About photo-sharing in
Virtual social networks
As indicator of the need to develop
The phototherapy area through the inter...
March
2010
Thesis Abstract
Limor Kriegel
March 2010
About photo-sharing in virtual social networks as
Indicator of the nee...
Table of contents
Chapter 1 Preface
1.1 The rationale of the research
Chapter 2 Literature review
2.1 Photography and ther...
Chapter 1 – Preface
The goal of this thesis is to introduce the current phenomenon of photo-sharing on the
internet and ex...
examine the reasons because of which people are exposed within the framework of
social nets and the characterizations of s...
The texts I attached to these pictures, was connected with the second war in Lebanon,
which ended less than a month earlie...
So there would be no confusion
Since all this is not
Not all this
Not nature of
The human being
(Paraphrased)
Publishing t...
presentation of the self with greater control than the one that exists in real life. This
was well expressed by the Beatle...
through the dialogue between the therapist and the patient and it may be
interpreted in many ways: the use of photography ...
Chapter 2 - Literature review
2.1 Photography and therapy
"The capacity of the photograph to represent the external world ...
And stank of the barn?
That one child had broke his brother's nose
In August?
And the farm roof leaked?
Those apples o the...
gained relatively to the one achieved through the simple foramen. In 1585
Giambattista Benedetti added one more improvemen...
On the other hand digital photography had made it more available to sharing, by
private mail or in social networks, becaus...
Photograph from September 11
BY WISLAWA SZYMBORSKA
They jumped from the burning floors—
one, two, a few more,
higher, lowe...
the photographing helps them to stop time and get a bigger opportunity to consolidate
the moment's passing experience. In ...
For the same reason and because the photograph was taken out of the continuity and
the context, it has an unclear meaning....
inundated by more input than they are able to assimilate or organize (perform
integration) (Colson, 1979).
In addition and...
something. Robbins (1942) a psychoanalyst and photography fan described that use:
"My psychiatric interest in people may b...
Probably Japanese
Which filled my eye
An idiotic picture
Except it was all I recognized
The wall lived for me in that pict...
In his book "Thoughts about photography", Roland Barthes (1980) talks about
exhibitionism through concepts of object stagi...
sensation of control over time. The acquaintance with the dimension of time and its
control (the sensation of controlling ...
The definition of Phototherapy is the use of photography and personal photographs
within the frame work of formal therapy,...
by observing the facial features of the patient and their characteristics. When he
showed his patients their photographs, ...
In 1973, Robert U. Akeret published his book "Photo Analysis" which suggests
technique for psychological interpretations f...
Pictures brought into the therapy room help the therapist to get to know the
intrinsic world of the patient as well as the...
Another example may be seen through the following works. In t hat therapy a women
worked on her maturation process by choo...
c. Photography during the therapy
Photography during therapy provides the therapist with diagnostic ability about the
pati...
e. Preserving the works
In art therapy, there is great importance to the preservation of the patient's works. The
therapis...
To sum up- it is possible to see that the different work modalities sway
between the integration of the photograph within ...
The first social network on the web, "The Well", was created on 1985. Ten
years later: Theglobe.com (1994), Geocities (199...
rapidly growing in size. In 2006, Facebook opened up to the non US college
community, and together with allowing externall...
chat
Buzznet Music and pop-culture 10,000,000 Open 498
CafeMom Mothers 1,250,000
Open to moms
and moms-to-be
3,090
Cake Fi...
content"
Filmaffinity Movies and TV Series 250,000 Open 4,082
FledgeWing
Entrepreneural community
targeted towards worldwi...
speaking people
12 and older
italki.com
Language learning social
network. 100+ languages.
450,000 Open. Global. 15,500
Int...
Popular in Asia. Not
popular in the western
world.
13 and older.
No children
allowed.
Muxlim Muslim portal site 50,000
Ope...
(Google login)
OUTeverywhere Gay/LGBTQ Community Open
Passportstamp Travel Open
Pingsta
Collaborative platform for
the wor...
SchulerVZ and Meinvz.
Tagged.com General 70,000,000 Open 94
Talkbiznow Business networking Open 395,824
Taltopia Online ar...
on data portability)
Zoo.gr Greek Web Meeting point 890,000 Open 5,634
What's the fuss about or what can you do on social ...
1. Profile page:
The profile page allows the user to edit his or hers profile that will be available to his
contacts or to...
2. establishing On line connections
Social Web sites provide for their members facilities that enable discovering
existing...
Search friends page on Fickr.com
3. Participating in on line groups
Most social Web sites support groups that members can ...
A group page on facebook.com.
4. Communicating with online connections
Social Web sites provide various facilities for mem...
Various types of UCCs (Use's Created Contents), such as photos, images,
blogs, micro-blogs, music, video, bookmarks, and t...
8. Holding the user
Various features on the social websites are designed to have the users spend a
long time on the sites, and have them retur...
network photos-haring Flickr. It seems like those component are relevant to social
networks in general:
1. At a bare minim...
powerful and so they lead to a numerous comments expressing emotional reaction to
the pictures. At the same time personal ...
Flickr, the only photography focused social net work of those three networks on
which this research is based, offer the us...
picture and can illuminate thoughts and associations of the photograph about his
work. All this additional text can add la...
Likewise, people may project their own meaning into the photo by describing
what it means to them on an emotional, social,...
In 1995 a first paid psychotherapy through the net was suggested by Ivan Goldberg
(Ainsworth, 2002: 205). A little more th...
interpreted in many ways: the use of photography per se; creating
computerized artwork and so on. The actual works are cre...
Connected through online
Conversation software such as
messenger, ICQ and chats.
two users.
Group Virtual chat room in whi...
B. Lack of body language and eye contact
E-therapy nowadays does not enable non-verbal communication. The absence of body
...
therapy through the net, without the need to go out. Of course, the benefit of a most
successful treatment may sometimes d...
Chapter 3- Methodology
3.1 Description of the research
The goal of this research is to examine the motives of people who a...
3.2.1 The qualitative research
The qualitative research is a "human research" which is particularly suitable for the
areas...
The roots of the in-depth interview stem from the phenomenological tradition. Within
its framework, the researchers try to...
3.4 Implementation of the methodology in this research
This research aims to examine the existence of photography as thera...
other datum insinuating sensitivity instigated by the questions, which in turn, evoked
the sensation of unreliability.
3.6...
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  1. 1. About photo-sharing in Virtual social networks As indicator of the need to develop The phototherapy area through the internet A thesis Submitted by: Limor Kriegel Thesis advisor: Mr. Ronen Kowalski In partial fulfillment of the requirements For the degree of Master of Arts in Expressive Therapies Lesley University Graduate School of Arts & Social Sciences
  2. 2. March 2010 Thesis Abstract Limor Kriegel March 2010 About photo-sharing in virtual social networks as Indicator of the need to develop the phototherapy area through the internet The present research aims to examine if there is a need to establish infrastructure for phototherapy through the internet, based on semi-structured in-depth interviews with participants in social networks integrating photographs. The need for this research stemmed through the existence of photography as therapy, which acquired a stage on the platform of the existing social nets on the internet and is motivated by them. The premise of this research relied on the perception that if there is vast human phenomenon of "art as therapy" then it is possible and it is necessary to use that phenomenon and develop possibilities for art therapy. The findings of this research strengthen the hypothesis that photography as therapy on the internet does exist at present, which is why there is high probability that enabling phototherapy through the internet could provide responsion for the needs of many people.
  3. 3. Table of contents Chapter 1 Preface 1.1 The rationale of the research Chapter 2 Literature review 2.1 Photography and therapy 2.2 "It's a small world after all"- on virtual social network. 2.3 Photo sharing on virtual social networks nowadays and its therapeutic effects 2.4 Cyber psychotherapy Chapter 3 Methodology 3.1 Description of the research 3.2 The tools of the research 3.2.1 The qualitative research 3.2.2 The semi-structured interview 3.4 Implementation of the methodology in this research 3.5 The limitations of the research 3.6 Ethics 3.7 Analysis of the findings Chapter 4 Discussion and conclusions Bibliography
  4. 4. Chapter 1 – Preface The goal of this thesis is to introduce the current phenomenon of photo-sharing on the internet and examine if people who make use of the internet as their platform for sharing their photographs, may use the internet to make contact with the art therapist; namely a process of phototherapy through the internet. This research will attempt to understand the two aspects of this phenomenon. The first is to try to examine if indeed photography as therapy takes place at present on social nets and the second is the attempt to examine if there is a call on the part of the audience to maintain a framework of phototherapy on the internet, a call that should gain attention. In that sense, this is an attempt to examine the inclinations of people who use the net as their platform to share photographs on a frequent and meaningful basis (as per their subjective sensation). The first chapter will be divided into three parts and briefly introduce the history of photography whilst emphasis on the latest developments in the area of digital photography; the impact of these developments of the population of photographers and the linkage formed by these developments between the digital photography and the world of computers and the internet. Later, photography will be presented as therapy. That part shall introduce the analysis of the psychological processes connected with the 'creation' through photography and the relationships between the human being and the photographs. The second part of this chapter will deal with phototherapy as part of the art therapy area. As such, is obliged to carry within it the components of psychotherapy, such as patient-therapist relationships, setting, boundaries and the "sacred" triangle of art therapy- patient-art work-therapist. Chapter two in this thesis will discuss the existence of photography as therapy in social nets on the internet. This chapter shall present three social nets including within them the platform for photograph sharing; two international nets and an Israeli one. This chapter aims to show how people use the social net as a motive and as their stage for photograph sharing. It introduces the technological facility through which it is possible to use the computer to form contacts through photography. This chapter shall
  5. 5. examine the reasons because of which people are exposed within the framework of social nets and the characterizations of such exposure. Chapter three shall present the therapeutic options currently existing on the internet, the characteristics of therapy through the internet, its advantages and disadvantages. Within its framework, this chapter shall also present art therapy through the internet, which is presently enabled. The themes this chapter will handle would not include important questions such as what is the nature of the connection formed between patient and therapist in this kind of therapy? Does this connection respond to the principles of dynamic, narrative therapy or any other kind of therapy? What needs does it respond to and which it is unable to achieve? These important questions were researched amply during the last few years and in this research, I shall not relate to them. My wish is to transfer the focus to the more practical area or to the one existing on the surface: do people feel the need for this kind of therapy and are they expected to make use of it. 1.1 The rationale of the research "Poinciana Tree" is the name of the first series of pictures I uploaded on my photographs' reservoir in my photograph sharing site on the internet called "Flickr" (http://www.flickr.com) at the beginning of September, 2006 .
