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Pipe rack & rack piping
Pipe rack & rack piping
Pipe rack & rack piping
Pipe rack & rack piping
Pipe rack & rack piping
Pipe rack & rack piping
Pipe rack & rack piping
Pipe rack & rack piping
Pipe rack & rack piping
Pipe rack & rack piping
Pipe rack & rack piping
Pipe rack & rack piping
Pipe rack & rack piping
Pipe rack & rack piping
Pipe rack & rack piping
Pipe rack & rack piping
Pipe rack & rack piping
Pipe rack & rack piping
Pipe rack & rack piping
Pipe rack & rack piping
Pipe rack & rack piping
Pipe rack & rack piping
Pipe rack & rack piping
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Pipe rack & rack piping

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  • 1. PIPE RACK / WAYS & RACK PIPING By, Akshaya Sharma Associate Engineer Piping Department Date – 16th Nov 2006 0
  • 2. Contents  INTRODUCTION  PIPE RACK   Pipe Rack design criteria  Shapes  Future Space  Width of Pipe Rack  Clearance Pipe Rack Loading RACK PIPING           Positions of Lines (Process & Utilities) Hot Lines & Cold Lines Bigger Size Lines Pipe Spacing Anchor Bay Unit Battery Limit Expansion Loops Pipe Route Trays 1
  • 3. INTRODUCTION   A pipe rack is the main artery of a process unit. It connects all equipment with lines that cannot run through adjacent areas. Because it is located in the middle of the most plants, the pipe rack must be erected first, before it becomes obstructed by rows of equipment. Pipe racks carry process, utility piping and also include instrument and electrical cable trays as well as equipment mounted over all of these. The primary data required for detailed development of a pipe rack : Plot Plan  P&ID’s  Client Specification  Construction Materials  Fire proofing requirements  Statutory requirements 2
  • 4. 3
  • 5. PIPE RACK DESIGN CRITERIA  Shapes   Future Space   There are various shapes of pipe rack like L/T/U/H/Z. These shapes shall be considered based on the area available. The total width of the pipe rack shall include 25% extra space for future expansion/modification in unit for rack-width upto 16m and 10% for rack-width above 16m. The future space %age is normally based on the client requirements. Width of Pipe rack  The width of the rack shall be 6m, 8m or 10m for single bay and 12m, 16m or 20m for double bay having 4 tiers maximum. The spacing between pipe rack portals shall be taken as 6m in general. However it can be increased to 8m depending on the size of the pumps to be housed below pipe rack. 4
  • 6. RACK WIDTH SELECTION CRITERIA 5
  • 7. DIFFERENT SHAPES OF PIPE RACKS DEAD END YARD LINES ENTER & LEAVE ONE END OF THE RACK L-SHAPED YARD LINES CAN ENTER & LEAVE NORTH & EAST OF THE RACK STRAIGHT THROUGH YARD LINES CAN ENTER & LEAVE BOTH ENDS OF THE RACK T-SHAPED RACK PIPING CAN ENTER & LEAVE THREE SIDES OF THE RACK 6
  • 8. DIFFERENT SHAPES OF PIPE RACKS COMPBINATION OF I & T SHAPED RACK U-SHAPED YARD LINE CAN ENTER & LEAVE ALL FOUR SIDES OF THE RACK COMPLEX RACK PIPING ARRANGEMENT FOR VERY LARGE CHEMICAL PLANT 7
  • 9. PIPE RACK DESIGN CRITERIA  Clearance    For units, clearance beneath pipe rack shall be 4m minimum both in longitudinal and transverse directions. For Offsite, clearance beneath pipe rack shall be 2.2m minimum both in longitudinal and transverse directions. Road clearance shall be 7m for main road and 5m for secondary road. 8
  • 10. PIPE RACK LOADING  Pipe rack loads shall be given by stress group to Civil & structural discipline for pipe rack design.  Sustain Load (Dead Load)   Thermal Laod   Load by thermal expansion of piping & Reaction force by internal pressure of expansion bellows Dynamic Laod   Weight of piping, valve and load insulation Load by vibration of piping & by wind and earthquake Sustained Load (Live Load)  Liquid load for hydrostatic pressure test 9
  • 11. RACK PIPING  Position of Lines  Predominantly process lines are to be kept at lower tier and, utility & hot process lines on upper tier.  Hot Lines & Cold Lines  Generally hot lines & cold lines are to kept at different tiers or at different groups on a tier.  Pipe Spacing  Minimum spacing between adjacent lines shall be decided based on O.D. of bigger size flange (minimum rating 300# to be considered), O.D. of the smaller pipe, individual insulation thickness and additional 25mm clearance. Even if flange is not appearing the min. spacing shall be based on above basis only. Actual line spacing, especially at ‘L’ bend and loop locations, shall take care thermal expansion/thermal contraction/nonexpansion of adjacent line. Non-expansion/thermal contraction may stop the free expansion of the adjacent line at ‘L’ bend location. 10
  • 12. RACK PIPING  Bigger Size Lines   Anchor Bay    Large size lines (14” and larger) shall be arranged close to the column in order to decrease the bending moment of beam. Water lines more than 30” shall not be routed over pipe rack, these shall be routed underground. Anchors on the racks are to be provided on the anchor bay if the concept of anchor bay is adopted. Otherwise anchor shall be distributed over two to three consecutive bays. Anchors shall be provided within unit on all hot lines leaving the unit. Pipe Route  Racks shall be designed to give the piping shortest possible run and to provide clear head rooms over main walkways, secondary walkways and platforms. 11
  • 13. RACK PIPING  Trays   Generally top tier is to be kept for Electrical cable trays (if not provided in underground trench) and Instrument cable ducts/trays. Cable tray laying to take care of necessary clearances for the fire proofing of structure. Battery Limit (ISBL)  Process lines crossing units (within units or from unit to main pipeway) are normally provided with a block valve, spectacle blind and drain valve. Block valves are to be grouped and locations of block valves in vertical run of pipe are preffered. If the block valves have to be located in an overhead pipe-way, staircase access to a platform above the lines shall be provided. 12
  • 14. RACK PIPING 13
  • 15. RACK PIPING 14
  • 16. RACK PIPING 15
  • 17. EXPANSION LOOPS  Expansion loop is provided on the high temperature lines. This information shall be given by stress group. All the loops shall be located around one column only. MAKE LINES INTO A GROUP AND INSTALL A LARGE SIZE PIPING AND HIGH TEMPERATURE PIPING TO THE EDGE OF THE RACK 16
  • 18. EXPANSION LOOPS  When necessary to install an expansion loop on the condensate line, do it horizontally to prevent water hammering. But do as above if horizontal loop is impossible. 17
  • 19. PIPE RACK DESIGN CRITERIA 18
  • 20. PIPE RACK DESIGN CRITERIA 19
  • 21. PIPE RACK DESIGN CRITERIA 20
  • 22. PIPE RACK DESIGN CRITERIA 21
  • 23. THANK YOU 22

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