State University Assistant Professor of Business Administration and Katz Fellow in Marketing Ph.D. University of Delaware 2009 in Clinical Psychology Decision, Operations and Information Technology PhD (with distinction) - marketing, Columbia University MPhil - marketing, Columbia University HENRY POLOSKI BBus (Honors) - marketing, University of Queensland, Australia Engineer and author of “To Error is Human” BEng (Honors) - civil engineering, University of Queensland, Australia and “To Forgive Design: Understanding Failure” HARA ESTROFF MARANO DR. NANCY BUCK Editor at Large of Psychology Today Ph.D. in developmental psychology Creator of “Peaceful Parenting” JOHN CACIOPPO DR. DAVE NUSSBAUM Tiffany & Margaret Blake Distinguished Service Professor at the University of Chicago Adjunct Assistant Professor of Behavioral Science at Director, Center for Cognitive and Social Neuroscience the University of Chicago; Worked with Carol Dweck at Stanford Director, Social Neuroscience Laboratory  DR. ROY BAUMEISTER FSU Professor and author of “Bad is Stronger than Good”13 Why your brain needs negative feedback The pre-emption
  14. 14. “Negativeinfeedback has onlybeen helped me my career and has integral to my success. Every time I fail I find a new hole in my performance, writing and work ethic that I can only fix after negative feedback from a crowd.  Only by failing repeatedly and aggressively can I ever hope to become perfect.”   - Anthony Jeselnik14 Why your brain needs negative feedback The pre-emption
  15. 15. Let’s lay the groundwork15 Why your brain needs negative feedback The pre-emption
  16. 16. The problem: Cultural kumbaya FROM TO here here s t e e ie gh ar ic h iv uo ai n iv ck ar d gh on ph ou ss Q Br t a ou ti Sm dw Pa s Ac db H di Tr o En So n tu ur e or k En E od Sa a Yo Fe d d ed o ’r e ck St th W oo i te it G ou a ng lly G im lim b gi ow a t L Y ed en G r Re o Un Fe al l ou N Ch Y16 Why your brain needs negative feedback The pre-emption
  17. 17. Regarding the elephant in the room: I’m not advocating being an ass17 Why your brain needs negative feedback The pre-emption
  18. 18. This is negative feedback in the spirit of growth and progress objective criticism failure growth mindset experimentation stress resilience mistake error risk adversity surprise18 Why your brain needs negative feedback optimism The pre-emption
  19. 19. This is not negative feedback providing vague, unmeasurable feedback having no light at the end of the tunnel partaking in avoidable errors being mean and biting postulating thoughtlessly having a temper observing in silence engaging in cynacism complaining19 Why your brain needs negative feedback oppression The pre-emption
  20. 20. A quicklevel-set The level-set
  21. 21. Brain basics: Operant conditioning A form of learning whereby an individual changes its behavior because of the consequences (results) of the behavior. (The person or animal learns its behavior has a consequence.)21 Why your brain needs negative feedback The level-set
  22. 22. Brain basics: Neuroplasticity "The principal activities of brains are making changes in themselves." —Marvin L. Minsky (from Society of the Mind, 1986)22 Why your brain needs negative feedback The level-set
  23. 23. Brain basics: Negative bias Negativity bias is the psychological phenomenon by which humans pay more attention to and give more weight to negative rather than positive experiences or other kinds of information23 Why your brain needs negative feedback The level-set
  24. 24. A negative feedback warm-up24 Why your brain needs negative feedback The level-set
  25. 25. The Coach You gave great effort but25 Why your brain needs negative feedback The level-set
  26. 26. The Tailor That dress looks amazing but26 Why your brain needs negative feedback The level-set
  27. 27. The Parent Nice effort but27 Why your brain needs negative feedback The level-set
  28. 28. 28 Why your brain needs negative feedback
  29. 29. Fact#1 “The mother of all facts” GROWTH MIND-SETS LEAD TO MORE FUTURE SUCCESS THAN FIXED.29 Why your brain needs negative feedback the facts
  30. 30. Fixed INTELLIGENCE The mind-set Growth INTELLIGENCE IS STATIC CAN BE DEVELOPED Leads to a desire to Leads to a desire look smart and to learn and therefore a tendency therefore a tendency to... to...30 Why your brain needs negative feedback the facts
  31. 31. Fixed INTELLIGENCE The mind-set Growth INTELLIGENCE IS STATIC CAN BE DEVELOPED Leads to a desire to Leads to a desire look smart and to learn and therefore a tendency therefore a tendency to... to... AVOID EMBRACE CHALLENGES CHALLENGES Challenges31 Why your brain needs negative feedback the facts