  6. 6. The texts I attached to these pictures, was connected with the second war in Lebanon, which ended less than a month earlier: No craters formed by Katiushas Would yield Katiusha trees And no compost for the Tree of Knowledge No, this is not A platform for political arrangements And the soldiers that hatch and emerge Across the border, No, they are not The sprouting of something bigger. Even if you push aside Grains of dust to the sides, Relate to that which is the most trashy As though it was the sun And you need to make sure the earth Shall, mistakenly, Cover them
  7. 7. So there would be no confusion Since all this is not Not all this Not nature of The human being (Paraphrased) Publishing the pictures of the Poinciana tree and the text attached to them were meaningful for me and started a new avocation: publishing pictures on the "Flickr" site- a picture sharing site constituting a social net in which the social connections are based on the publication of pictures and the responses to them. As time passed by I found myself becoming addicted to the site and all of its functions: photography, publication of the pictures, surfing the photo reservoirs of other people and writing responses to their pictures. Despite my use of the word "addiction" (or perhaps precisely because of its use) I found out that the site responds to basic, human needs and constitutes a certain mode of "art as therapy" through the internet. In the course of time, as the popularity of the social nets increased, I started to associate my pictures on other sites such as "The Marker Café " and "Facebook". Through my personal experience with this site, I found out that observing it as a therapeutic means is an interesting one. For example, in art therapy the first work created by the patient is a major marker for the therapist as it usually contains the major themes preoccupying the patient. Thus, the first pictures I uploaded reflect my personal world, in many ways. I found out that by observing the pictures of the other participants, many implications are done and the non-verbal communication between the various participants in the site leaves a large gap in which the observer can complement voids as he/she deems it right. The members who share their pictures on social nets are divided regarding the use they make of the nets. Some regard themselves as artistic- photographers and publish art creations depicting consolidated language and assertion. Others publish pictures of the kind found in family albums thus in fact creating a kind of on-line family album which is presented before all to see. Through these, it may be deduced that this kind of social net provides an opening for the processes discussed by Sulzberg (1955) about photography, peeping processes and exhibitionism, which are linked with the pre-verbal stage. In parallel, exposure through photograph enables the
  8. 8. presentation of the self with greater control than the one that exists in real life. This was well expressed by the Beatles in their song "All you need is love" (by Lennon and McCartney) in which they sang "Nothing you can see that isn't shown". While examining the development of the integration between the internet and the world of therapy, it has been found that psychological therapy through the internet, in various ways, is a most developed area. The first paid therapy through the internet was held by Ivan Goldberg in 1955 (Ainsworth, 2002:205). In the course of time, various therapeutic methods evolved which had different characteristics and so, twenty years or so later, it is possible to find on the internet various kinds of therapies. The individual therapy may occur when the patient and the therapist are simultaneously on line and are conducting a written conversation using software such as Skype, Gmail Talk, ICQ , Messenger and so on. Another form of individual therapy on the net is through the e-mail correspondence while the correspondence times were determined in advance. Art therapy through the net is still in its cradle, only two evidences were found for the development of art therapy on the internet. One is by Kater Collie – an art therapist and Davor Cubranic a computer person who presented on "Youtube" (http://www.youtube.com) a software they created jointly. It is based on the painter's software and enables art therapy through the internet while each one of the group members can see the art works of the other members and can communicate with them. The target audience of that software is that of invalids and people with physical limitations that do not allow them to come out of their home. In other words, this software acted as a kind of default for those who cannot enjoy the normative group art therapy (http://youtube.com/watch?v=pYfiRfeXTxw). The second finding in that area was discovered in Israel on the site called "Benafshi" (Hebrew for "in my psyche"- http://www.benafshi.co.il), which offers art therapy through the internet. It was founded in the middle of 2008. Here is a segment from the actual site (p. 140): How is it actually conducted? In the art therapy process, the therapist directs the patient to create some art works whose goal is neither aesthetic nor artistic. It is meant to act as the tool for profound connection with him/herself. Choosing the work medium occurs
  9. 9. through the dialogue between the therapist and the patient and it may be interpreted in many ways: the use of photography per se; creating computerized artwork and so on. The actual works are created both within the context of the verbal dialogue formed between patient and therapist, which is conducted through the e-mail, through a chat or through the combination of both. Each artwork turns in its turn into the focus of the therapeutic dialogue and into a tool for observation and the creation of immanent process of awareness and development. Through that process, the next artwork evolves and so on and so forth. As explained before, the aim of this thesis is not to analyze in depth the transference relations as these are expressed on the internet (which is a controversial issue). The importance of the research is in that if indeed it is found that internet therapy is needed, there is a need to act according to the following three levels: The first level is the profound inquiry of the difference between verbal therapy on the internet and art therapy on the internet. To research the advantages and disadvantages of the art therapy on the internet and to examine its difference from the classic art therapy. The second level concerns building different platforms providing the response for that need that evolves from the audience. Finally, should people exhibit interest in it, there is a need to explain and distribute the area so the broad public would gain access to it. At present, the only site suggesting art therapy through the internet is relatively new and few know about its existence. To sum up I must confess and say that this paper started as one aiming to express the importance in the development of phototherapy on the internet. However, the more the writing of this thesis advanced and I became more acquainted with the area of therapy through the internet, I found out that it is a problematic area and, to some extent, it instigated repulsion in me. Despite my ample love for the internet and the personal interest I find in it, I found out that therapy through the internet is justified only when there is no other option or alternately, as a transition stage for people intimidated by an intimate encounter. Indeed, the materials I read did justify and sided with the internet therapy but for they seems biased in advance and I found myself rejecting the ideas and the approaches presented in them.
  10. 10. Chapter 2 - Literature review 2.1 Photography and therapy "The capacity of the photograph to represent the external world in infinite and inexhaustible detail without the shifts, distortions or forgetting to which memory is vulnerable, has made photography an avocation of unequalled popularity. The camera aids people to overcome and extend beyond the limits of perceptual and thought processes while providing a non verbal means of personal expression, a vehicle for communication subjective experience and privet perspective of the world" (Donald and Colson, 1979). In this chapter I will discus the history of photography emphasizing resent development in digital photography and the way it affects the users. Later, in the main part of this chapter, I will examine the therapeutic aspects in using this special and popular medium. My claim is that photography as therapy on the net exists nowadays and that the cyberspace becomes a real therapeutic space (this will be demonstrated on the fourth chapter). I will explain the deference between photography as therapy and photo-therapy, as the basis on which I will try to propose a new model of photo- therapy on the net. The camera doesn't lie ? Developments in photography technology One for the album/ Margaret newlin Who will recall That the red dog had fleas this summer
  11. 11. And stank of the barn? That one child had broke his brother's nose In August? And the farm roof leaked? Those apples o the ground Hummed full of bees And smelled of rot. The camera never lies It earmarks truth more ruthlessly than brush Making us climb forever there Over the white fence Under the apple tree Into the sunlight field. (newlin, 1973) Writing about the Camera Obscura device – on which the invention of the camera will lean later on- has been documented more than 2000 years ago by Aristotle. In Latin "Camera Obscura" means dark chambers. This device forms a two-dimensional image from a three-dimensional object by penetration of the light rays through a tiny foramen into a dark room. Thus, the rays form on the wall in front of the foramen a picture that is opposite to that which is seen on the outside. Still, the pictures gained through the Camera Obscura could not be fixated and so it did not concern actual photography. In the second half of the 16th Century two developments occurred in the Camera Obscura: in 1550 the physicist Girolamo Cardano suggested a meaningful improvement for the Camera Obscura in his book "On Subtlety"- inserting a convex glass lens instead of the foramen in the wall. Thus, a clearer and sharper image is
  12. 12. gained relatively to the one achieved through the simple foramen. In 1585 Giambattista Benedetti added one more improvement: he inserted a diagonal mirror into the space and its role was to invert the image. Now the viewer could see the image without its being upside down. In the 17th Century the Camera Obscura turned from a room into a mobile device but it still did not enable immortalization of the reflected ima In 1826 Nicéphore Niépce takes the first permanent photograph, a landscape that required an eight hour exposur. The photography board made of celluloid was developed in 1888 and is used to this day. Many advancements and technical developments took place in photography since then. The use of manual cameras in which the photograph is controlling the data measurement, has been replaced by automatic cameras, which are programmed to create a sharp, correctly exposed photography (Burian, 1999). As a result of the technological advancements photographers are almost entirely free from the necessity to invest much of their attention in technicalities and are able to focus on other aspects. Digital imaging which uses an electronic image sensor to record the image as a set of electronic data rather than as chemical changes on film, is rapidly replacing film photography in consumer and professional markets. Both in traditional and in digital photography, the photograph can be enhanced and manipulated by many effects (contrast, cropping, colors control etc). Expectedly, the simplicity of manipulating the digital photo in a push of a button on the computer's keyboard, replacing hours of working in the darkroom, makes these photo's manipulations more popular. The digital technology had also enabled the combination of the photograph with other medias in new ways. The photographed object can be joined with different medias such as audio, video, interactive multimedia, animation and so on. Another digital photographer's advantage lies in their ability to view the results immediately on the camera's screen, and so to cancel or save them, in the no need to spend money on film and developing once the camera is bought (Corbett, 2001) Digital photography had also made photography more available in two ways. The first one is by allowing the making of very small instruments to be developed, so that they can be carried easily by the user or be stored in other devices, that are carried anyway everywhere by their users, such as cell phones and iPod.
  13. 13. On the other hand digital photography had made it more available to sharing, by private mail or in social networks, because it dose not require scanning, as was needed earlier. Photography as therapy " I know just one thing: how I express myself , in one way or another. Photography offers me the means, more simply and faster than painting" (man ray). Art therapy is based on the therapeutic elements existing in art (art as therapy). Photography as therapy, the subject I shall handle in this part of the thesis, is an area dealing with the healing elements existing in the creative process called photography and examines the emotional elements linked with that activity. Generally, photographers may be divided according to their approach to themes, style and point of views that are photographed. This enables division also regarding the ego sources, they are using. Some of them are interested in the artistic part regardless of the technology and others cling to the technology. Some believe in neither the first nor the second. The technical skills the photographers need, diverse from the pushing on the button and printing of the product and up to long hours of development in the dark room or the digital editing of the photograph. The themes that appear in the pictures may constitute an attempt to reflect reality as it is or alternately, to try to form an abstract look. Colson (1979) claims that in any case, all photographers share one joint goal: to create a permanent visual product; a target that involves the entire "self" including its conscious and unconscious motives. Perceiving the past and coping with a loss
  14. 14. Photograph from September 11 BY WISLAWA SZYMBORSKA They jumped from the burning floors— one, two, a few more, higher, lower. The photograph halted them in life, and now keeps them above the earth toward the earth. Each is still complete, with a particular face and blood well hidden. There’s enough time for hair to come loose, for keys and coins to fall from pockets. They’re still within the air’s reach, within the compass of places that have just now opened. I can do only two things for them— describe this flight and not add a last line. The most popular use of the photograph today is done in order to collect and document the pictures of those dear to us, also in order to form a visual family tree. Colson (1979) claims that each photographer he knows personally, an amateur or a professional is imbued with the need to photograph his/her close family. He adds that most of the professional photographers started photography as a hobby during their adolescence (the age in which the greatest mental and physical changes take place). Others started their photography avocation when they were children who- as is the common knowledge- change and grow in a rhythm that challenges human memory. In the same way, the camera pops up in unique events that pass by such as events, ceremonies or the departure of friends. In fact, it may be said that photography assures visual assistance to memory to preserve the important moments, which may then be drawn out any time in the future. That is probably why people take photographs in times of swift change: apparently,
  15. 15. the photographing helps them to stop time and get a bigger opportunity to consolidate the moment's passing experience. In conclusions, the picture enables external strengthening for the internal connection with the person or the existence that were lost. Colson (1979) claims that it is possible to compare the familial attitude to the pictures to the description provided by Freud (1917) for the mourning following the death of a loved one. Colson quotes him as follows: "Psychologically, the existence of the lost object continues. Each one of the memories and the expectations linking the libido with the object is brought up and processed. The separation of the libido is completed through respect towards it". Weiser (1993) expands on Colson's quotation of Freud claiming that the photograph functions as transition object that mediates between the occurrences in the photograph and those in reality. Doutch (1960) writes about the same subject saying that "the primitive experience that the world was one part of the self and gradually it had been taken or became external, is never accepted partially…..the loss of the object may motivate the need to regain it through artistic means". One of the characteristics of the mourning sensation is the adaptation to time and the expectation for the future (Pollock, 1971). The inability to mourn or freezing in a stage of mourning which is non- adaptive, non-creative, neutralized the ability to change and grow and emphasizes the inevitable death. In pathological relations with time, change and mourning, photography helps to correct the time almost like a magic wand by hiding the change and the mourning process, symbolically. In fact, taking pictures is the closes means of expression to memories than any other expressive tool. In his book "Another way of telling", Berger (1982) compares memory to photography. He argues that the inspiration for the photograph is not the outcome or sequel of the visual memory but it stems precisely from the same spot. It is the actual thing. Photography as well as memory preserves the moment subjectively and both are motivated by and motivating through immanent contexts. Just as in the memory, the photograph is connected with the event in which it was formed but it carries within the procedure of its no- continuity (by freezing the specific moment in the continuity). That is how the photograph preserves a moment in time and does not enable erasing it by all the successive moments.
  16. 16. For the same reason and because the photograph was taken out of the continuity and the context, it has an unclear meaning. Berger (1982) claims that the meaning stems from the context. He believes that the photograph's significant lack of meaning, grants it the power of being a unique means of expression that opens many meanings which Berger calls "another way of telling". Roland Barthes, tragic as was his habit, presented the connection between photography and loss as follows: "The photography does not bring back the past (there is nothing of Proust in the picture). It does not affect me to reconstruct that which had been cancelled (by time or distance) but only to confirm that which I see that has indeed existed…. The photograph always amazes me, a continuous and renewed amazement. Perhaps it is that amazement, that perseverance that is embedded in the religious infrastructure that shaped my entity. Nothing will help here: art of photography is somehow connected with the resurrection". Regressive playfulness and rediscovery of the environment People who collect and organize their photographs, ask people to stand in specific positions are many time obsessive about their preoccupation with this avocation. According to Colson (1979), it is possible to describe the photograph as one enabling controlled regression of the self in which the instinctive need finds its partial expression in a way that helps to achieve: (1) Stability and adherence to the object. (2) An infantile "as if" situation, in which the world is perceived again and thus enriches the experience of reality. (3) Entering a process of discovery. The early interest and the most universal one in static pictures stems from the stage in which the stabilization of the object is the child's major mission. In addition, to the stabilization of the object, the photograph also supports the complementing functioning of the "self"; meaning the regulation and the blocking of stimulations. Researches that were performed on schizophrenic's patients showed lack of selective blocking of attention as characteristic of that syndrome. For them, schizophrenia is a defect in the ability to sieve stimulations that emerge from the immanent or the external world. These people have difficulties selecting the input and thus are
  17. 17. inundated by more input than they are able to assimilate or organize (perform integration) (Colson, 1979). In addition and within the context of the previously expressed ideas, the camera may serve as comparison with memory processes and holding of the static object and decrease anxiety regarding their difficulty to contain sights in the brain. This information suggests that tension caused by anxiety through the inundation of stimulations (absorbing more than the ego can organize) and then the threat of loss and partings may be released by using a camera as supplement to the ego. Even for people who are relatively healthy, the selectivity and the distance required in order to take a picture and to diminish the hints, serve as protection against the omission of sights. For "healthy" people the camera functions less as compensation for defects in the stability of the object or the blocking of stimuli and functions more as a way for adaptation to ambivalence and the exaggerated sensory input. The latter occurs as part of the human condition, which encourages looking beyond the camouflage which is usually defined as reality and which emphasizes points of view which are less prevalent about people and the world. Another expansion in the inquiry of reality by the ego is done through the act of revelation. The child discovers the world and his place in it through inquiry and playing overlapping the establishment of the blocking of stimuli and permanence of the object. Schachtel (1959) described that development as attempt to recapture the spontaneity and openness as sensory experience in the creative activity. Since the picture stops the action and screens some of the stimulations, it opens accessibility to a certain issue thus providing more details. Taking the subject out of its usual location breaks the familiar and regular and thus, a new experience of the subject is enabled as well as a new aesthetic experience. Schachtel (1959) argues that the similarity between the artist and the child is in the freshness, interest and openness through which the object is perceived and that these characteristics are the core of the creative experience. To sum up, this kind of the picture's use aiming to enrich the experience of reality, gains many forms. There is the total pleasure produced through the skill in technological precision. Often the photography fans are interested in a variety of activities that integrate gadgets or other devices. There are additional pleasures in the attempts to gain a new lens, new filters and experience the abilities of photography to capture reality. There is also the use of the photograph to perceive the illusion of
  18. 18. something. Robbins (1942) a psychoanalyst and photography fan described that use: "My psychiatric interest in people may be expressed in the inquiry of the portrait with special effort to let out the personality of the subject by catching a specific expression; causing the person to do something that characterizes him or emphasize specific characteristics by arranging the illumination in specific way". Photography as conscious, creative action The fact that the photographer is required to perform conscious action of technical control to operate the camera forms a structured process. Thus, it detains spontaneity and creates conscious emotional expression. That way, the photography enables an intricate way, which includes conscious processes to express ideas and feelings and acts as communication means that is projective-symbolic. Even through all photographers create a visual, existing product by merging unconscious motives with ego functioning, still there is a difference between the photographers, in the fego functioning participating in the process as well as in their areas of interest. Specific photographers are interested in this theme or other while others emphasize the artistic style that is touched by the theme; others draw pleasure through the precisions and the control of the technical components. Some photographers attempt to produce a picture that represents reality, almost as a copy while others try to use the reality to create an abstract picture. The post-photography work may also require different levels of the self's functioning: the technical preoccupation with the photograph is at times summed up by pressing the button in an automatic state and then having it developed. In other cases, it concerns a long and intricate process of working on the picture using various computer software, developing it in the dark room or printing it. The photograph as projective space and connection with unconscious layers The world contracted to a recognizable image/ William Carlos Williams At the small end of an illness There was a picture
  19. 19. Probably Japanese Which filled my eye An idiotic picture Except it was all I recognized The wall lived for me in that picture I clung to it as a fly According to Colson (1979), the photography activates certain ego abilities and expands these abilities beyond their normative boundaries. Voyeurism opposite exhibitionism In his article "Body image of a photographer", Fox (1957) claimed that there are few pre-genital needs (oral and anal) involved in photography. He quoted Fenijal on that: "The mechanical sophistication of the human being did in fact create a "desired eye" (the camera) that observes the external world and unites it and then projects it out again". In his words, Fenijal emphasizes the exhibitionistic oral need, which is expressed through the photographing action by integrating aspects of inner reflection and external reflection. These aspects, according to Fenijal insinuate the psychological process of projective identification. Colson (1979) argued that the great attraction to photography stems from the unique ability to reach satisfaction on few levels of the psyche, simultaneously. Parallel to the satisfaction gained through the picture, it is mainly a function of the ego. Few id motives, such as voyeurism and its parallel, exhibitionism, may be satisfied in a manner that is socially acceptable. Maybe this is how it is possible to explain the behavior of press photographers whose role imparts them the position of the peeping spectators whose role it is to observe and document but also the behavior of amateur photographers who allow themselves to observe and peep into "prohibited" places when they are holding the camera.