  32. 32. Fixed INTELLIGENCE The mind-set Growth INTELLIGENCE IS STATIC CAN BE DEVELOPED Leads to a desire to Leads to a desire look smart and to learn and therefore a tendency therefore a tendency to... to... GIVE UP PERSIST IN EASILY THE FACE OF SETBACKS Obstacles32 Why your brain needs negative feedback the facts
  33. 33. Fixed INTELLIGENCE The mind-set Growth INTELLIGENCE IS STATIC CAN BE DEVELOPED Leads to a desire to Leads to a desire look smart and to learn and therefore a tendency therefore a tendency to... to... FEEL FIND THREATENED LESSONS AND BY THE INSPIRATION SUCCESS IN THE SUCCESS OF OTHERS OF OTHERS Success of Others33 Why your brain needs negative feedback the facts
  34. 34. Fixed INTELLIGENCE The mind-set Growth INTELLIGENCE IS STATIC CAN BE DEVELOPED Leads to a desire to Leads to a desire look smart and to learn and therefore a tendency therefore a tendency to... to... MAY PLATEAU REACH EARLY AND EVER HIGHER ACHIEVE LESS LEVELS OF THAN THEIR ACHIEVEMENT FULL POTENTIAL Achievement34 Why your brain needs negative feedback the facts
  35. 35. Fixed INTELLIGENCE The mind-set Growth INTELLIGENCE IS STATIC CAN BE DEVELOPED Leads to a desire to Leads to a desire look smart and to learn and therefore a tendency therefore a tendency to... to... SEE EFFORT AS SEE EFFORT AS FRUITLESS A PATH TO OR WORSE MASTERY Effort35 Why your brain needs negative feedback the facts
  36. 36. Fixed INTELLIGENCE The mind-set Growth INTELLIGENCE IS STATIC CAN BE DEVELOPED Leads to a desire to Leads to a desire look smart and to learn and therefore a tendency therefore a tendency to... to... IGNORE LEARN FROM USEFUL CRITICISM NEGATIVE FEEDBACK Criticism36 Why your brain needs negative feedback the facts
  37. 37. Fixed INTELLIGENCE The mind-set Growth INTELLIGENCE IS STATIC CAN BE DEVELOPED Leads to a desire to Leads to a desire look smart and to learn and therefore a tendency therefore a tendency to... to... ALL THIS ALL THIS CONFIRMS A GIVES THEM A DETERMINISTIC GREATER SENSE VIEW OF THE OF FREE WILL WORLD Result37 Why your brain needs negative feedback the facts
  38. 38. Fact #2: NEGATIVE FEEDBACK TRIGGERS MORE STIMULATION IN THE BRAIN THAN POSITIVE FEEDBACK38 Why your brain needs negative feedback the facts
  39. 39. Fact #3: NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT CAUSES FASTER LEARNING THAN POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT39 Why your brain needs negative feedback the facts
  40. 40. Fact #4: NEGATIVE FEEDBACK IS INSTINCTUAL40 Why your brain needs negative feedback the facts The facts
  41. 41. Fact #5: ALL NEGATIVE FEEDBACK IS NOT EQUAL41 Why your brain needs negative feedback the facts
  42. 42. Fact #6: NEGATIVE IS STRONGER THAN POSITIVE FROM AN EMOTIONAL AND COGNITIVE STANDPOINT42 Why your brain needs negative feedback the facts
  43. 43. Fact #7: TOO MUCH POSITIVE FEEDBACK HAS BEEN PROVEN TO MAKE A PERSON LESS TOLERANT OF RISK AND CRITICISM, LESS CURIOUS, AND LESS CREATIVE43 Why your brain needs negative feedback the facts
  44. 44. Fact#8: WE EXPERIENCE BIOLOGICAL GROWTH IN THE WAKE OF MODERATE TRAUMA44 Why your brain needs negative feedback the facts
  45. 45. Fact #9: NEGATIVE FEEDBACK IS MORE INFORMATIVE THAN POSITIVE45 Why your brain needs negative feedback the facts
  46. 46. Fact #10: NEGATIVE EVENTS WEAR OFF MORE SLOWLY THAN POSITIVE ONES46 Why your brain needs negative feedback the facts
  47. 47. Fact #11: WHEN YOU LEARN, YOU PHYSICALLY CHANGE THE STRUCTURE OF YOUR BRAIN47 Why your brain needs negative feedback the facts
  48. 48. Fact #12: YOUR BRAIN SOMETIMES RESISTS LEARNING BECAUSE IT TRIES TO AVOID DISCOMFORT48 Why your brain needs negative feedback the facts
  49. 49. Fact #13: FAILURE TO LEARN NEW THINGS KILLS NEURONS49 Why your brain needs negative feedback the facts
  50. 50. Fact #14: LEARN MORE FROM DOING AND EVEN MORE SO FROM TEACHING50 Why your brain needs negative feedback the facts
  51. 51. Fact #15: NEGATIVE FEEDBACK CAN MOLD EXPERTS51 Why your brain needs negative feedback the facts
  52. 52. Implications toward a better you HIGH INNOVATION CREATIVITY PERFORMING BRAIN = +52 Why your brain needs negative feedback The take-aways
  53. 53. Implications toward a better you HIGH INNOVATION CREATIVITY PERFORMING BRAIN = + so let’s start with YOUR BRAIN53 Why your brain needs negative feedback The take-aways
  54. 54. To be a better you get your brain in shape54 Why your brain needs negative feedback The take-aways
  55. 55. To be a better you pay attention and focus55 Why your brain needs negative feedback The take-aways