  20. 20. In his book "Thoughts about photography", Roland Barthes (1980) talks about exhibitionism through concepts of object staging: "When I feel that the lens is watching me, everything changes. I prepare myself to stand in front of the camera and instantly form a bdifferent body for myself. I turn myself into a picture in advance. This change of form is active: I feel that the picture is creating my body or collapses it arbitrarily…." Aggressiveness and omnipotence The terminology of photography includes words that insinuate unconscious aggression. A person "shoots" a picture and the picture is the "shot". The feelings of those who photograph moments towards their pictures is similar to the way hunters feel about their loot. It may even be said that the photographer of moment contains some of the aggression towards the movement of life and change. Colson (1979) pointed out that in some cultures taking the picture of a person may be considered lack of good manners, reasons for insult and even perceived as robbing of the person's image. At times, the photography act may provide legitimization for voyeurism but may also be interpreted as invasion of privacy. The actual tool- the camera- may at times instigate sexual wishes and satisfy them through the occupation with elaborate phallic mechanisms adorned with erotic aura. In her book "Photography as the mirror of the period", Suzanne Sontag (1979) writes the following: "Like guns and cars, cameras are fantasy-machines whose use is addictive. However, despite the extravagances of ordinary language and advertising, they are not lethal. In the hyperbole that markets cars like guns, there is at least this much truth: except in wartime ,cars kill more people than guns do. The camera/gun does not kill, so the ominous metaphor seems to be all bluff - like a man's fantasy of having a gun, knife, or tool between his legs." Another magic aura, which is ascribed to photography is that of omnipotence. The symbolic insinuations about "taking a picture" or "snatching" one moment out of the flowing time, not only point at aggression but also at omnipotence. One of the ego functioning the child is required to develop as he/she grows is to establish the
  21. 21. sensation of control over time. The acquaintance with the dimension of time and its control (the sensation of controlling it) are escorted by wishes for omnipotence; wishes to manage to do the impossible. Stopping the moment in a picture, immortalizing it and fixating it surely contain remnants of such sensations (Colson, 1979). According to Colson (1979), interest in photography expresses: i. Display of unconscious wishes. ii. Oppression turned against the expression of such wishes. iii. The attempt of that person to overcome such oppression. The freedom to look at an area and use the surface as the one indicating that, which resides in its depth- these are the subjects that the photographer is facing while taking a picture (Colson, 1979). The camera provides a means of observation that is safe and has the potential to praise. The focus, curtaining and visual inclusion, the dimness opposite the revelation are all a matter of the photographer's self-awareness. That way the picture expresses a large variety of unconscious wishes and suggests an interception that is turned towards these wishes on high level of sublimation. Photographs as sequels of self-identity Images, as are all plastic art works, are an extension of one‟s identity, reflecting aspects of one‟s personality, relationships, and lifestyle .This explains the fact that the stealing of one‟s image can sometimes feel like a violation not only of ownership but of self. Images can give expression to the unconscious dimensions of one‟s character, to the way he or her experience themselves, their anxiety, wishs, or ideals. Thus, The photographer of the picture establishes a relationship to the image taken as a mean to establish a relationship to some emerging aspect of his or her identity (Suler, 2008). Phototherapy
  22. 22. The definition of Phototherapy is the use of photography and personal photographs within the frame work of formal therapy, where trained mental health professionals use all sorts of techniques to help clients during counseling session (wiser, n.d.), (Krauss, 1982). This special form of therapy is being used in a wide range of populations and settings. It has been used in in family , group and individual therapy as an diagnostic tool as well as a way to develop skills in "perceiving, feeling thinking, behaving and communicating" (Krauss, 1982). Despite the clear definition, still the professional status of phototherapy is unclear. On the one hand, phototherapy is considered as a niche within plastic and expressive art therapy and it is used by a growing number of art therapists. In some curriculums, courses or lesson are integrated which are devoted absolutely to the photography means. In addition, professional books reviewing the areas of art therapy, introduce phototherapy as one of its areas. Still, on the other hand there are the following facts: the Israeli Ministry of Health requiring 600 art lessons in order to get the therapist's certificate and it does not ratify photography-studying lessons. Separate curriculums were founded in Israel for phototherapy and so the Musrara College for example, provides a studying course of three years for phototherapy but at the end of it, no certificate is obtained from the Ministry of Health. The development of phototherapy The integration between photography and mental health started developing already in the middle of the 19th century. Few years after the invention of photography, Dr. Hugh Welch Diamond, a British doctor and photography fan, one of the founders of the photography association and editor of the first photography magazine in Britain, was the one who had built the bridge between these two areas. Between the tears 1848- 1858 he acted as the supervisor of the women's department at the Surry mental hospital. During these years, Diamond took pictured of his patients to try to prove his argument (which was not established after all) that mental illness may be diagnosed
  23. 23. by observing the facial features of the patient and their characteristics. When he showed his patients their photographs, he noticed that it had a good impact on them. That is how phototherapy was founded. Photograph of Dr. Diamond's patients: ------ In 1935, Morgan and Murray introduced the TAT diagnosis into the area of psychotherapy. This was an old version of the diagnostic tool known as the Rorschach test (1921). However, in this case it did not concern abstract spots but clear, visual drawings; the kind of illustrated pictures which through the presentation of structured questions act as a tool for examining the projections performed by the observer through his/her immanent world towards the illustration.
  24. 24. In 1973, Robert U. Akeret published his book "Photo Analysis" which suggests technique for psychological interpretations for pictures in the family's album. In 1977, Zekem published a small advertisement in the "Psychology today" magazine in which he asked to make contact with people use pictures during their therapeutic work. That ad gained more than two hundred responses, which is how the photography quarterly was founded. It served as a means of connection between those who use that area (Weiser, 2001). A year later the number of readers of the new quarterly had grown to over 1,000 people and so on May 1979 the first International Phototherapy Symposium was organized by the quarterly's editor, Zekem ,in DeKalb, Illinois. The many publications arising from the Symposium initiated the literature base for the field. (Weiser, 2001). In 1982, Judy Weiser opened the phototherapy Center in Vancouver, Canada and in 1983; she published her book "Phototherapy techniques". The book reviewed comprehensively the area of phototherapy and became an auxiliary for the work of therapists in this area. That same year the most-influential book "Phototherapy in mental health" by Krauss and Fryrear was published, containing clinical researches and theoretic articles by major researchers in that area. The area of phototherapy is developing and becoming more profound as times goes by. More and more institutes qualify therapists as part of their art therapy studies and in addition to them. Researches and articles continue to be published around the world while the USA is the leader of this area. Work techniques with photography within therapeutic setting a. Presenting the photographs During various stages in the psychotherapy treatment, the patient feels the need to present before the therapist, pictures of his/her relatives. This includes also pictures of homes, places of work or anything that may be photographed and which holds a meaning for the patient. The sensation that usually escorts the patient is that if the therapist is exposed to the physical sight of the place or person he/she is talking about, the therapist would get to know them better.
  25. 25. Pictures brought into the therapy room help the therapist to get to know the intrinsic world of the patient as well as the history and images who are meaningful for him/her. The choice of photographs is usually the outcome of the editing the family's album so the patient chooses to present his/her past in specific manner. As any visual object, the photograph summons the therapist to form contact with the verbal narrative attached to the picture by the patient but also with the unconscious parts that chose the specific photograph as one representing an event, period or person. b. Artwork with the photographs of the patient and his/her relatives The photographs may constitute a wonderful material for therapy through art. Intuitively, the artwork combined with the personal photograph, may bring out unconscious themes and act as basis for their processing. The following photographs present example of works made by me about my connection with my brother. The picture was taken out of the family album and was photographed so that it would be possible to work with it. I called it "the faces of the orphans do testify":
  26. 26. Another example may be seen through the following works. In t hat therapy a women worked on her maturation process by choosing her pictures as a girl and on it added (using photoshop) her picture as a mature woman. The processed picture acted as basis for the textual creation:
  27. 27. c. Photography during the therapy Photography during therapy provides the therapist with diagnostic ability about the patient. Just as any time spent with the patient through talking, silence or creativity, which helps us to get to know him/her, thus the photography has the ability to expose the special sides of the patient such as: what interests him/her? How does he/she hold the camera? How does he/she gets organized in space? Does he/she feels free? Which angles he/she chooses? Does he/she chooses to photograph reality as it is or to direct it? What is the measure of closeness to the object? Does the patient get closer with the body or does he/she use the zoom function in the camera? Does he/she keep improving the performance as time goes by? And so on. d. The patient's picture taken by the therapist The photograph of the patient during the therapy enables reflection and forms a sensation of visibility. The following examples show pictures of patients who were photographed during the therapy in which they could see themselves from the side and then discuss these sights:
  28. 28. e. Preserving the works In art therapy, there is great importance to the preservation of the patient's works. The therapist guards the works for the patient until the end of the therapy and then the patient decides what he/she wants to do with them. Sometimes the patients create works that cannot be preserved and then the photograph is the closest thing that can be done to preserve them. These include large works, works made of expendable materials, works done on the body of the patient, works using the space of the clinic or its walls as part of the composition and works that depend on time such as movement or drama. Sometimes, therapists working at schools or community centers, are compelled to share their room with other people and thus they lose control over that which is happening in it while they are not working in it. The "backup" of the works in such places by taking their photographs can prevent or at lease minimize disappointments. f. Documentation of the art creation stages Documenting the art creation stages by the therapist while the patient is found within the creative process, enables return to the symbolic reality which no longer exists but which was there for a few moments; to see the road the patient went through until reaching the final composition. The ability to see the different stages sometimes helps the patient to experience reality differently or to reach insights about the patients' work mode.
  29. 29. To sum up- it is possible to see that the different work modalities sway between the integration of the photograph within the therapeutic setting, as something on the side and supporting to the center of therapeutic doing. The photography may act as a practical tool, accessible for therapist and patient as well as a profound, psychoanalytic tool through which it is possible to examine and exercise projections, areas of interest, capabilities and more. Suler (2008), suggests a list of four factors for analyzing one's photography works: (a) the subject matters captured in the image; (b) shooting and post processing techniques; (c) the visual characteristics of the image resulting from such techniques, as interpreted psychologically (d) the psychological and emotional issues portrayed in the image. 2.2" it's a small world after all"- on virtual social networks Social networks are part of what is called "The social web", meaning the way people socialize and create interactions and relationships through the internet. Although, as it will be described later on, the social network websites have been developing for more than twenty years, it became an important phenomenon in the past few years when more and more people became users. Some Virtual Social networks, such as Facebook.com and myspace.com, each claim over 250 million registered users (Ston, 2009), are drawing more and more people with their multi-applications including creating an individual web page, posting information and contents (e.g., status, photos) and interacting with others. Unlike Facebook, Twitter and myspace, another type of websites is interest focused. For example, the well-known website Youtube is a video focused social network. Similarly, A person who is interested in photography and wants to share his pictures and to meet people who are photography- minded, can use websites such as Flicker, Kodak Gallery and Photobucket. The history of social networks on the web
  30. 30. The first social network on the web, "The Well", was created on 1985. Ten years later: Theglobe.com (1994), Geocities (1994) and Tripod (1995) took place on the net while more and more people became part of the social web. These communities contained chat rooms, in which people could share information and ideas via their personal homepages. On 1995 Classmates.com introduced a commercial, fee-based website for individuals seeking to reconnect with high school acquaintances (Classmates Media, 2008). After first registering and providing credit card information, students could see the names of fellow high-school graduates and send them email. Many of today‟s college students‟ first experiences with on-line social networks took place on Friendster.com and MySpace.com, two popular sites that pre-date Facebook.com These sites were very similar to Facebook.com except anyone could create a profile. This led to instances of people misrepresenting themselves, usually with nefarious intentions, such as adults claiming to be teenagers (Flanagan, 2007). As the caption to a July 5, 1993 The New Yorker cartoon put it, “On-line nobody knows you‟re a dog.” On 1997 SixDegrees.com came about and allowed Users to create profiles, to send messages, to hold on a “friends list” and to see other members who had similar interests to theirs. Whilst these features had existed in some form before SixDegrees.com came about, this would be the first time these functions were available in one package. Despite these new developments (that would later catch on and become immensely popular), the website simply wasn‟t profitable and eventually shut down. It was even described by the website‟s owner as "simply ahead of its time." On 1999 epinions.com was developed. Innovations included not only showing who is connected with whom, but giving users more control over content and connectivity. Between 2002 and 2004, three social networking sites emerged as the most popular form of these sites in the world, causing such sites to become part of mainstream users globally. First there was Friendster (which Google tried to acquire in 2003), then, MySpace, and finally, Bebo. By 2005, MySpace, emergent as the biggest of them all, was reportedly getting more page views than Google. 2004 saw the emergence of Facebook, a competitor, also
  31. 31. rapidly growing in size. In 2006, Facebook opened up to the non US college community, and together with allowing externally-developed add-on applications, and some applications enabled the graphing of a user's own social network - thus linking social networks and social networking, became the largest and fastest growing site in the world, not limited by particular geographical following. List of social networking websites This is a list of major active social networking websites From Wikipedia1 , the free encyclopedia on the internet. The list is not exhaustive, and is limited to some notable, well-known sites. Name Description/Focus Registered users Registration Global Alexa Page ranking Adult FriendFinder Adults Only Dating/Hook- up Network 33,000,000 Open 64 Advogato Free and open source software developers 13,575 Open 118,124 Amie Street Music Open 30,628 ANobii Books Open 13,111 aSmallWorld European jet set and social elite 270,000 Invite-only 11,655 Athlinks Running, Swimming 68,496 Open 107,826 Avatars United Online games. Open 302,122 Badoo General, Popular in Europe c 35,000,000 Open to people 18 and older 157 Bahu General, Popular in France, Belgium and elsewhere in Europe 1,000,000 Open to people aged 13–25 19,738 Bebo General. 40,000,000 Open to people 13 and older 148 Bigadda Indian Social Networking Site. 3,000,000 Open to people 16 and older. 2,900 Biip Norwegian Community. Requires Norwegian phone number. 16,645 BlackPlanet African-Americans 20,000,000 Open 1,226 Broadcaster.com Video sharing and webcam 322,715 Open 1 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_social_networking_websites
  32. 32. chat Buzznet Music and pop-culture 10,000,000 Open 498 CafeMom Mothers 1,250,000 Open to moms and moms-to-be 3,090 Cake Financial Investing Open Care2 Green living and social activism 9,961,947 Open Classmates.com School, college, work and the military 50,000,000 Open 923 Cloob General. Popular in Iran. Open College Tonight College students. requires an e- mail address with an ".edu" ending CouchSurfing Worldwide network for making connections between travelers and the local communities they visit. 1,118,447 Open DailyStrength Medical & emotional support community - Physical health, Mental health, Support groups Open 17,465 DeviantART Art community 9,040,962 Open 119 Disaboom People with disabilities. (Amputee, cerebral palsy, MS, and other disabilities.) Open dol2day Politic community, Social network, Internet radio (German-speaking countries) 40,200 Open DontStayIn Clubbing (primarily UK) Open Draugiem.lv General (primarily LV, LT, HU) 2,400,000 Invitation only Elftown Community and wiki around Fantasy and sci-fi. 185,000 Open, approval needed Epernicus For research scientists Open Eons.com For baby boomers Open to people 13 and older 13,675 Experience Project Life experiences Open Exploroo Travel Social Networking. Open 257,000 Facebook General. 200,000,000 Open to people 13 and older 4 Faceparty General. Popular UK. 200,000 Invitation only to people 18 and older. 2,481 Faces.com British teens Open to people 13 and older Fetlife People who are into BDSM 32,500 Open to people "of [legal] age to see adult 54,198