  56. 56. To be a better you stock your brain with quality furniture56 Why your brain needs negative feedback The take-aways
  57. 57. To be a better you hone & expand your brain57 Why your brain needs negative feedback The take-aways
  58. 58. To be a better parent try to foster the best feedback culture at home58 Why your brain needs negative feedback The take-aways
  59. 59. To be a better leader, be comfortable being a badass but don’t be an ass59 Why your brain needs negative feedback The take-aways
  60. 60. Implications toward a better you HIGH INNOVATION CREATIVITY PERFORMING BRAIN = + so let’s focus on CREATIVITY60 Why your brain needs negative feedback The take-aways
  61. 61. To be creative go experience61 Why your brain needs negative feedback The take-aways
  62. 62. To be creative be surprised62 Why your brain needs negative feedback The take-aways
  63. 63. To be creative provide your brain with rest & balance63 Why your brain needs negative feedback The take-aways
  64. 64. To be creative study failures64 Why your brain needs negative feedback The take-aways
  65. 65. To be creative karate chop cynics65 Why your brain needs negative feedback The take-aways
  66. 66. Implications toward a better you HIGH INNOVATION CREATIVITY PERFORMING BRAIN = + so let’s focus on INNOVATION66 Why your brain needs negative feedback The take-aways
  67. 67. To be innovative dare to take risks67 Why your brain needs negative feedback The take-aways
  68. 68. To be innovative be open to feedback and criticism68 Why your brain needs negative feedback The take-aways
  69. 69. To be innovative build a diverse team69 Why your brain needs negative feedback The take-aways
  70. 70. To be an innovative leader celebrate and reward talent70 Why your brain needs negative feedback The take-aways
  71. 71. To be a innovative leader cultivate a premier brain culture71 Why your brain needs negative feedback The take-aways
  72. 72. To be innovative befriend a neuroscientist72 Why your brain needs negative feedback The take-aways
  73. 73. To be an innovative designer design with the brain in mind73 Why your brain needs negative feedback The take-aways
  74. 74. To be innovative develop & use your internal bullshit meter74 Why your brain needs negative feedback The take-aways
  75. 75. “ I know nothing except the fact of my ignorance.” - Socrates75 Why your brain needs negative feedback The closing
  76. 76. Your mission: if you so choose to take it53 Why your brain needs negative feedback76 The closing
  77. 77. My challenge: if you so choose to take it77 Why your brain needs negative feedback The closing
  78. 78. And be prepared to be wrong yourself78 Why your brain needs negative feedback The closing
  79. 79. How to be a successful heretic by Aubrey de Grey BE RIGHT BE EVERYWHERE diligence before oratory a pint is worth 1000 words BE BOASTFUL BE PITHY about your topic especially under pressure BE A DOER BE INSPIRATIONAL as well as a talker with a team that’s organizational BE INDOMITABLE BE SELFLESS if not invincible remember that control is only a means to an end BE DIPLOMATIC BE RIGHT not maybe all the time and be able to explain why to experts and laymen79 Why your brain needs negative feedback The closing
  80. 80. Shout-outs & thank you’s So many have helped to gather research and provide feedback on the story shared today...no one more than ADAM WIESE. Thank you for everything. I couldn’t have done this without you. Thanks to the professors for their incredible input and expertise. Additionally, a special thanks to my friends who provided feedback along the way: NICK DRAKE | DAN GOLDSTEIN | MICHELLE DICKENS Thanks to Anthony Jeselnik for participating. Finally, thanks to JPGCREATIVE for his incredible design skills. You always help take the story to new levels. Thank you. And if you’re willing to spend the time to provide feedback, I’d love to hear it: sxsw.tv/cqp80 Why your brain needs negative feedback NikiWeber@Me.com linkedin.com/in/NikiWeber #badbrain The closing
  81. 81. A few good reads The Foundations of Science (Henri Poincaré, 1908) The Art of Scientific Investigation (William I.B. Beveridge, 1957) Reality is Broken (Jane McGonigal, 2011) Being Wrong (Kathryn Schulz, 2011) Top Dog: The Science of Winning and Losing (Po Bronson and Ashley Merryman, 2013) Thinking, Fast and Slow (Daniel Kahneman, 2013) This Will Make You Smarter: New Scientific Concepts to Improve Your Thinking (John Brockman, 2012) The Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and Business (Charles Duhigg, 2012) Half Empty (David Rakoff, 2010)81 Why your brain needs negative feedback The closing
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