  33. 33. content" Filmaffinity Movies and TV Series 250,000 Open 4,082 FledgeWing Entrepreneural community targeted towards worldwide university students. Open to university students Flixster Movies 63,000,000 Open to people 13 and older 309 Flickr Photo sharing, commenting, photography related networking, worldwide Open 37 Fotolog Photoblogging. Popular in South America and Spain. 20,000,000 Open 57 Friends Reunited UK based. School, college, work, sport and streets 19,000,000 Open 8,052 Friendster General. Popular in Southeast Asia. No longer popular in the western world. 90,000,000 Open to people 16 and older. No children allowed. 64 Frühstückstreff General Open Fubar dating, an "online bar" for 18 and older 1,200,000 Open 2,609 Gaia Online Anime and games Open to people 13 and older GamerDNA Computer and video games 310,000 Open Gather.com Article, picture, and video sharing, as well as group discussions 465,000 Open Geni.com Families, genealogy 15,000,000 Open Goodreads Library cataloging, book lovers Open 5,305 Gossipreport.com Anonymous gossip Open to people 16 and older Grono.net Poland Open Habbo General for teens. Over 31 communities worldwide. Chat Room and user profiles. 117,000,000[63][64][65] Open to people 13 and older 4,050 hi5 General. Popular in India,Portugal, Mongolia, Thailand, Romania, Jamaica, Central Africa and Latin America. Not popular in the USA. 80,000,000 Open to people 13 and older. No children allowed. 27 Hospitality Club Hospitality 328,629 Open Hyves General, Most popular in the Netherlands. 8,000,000 Open 216 imeem Music, Video, Photos, Blogs 24,000,000 Open 140 Indaba Music Online music collaboration, remix contests. Users in 175 countries. 125,000 Open 62,781 IRC-Galleria Finland 505,000 Open to Finnish
  34. 34. speaking people 12 and older italki.com Language learning social network. 100+ languages. 450,000 Open. Global. 15,500 InterNations International community Invite-only 30,147 itsmy Mobile community worldwide, blogging, friends, personal TV-shows 2,500,000 iWiW Hungary 4,000,000 Invite-only Jaiku General. Owned by Google. Now available to all. Jammer Direct Creative resource website Open to the General Public kaioo General, nonprofit 30,000 Kaixin001 General. In Simplified Chinese; caters for mainland China users Open to the General Public Kiwibox General. For the users, by the users, a social network that is more than a community. 2,400,000 Open to people 13 and older. 22,693 Last.fm Music 30,000,000 Open to people 13 and older 262 LibraryThing Book lovers 400,000 Open to people 13 and older lifeknot Shared interests, hobbies Open to people 18 and older. LinkedIn General but mainly business 42,000,000 Open to people 18 and older. 192 LiveJournal Blogging 17,564,977 Open (OpenID) 56 Livemocha Online language learning - dynamic online courses in 22 languages - world‟s largest community of native language speakers. 3,000,000 Open 5,505 LunarStorm Sweden Open MEETin General Open Meetup.com General. Used to plan offline meetings for people interested in various activities. Open to people 18 and older. Meettheboss Business and Finance community, worldwide. Open Mixi Japan 20,936,509 Invite-only 64 mobikade mobile community, UK only Open to people 18 and older MocoSpace mobile community, worldwide 3,000,000 Open to people 14 and older MOG Music Open to people 14 and older Multiply "Real world" relationships. 10,000,000 Open to people 150
  35. 35. Popular in Asia. Not popular in the western world. 13 and older. No children allowed. Muxlim Muslim portal site 50,000 Open to people 13 and older 94,338 MyAnimeList Anime themed social community 160,000 Open to people 13 and older 4,500 MyChurch Christian Churches 144,295 Open 33,621 MyHeritage family-oriented social network service 30,000,000 Open 4,735 MyLife.com Locating friends and family, keeping in touch (formerly Reunion.com) 51,000,000 Open 2,311 MyLOL General. Popular in the United States, Europe and Australia. 32,000 Open to ages 13 and up. 253,145 MySpace General. 261,422,883[not in citation given] Open to ages 13 and up. 11 myYearbook General 5,100,000 Open to age 13 and up & Grades 9 and up 894 Nasza-klasa.pl School, college and friends. Popular in Poland. 12,000,000 Open Netlog General. Popular in Europe and Québec province. Formerly known as Facebox and Redbox. 42,000,000 Open to people 13 and older 102 Nettby Norwegian Community. Open Nexopia Canada 1,400,000 Open to people 14 and older 4,362 Ning Users create their own social websites and social networks Open to people 13 and older 566 Odnoklassniki General. Popular in Russia and former Soviet republics 37,000,000 Open 42 OkCupid Social networking and dating Open to people 18 and older One.lv / One.lt / One.ee General (Popular in Baltics, mostly Russian speaking) 1,000,000 Open OneClimate Not for Profit Social networking and Climate Change Open to People of all ages and locations OneWorldTV Not for Profit Video sharing and social networking aimed at people interested in social issues, development, environment, etc. Open Open Diary First online blogging community, founded in 1998. 5,000,000 Open to people 13 and older 25,713 Orkut Owned by Google. Popular in India and Brazil. 67,000,000 Open to people 18 and older, 112
  36. 36. (Google login) OUTeverywhere Gay/LGBTQ Community Open Passportstamp Travel Open Pingsta Collaborative platform for the world's Internetwork Experts Invite-only, only Internet Experts Plaxo Aggregator 15,000,000 Open Playahead Swedish, Danish,Norwegian teenagers Open Playboy U Online college community Open to college students with .edu e-mail address Plurk Micro-blogging, RSS, updates Open 27,061 Present.ly Enterprise social networking and micro- blogging Open quarterlife A social network for artists, filmmakers, musicians, and creative people Open to people 14 and older Ravelry Knitting and crochet 331,000 Invite-only while in beta ResearchGATE Social network for scientific researchers 30,000 Open Reverbnation Social network for musician and bands 25,000 Open to people 16 and older Ryze Business 500,000 Open 20,162 scispace.net Collaborative network site for scientists By invitation, but can request an invitation Shelfari Books Open Skyrock Social Network in French- speaking world 22,000,000 Open 41 SocialGO A social network builder that allows users to build their own online communities Open to people 18 and older. 8,457 SocialVibe Social Network for Charity 435,000 Open Sonico.com General. Popular in Latin America and Spanish and Portuguese speaking regions. 17,000,000 Open to people 13 and older. 297 Soundpedia Music Open 154,672 Stickam Live video streaming and chat. 2,000,000 Open StudiVZ University students, mostly in the German-speaking countries. School students and those out of education sign up via its partner sites 8,000,000 Open
  37. 37. SchulerVZ and Meinvz. Tagged.com General 70,000,000 Open 94 Talkbiznow Business networking Open 395,824 Taltopia Online artistic community Open TravBuddy.com Travel Open Travellerspoint Travel Open tribe.net General Open 3,517 Trombi.com French subsidiary of Classmates.com 4,400,000 Tuenti.com Spanish-based university and High School social network. Very Popular in Spain 4,500,000 Invite-only 587 Tumblr General. Micro-blogging, RSS Open 587 Twitter General. Micro-blogging, RSS, updates 25,000,000 Open 599 V Kontakte Russian social network. 37,140,000 Open 29 Vampirefreaks Gothic and industrial subculture 1,931,049 Open to users 13 and over Viadeo European Social Networking and Campus Networking in Seven Languages 6,000,000 Open Vox Blogging Open 1,549 Wasabi General Open WAYN Travel and lifestyle 10,000,000 Open to people 18 and older 823 WebBiographies Genealogy and biography Open Windows Live Spaces Blogging (formerly MSN Spaces) 120,000,000 Open 5 Wis.dm Questions and answers about anything and everything 50,000 Open WiserEarth Online community space for the social justice and environmental movement 25,800 Open to people 18 and older 114,942 Xanga Blogs and "metro" areas 27,000,000 Open 230 Xiaonei Significant site in China 15,000,000 Open XING Business (primarily Europe (Germany, Austria, Switzerland) and China) 7,000,000 Open 1,814 Xt3 Catholic social networking, created after World Youth Day 2008 Open Yammer Social networking for office colleagues Must have company email Yelp, Inc. Local Business Review and Talk Open Youmeo UK Social Network (focus Open
  38. 38. on data portability) Zoo.gr Greek Web Meeting point 890,000 Open 5,634 What's the fuss about or what can you do on social networks? The popularity of social networks websites is connected, to the writer's opinion, to the endless applications and features and to their constant reproduction. Nevertheless, there are some essential features that appear in all those websites in different ways and in varying degrees of sophistication. In their article "On social websites" Kim, Joeng and Lee (2010) present a list of eight Essential features of social Web sites: 1. Personal profiles 2. Establishing online connections 3. Participating in online groups 4. Communicating with online connections 5. Sharing UCCs 6. Expressing opinions 7. Finding information 8. Holding the users
  39. 39. 1. Profile page: The profile page allows the user to edit his or hers profile that will be available to his contacts or to members in same networks (every user can adjust the privacy settings). The profile page allows indication of personal details such as full name, residential zone, gender, occupation, hometown and self description. The user also may specify his website address, instant messaging he or she uses, hobbies, favorite books, movies and music. '' User name and body icon are two ways that allows self-presentation on the profile page. One have to choose his or her name as it will be presented on his profile page, and attached to every action performed on the sight. The real name can be exposed as well (in Facebook.com the user name has to be similar to the real name), but this is not necessary on most sites. Once the name is chosen, it can be changed but actually almost all the of the users stick to one name. It's interesting to see, according to the writer's experience, when close relationships are established; people no longer use their friend's user name when writing a comment but address each other by their real names. The use of both names, the real name and the virtual name, is in some way, an indication to the level of connection's intensity. Another identity component that is chosen by every social web user is the body icon. This little image (2cm x 2cm approximately) is attached to the user name and will generally appear near it. In a way, the body icon is a visual chosen name. Unlike the common sticking to the verbal name, the body icon is more often changed by users (again, according to the writer's experience). Here are some user names and their body icons from Facebook, Themarker-café and Flickr:
  40. 40. 2. establishing On line connections Social Web sites provide for their members facilities that enable discovering existing connection and candidates from new connections. The facilities include automatic discovery of existing members of a site from the email address books of the user, browsing of all existing groups on the site, a friend-recommendation engine that suggests friends of friends, and a keyword-based search engine for looking up members‟ names. Some sites assign new members to some of the existing groups on the site, based on their schools attended, current employers, physical locations, etc. Most sites allow members to browse and join all the groups. While browsing the groups, the member may select certain existing members and try to connect with them.
  41. 41. Search friends page on Fickr.com 3. Participating in on line groups Most social Web sites support groups that members can join and leave. Members and non-members can both view all the UCCs (user-created content) in all the groups. However, only members may post UCCs. Once joining a group, members can invite contacts. Some websites such as Facebook, Flicker and LinkedIn host thousands of groups that members have created, divided to three types of groups: public, public but by invitation only, and private.
  42. 42. A group page on facebook.com. 4. Communicating with online connections Social Web sites provide various facilities for members to use to communicate with their online connections, that is, friends and other members, including mail, on-line chat, text messaging, public and private bulletin boards and even Internet phone services. Furthermore, on behalf of the members, the sites send member updates and notices (e.g., friend request notice) to members‟ friends. Each member may have one or more „„followers,‟‟ and many members may be „„following‟‟ a member. For example, Facebook provides a "wall" to post a member‟s message for all friends to see and respond to. LinkedIn provides an „„answers‟‟ function to allow members to answer questions posted by other members ("topic of discussion"), and to refer the questions to their online connections. 5. Sharing UCCs.
  43. 43. Various types of UCCs (Use's Created Contents), such as photos, images, blogs, micro-blogs, music, video, bookmarks, and text can be shared on most social web sites. Friends and others may view (and sometimes share) these UCCs, send their links (URLs) to their online connections and download them to their private collections for future viewing and sharing with others. Social media sites provide richer facilities for sharing UCCs than social networking sites. For example, Twitter primarily allows the sharing of short text messages. The only non-text UCCs it allows are two photos of the member: one head and shoulder photo and one background photo. On the other hand, Flicker allows the sharing of photos, videos, and text. Members may add titles and tags when posting pictures that will be added to the search engine to support keyword-based search of the post. 6. Expressing opinion Social Web sites enable members to leave comments on the UCCs. Some sites allow members to vote on them, too. The voting may take the form of ranking (e.g., checking 3 stars out of 5 stars), or marking the UCC as a „„favorite,‟‟ or flagging it as spam or inappropriate. For example, Café.themarker.com provides two clickable stars, a green one and a red one, to allow members to express liking and disliking. 7. Finding information Social web sites provide the members facilities to find the information they need inside the site such as keyword-based search engines and browsing. The search engines can be used to look after names of people, names of groups and particular UCCs. Browsing can be done on selected groups and UCCs in a particular category. All social Web sites provide categories for the UCCs stored, so that users may browse UCCs in a specific category. Many social Web sites organize their data in terms of people, groups, and UCCs, and allow users to browse each category of data.
  44. 44. 8. Holding the user
  45. 45. Various features on the social websites are designed to have the users spend a long time on the sites, and have them return frequently. Many sites display data related to the data the users specifically seek (and sometimes data that may pique the interest of the users who is not searching). For example, YouTube displays on the main page the „„Recommended for You‟‟ videos related to the videos that the user watched earlier. Facebook and Flicker and Cafe.themarker provide various types of updated information on members‟ friends and friends‟ friends. The information includes friend's UCCs, whom the friends have made friends with, which friends updated their profiles, etc. Flickr shows a „„folksonomy‟‟ of popular keywords on the main page, enticing users to click on some keywords, related tags and photos in sub-directories. Flickr also displays new members and popular members on the „„people‟‟ column at the bottom of the main page, inducing users to click and spend time on some of the members. 2.3 photo sharing on virtual social networks nowadays and it's therapeutic effects. The primary method of online communication is typed text via e-mail, chat, instant messaging, discussion boards, social networks, and blogging that has evolved into highly sophisticated and unique forms of dialogue. However, with the increasing availability of high speed Internet connections, visual images have become increasing popular as a tool for self-expression. The psychological theory distinguish between those two modes of expression: the first one is known to involve thinking that is more linear, conceptual, consciously controlled, and reality-based while the other one tends to be more holistic, emotional, personal imaginative, symbolic, and influenced by the unconscious ( Richardson,1969). In his article "Vernacular Creativity, Cultural Participation and New Media Literacy: Photography and the Flickr Network" Burgess (2009) suggests a list of components, mental and practical, that are needed in order to take part in the social
  46. 46. network photos-haring Flickr. It seems like those component are relevant to social networks in general: 1. At a bare minimum, how to scan photographs or operate a camera to take new ones – in this, most of us are already very well schooled by the consumer electronics market. 2. Awareness of the existence of Flickr and at least some of its possible uses. 3. How to sign up and upload images 4. Tagging 5. Finding appropriate groups 6. Commenting and responding to comments 7. The assumption of the value of "speaking" to the imagined community of Interest, to an imagined world "out there". 8. An understanding of the network as a conversation- the image as social object. 9. Understanding of CC licensing and the ethics of merging two photographs, one of which is not your own. 10. On behalf of the contemporary Brisbane user– the idea of collaboration and playfulness behind going out to take that image. In the beginning of this Review of literature the therapeutic effects of taking photos were described. The uploading of those photographs to a social network is an act of going public with the visual shaping of oneself. It is a process of making the intrapersonal interpersonal. Sharing one‟s photography becomes a process of validation in which others Understand (or not) the personal meaning and facets of identity that the photographer embedded in the image (Suler, 2008). Beside the representation of self affect that is accompanied by the publication, the picture seems to be more vivid and alive and that it has more power. As in art therapy, where we usually can see a phenomena reproducing itself (in style, colors and composition), phototreams of users can reveal the internal world of the user to himself and to his followers. The Images sharing provide an undercurrent of emotion and ideas that enrich interpersonal dynamics between the users, often on a level that is not fully conscious or capable of being verbalized (Suler, 2008). Some pictures can immediately create a sense of a connection to the photograph and in some way to the photographer. According to the writer's experience, some pictures are objectively
  47. 47. powerful and so they lead to a numerous comments expressing emotional reaction to the pictures. At the same time personal meaning are reflected into the image, so that it becomes a type of nonverbal transitional space between the individual viewer and the photographer. Few factors changes between users (some times changes with times in the same user), factors connected to the internal world of the user but are seen in the virtual social network settings and not in the photograph itself: 1. Image arrangement and sequence Every social network offer the user it's own way of displaying his or hers pictures on their web page. However the setting is, the user always have his own personal touch in the pictures' presentation (conscious or unconscious). Café.themarker, for example, enable the user to create galleries, each can contain several albums (Facebok.com offers a similar system for organizing pictures). The way those galleries and albums are arranged, and the title given to each one, often reveal the internal classification of the content and its emotional meanings. Here you can see a user's three galleries presented in café.themarker: clicking on galery will open this page, where the blue picture situated in the upper right side called "birds" is the latest one uploaded. Following it all pictures in this gallery by chronological order. In this a example the user is making galleries of pictures not taken by him but buy professional well known photographs. Never the less, looking at his chosen photographs is a glimpse into his intrapsychic world: his memories, experiences, ideas and so on.
  48. 48. Flickr, the only photography focused social net work of those three networks on which this research is based, offer the users personal web pages that are meat to put photography in front of all. As you can see, the mane page of the user is his photostream , organized by chronology, while every new picture uploaded, pushes the older one down. Thus, Images occur in a sequence that reflects member‟s lives. Watching one user photostream can show the followers changes in the user's perceptions, thoughts, and emotions over time. The continuity of the strem can resemble a stream of mental existence: It may change direction, pick up speed, slow down, run shallow or deep. The gaps between images are as important signifiers of psychological dynamics as are the images themselves, pointing to underlying cognitions and affects that stimulated the transition. 2. Image's attached text upload images to the social networks usually are accompanying buy text. people create a title for the image and They may also add a description of one or two sentences or, in some cases, several paragraphs. “tags” that serve as keywords that help people locate the image using search engines, are also words attached to the
  49. 49. picture and can illuminate thoughts and associations of the photograph about his work. All this additional text can add layers of meaning that are not immediately obvious in the photo. In some cases, the title can be more powerful than the image itself, as when the photographer personalizes the image with emotional self- disclosures as titles. For the photographer, creating a title can be a process of discovering new meanings in the image via an internalized dialogue with imagined viewers. The photographer must ask himself what do the viewer sees in the photograph? what do I want him to see? What do effect does it have on me and how can I transmit this effect to the viewer? Searching the "right" title might help the photograph to uncover his or hers subconscious feelings, memories, and fantasies that he or she associate with the image. Descriptions accompanying an image often serve as a narrative about an event in one‟s life or an explanation of one‟s point of view on some subject, for which the image serves as a illustration. This combination of the image with text is what launches the potential for a relationship between photographers and their visitors (Suler, 2008). 3. Comments on pictures All virtual social networks allow visitors to comment each photo. Sometimes a special permission or a friendship status are needed in order to comment. Comments left by visitor can create a vivid dialogue between two or more users and even develop an interpersonal relationship. Each member of the community face the challenge of managing the amount of time spent in commenting on other's photos and taking part in discussions. Sometimes comments become a sort of social barter in which a person leaves one with the hope or expectation of getting one. In his article "Image, Word, Action: Interpersonal Dynamics in a Photo-Sharing Community" Suler (2008) enumerates few categories of comments: 1. Terse praise: compliment such as "beautiful composition" or "great capture" and even "wow!" or "cool". 2. Critiques and technical remarks: constructive criticism about the technical aspects of the shooting. 3. Personal reaction: Comment on what viewer personally like about an image, such as the colors, subjects in the shot or sensation that the image creates.
  50. 50. Likewise, people may project their own meaning into the photo by describing what it means to them on an emotional, social, or philosophical level. 4. Interpretations of the photograph- viewers may use the image as a vehicle for commenting on the mood, personality, or life of the photographer. 5. Topical comments- comments about a wide range of political, philosophical, and intellectual topics. 6. Questions- viewers might ask a question about a photo, which invites a dialogue and possibly a relationship between the viewer and the photographer. 2.4 Cyber psychotherapy Most people that are asked about cyber psychotherapy tend to negate it because of it's lack of direct contact. in this chapter I will present the field of therapy on the net trying to show that even though the shortcomings of it are real (first proof that not everything concerning the net is virtual) it does have it's special advantages. 1. The short history of E-Therapy General E-Therapy The foundation of psychotherapy took place in the beginning of the previous century when Freud developed the ides of talking as therapy. Freud believed that the psyche has a special structure that conceals its unpleasant elements by suppression. He thought that using therapy of talking one can bring the unconscious to conscious and by that to remove disturbing symptoms. Since Freud no scientific proofs were found to those theories concerning the healing affects of the treatment suggested. In spite of that, more then four-hundred approaches to treatment were developed in the last century, approaches that are based on different principals, assumptions, and theories. The common between all those approaches is that they are all established on a patient coming to tell his story. E-Therapy is a new medium of helping people solve life and relationship-related problems (Grohol, 1999).
  51. 51. In 1995 a first paid psychotherapy through the net was suggested by Ivan Goldberg (Ainsworth, 2002: 205). A little more then a decade later, hundreds of sites for psychotherapy are active and hundreds of therapists are members in the international society for mental health online (ISMHO). ISMHO (international society of mental health online) was established in 1997 to promote the international community of therapists' understanding, use, and development of on-line communications. Additionally to teaching online information and communication, the organization deals with research and development of computer uses for transferring information on mental health via net-based information and support forums. The organization also seeks to establish professional standards for the E-Therapy (Manhal-Baugus, 2001). Art-E-Therapy Art therapy through the net is still in its preliminary stages. The inquiry of this area for the sake of this thesis, yielded only two testimonies to the development of art therapy on the internet: by Kate Collie who is an art therapist and Davor Cubranic who is a computer man. Both present through the "YouTube" a software they created jointly which is based on drawing software and enables art therapy through the internet while each one of the group members can see the art works of the other members and can communicate with them. The target audience of that software is that of invalids and people with physical limitations that do not allow them to come out of their home. In other words, this software acted as a kind of default for those who cannot enjoy the normative group art therapy (http://youtube.com/watch?v=pYfiRfeXTxw). The second finding in that area was discovered in Israel on the site called "Benafshi" (Hebrew for in my psyche- http://www.benafshi.co.il), which offers art therapy through the internet. It was founded in the middle of 2008. Here is a segment from the actual site (p. 140): How is it actually conducted? In the art therapy process, the therapist directs the patient to create some art works whose goal is neither aesthetic nor artistic. It is meant to act as the tool for profound connection with him/herself. Choosing the work medium occurs through the dialogue between the therapist and the patient and it may be
  52. 52. interpreted in many ways: the use of photography per se; creating computerized artwork and so on. The actual works are created both within the context of the verbal dialogue formed between patient and therapist, which is conducted through the e-mail, through a chat or through the combination of both. Each artwork turns in its turn into the focus of the therapeutic dialogue and into a tool for observation and the creation of immanent process of awareness and development. Through that process, the next artwork evolves and so on and so forth. So, how does one begin? It is recommended to read the article about art therapy on t he site and apply through their "connection" column or directly with Mira Amir or Ayelet Globerman on the list of "our professionals". If you still have doubts and questions you can fill up our "questionnaire" and enable us top help you make the decision. 2. Definitions and qualities of E-therapy The term "E-Therapy" is used to describe the process of interacting conversation with a therapist online, while the client and the therapist are in separated locations and are using electronic means to communicate with each other (Bloom, 1997, in Manhal- Baugus, 2001). E-Therapy is taking places in all sorts of internet communications that exists nowadays. Internet communication can be classified on different axes, namely individual vs. group and synchronous vs. asynchronous (gilat, 2005): Synchronous Asynchronous Individual Two users simultaneously E-Mail correspondence between
  53. 53. Connected through online Conversation software such as messenger, ICQ and chats. two users. Group Virtual chat room in which many users partake in discussion Mailing list, forums – entries sent to central internet page, where. They Grohol (1999) claims that online therapy can not diagnose or treat medical or mental disorders and therefore isn't a form of psychotherapy or psychological counseling. According to Grohol E-Therapy is more related to personal coaching due to The absence of nonverbal cues that gives rise to facing the critical point, the practical problem. In order to define what is E-therapy one must apply all it's characteristics, advantage and disadvantage: A. Anonymity and impersonation Communication on the net allows people to present themselves in varied ways: similarly to the way in which they conduct themselves in their daily lives, or contrarily, to present themselves with fictional characters: age, gender, looks, history, and so on. The "internet self" can be the realization of all wishes that can't be fulfilled in real life. Anonymity in net therapy gives rise to the therapist's uncertainty of the client's identity. The therapist does not know if the story the client is presenting is real. Their have been cases in which people chose to fool the therapist, and sometimes even an entire forum, by presenting a painful life story, which elicited the sympathy and love of others until the shame was discovered (Doron, 2004). On the other hand anonymity encourages people to turn the counseling, support and therapy. These can catalyze therapeutic mental processes. Anonymity causes people to react differently from the way they would in direct contact: It reduces discomfort and embarrassment, it suspend judgment and fear of rejection so that participants can discuss deep and personal issues more quickly then in the traditional therapy (Manhal- Baugus, 2001).
  54. 54. B. Lack of body language and eye contact E-therapy nowadays does not enable non-verbal communication. The absence of body language in the therapeutic process evidently changes the information transferred between the client and the therapist. According to green (2004) understanding the transference processes and the narrative presented requires higher levels of self awareness from the therapist. Barak (2006) points that lack of nonverbal cues reduces the transmission of emotional expressions in the interpersonal communication and may also cause misinterpretation of massages (caused by lack of tone accompanying the words). Because of this the therapist must not treat issues as obvious, he must ensure that his massage is delivered clearly and that is language is as rich and ambiguous as possible at the same time. More over, the writer can use symbols to enrich the communication including on). Hall (2004) suggests the lack of body language allows the client to idealize the therapist, fantasizing he or she looks and sounds in whatever manner most suits him. C. Time, place and availability E-therapy that is taking place in chats and mails requires the therapist and the client to draw a therapeutic contract that determines when each is to send an e-mail (in most cases the therapist replies within 24 to 72 hours), or the day and time of chat. In these two cases the contract made between both sides is similar to the one made in traditional therapy. The benefit of the E-Therapy formula is the opening of lots of possibilities that were not optional before. The contact between the client and the therapist can continue to take place when they are both traveling, eliminating geographical obstacles, as long as they travel in places that computers can be found. In the limit of the contract made between the two of them, time can be best most well utilized when an answer can be worded and sent in 2:00 am in the morning. Clients with special need that because of metal or physical problems can not leave their homes, can make contact with a
  55. 55. therapy through the net, without the need to go out. Of course, the benefit of a most successful treatment may sometimes demand confronting the difficulties later on, but at list the possibility to start the treatment in a more friendly way is possible. Those three factors make the therapist much more available to the client then in the classical therapy. D. Professional Diagnosis The contact made through the internet eliminates some possibilities of diagnose for the therapist. According to Shefler (2005) a clinical examination (diagnostic and impressional) that includes seeing and observing the client is integral part with the therapeutic process. The lack of objective visual status of the client, as well as the subjective one (the overall impression and transference for example) hinders the diagnostic assessment. Verifying the hypnosis made about the client become a lot more difficult and thus impedes offering him the most suitableform of therapy. E. Documentation In his article "Online psychotherapy as a secure frame" suggests Green (2005) that form of writing emails enables the option of rereading previous conversations written by both the client and the therapist (by both of them). This ability may be a tool of verifying the subjective memory and interpretations as well as providing documentation that perform equality between the therapist and the client. F. Security on the net The documentation presented in the previous paragraph is with no doubt a powerful tool for the therapist but also raises one of the important ethical issues in E-Therapy: security risks in on-line communication can take place while logging in, while transmitting information, in a synchronized or synchronized way, and, to finish, as a result of breaking into the therapist's or client's protective systems. The security and secrecy provided for the client, sais Mahal-Baugus (2001), must be maximal. The therapist have to protect the information transmitted between him and the clients by using as secured as possible server, site and computer.
  56. 56. Chapter 3- Methodology 3.1 Description of the research The goal of this research is to examine the motives of people who are members on social internet nets to share their photographs within the framework of that social network. The research will follow the way in which these participants perceive their conduct and attempt to answer the question: what are the needs that the participation in a social network fulfills and what are the emotions evolving because of that. Through the data of the interviews and their analysis I shall attempt to examine if a support system of art therapists and photo- therapists should be built within these social networks; meaning, to offer virtual therapeutic connection within the social system which is virtual. 3.2 The tools of the research
  57. 57. 3.2.1 The qualitative research The qualitative research is a "human research" which is particularly suitable for the areas of education, nursing, anthropology, sociology and psychology (Shkedi, 2003). The qualitative research complements the quantitative approach attempting to understand, in depth, the nature of the research participants' behavior and the way in which they comprehend their own behavior (Zabar Ben-Yehoshua, 1990). There are various kinds of qualitative researches such as ethnographic research and the phenomenological one. The phenomenological researches – as the present one- handle the research of phenomena and the collection of data is done through in- depth interviews and/or observations. In this kind of research, the researcher collects information from the research participants who experienced the researched phenomenon personally and through that, aspires to comprehend the essence of that experience (Creswell, 1989). Nevertheless and despite the division into various kinds of qualitative researches, it is possible to find five characteristics in all of them, as explained by Bogdan and Biklen (1982): a. The researcher is the one who mainly affects the quality of the research due to his/her ability to absorb, internalize, question, open, act with sensitivity and so on. b. The qualitative research is descriptive which is why the introduction of the data and conclusions would contain quotations, photographs, certificates, documents etc. c. The qualitative research concerns the process, which is why there would be emphasis of the process through the research (i.e. through questions that appear in the questionnaire). d. The qualitative researcher aspires to understand what the interrogee's profound understanding is about reality, which is why it would be emphasized in the research tools through the way the interrogee comprehends the issues. e. The aim of the qualitative researchers is not to confirm or refute an assumption in their research but they rather build their perception along the research, based on evidence, testimonies and information. 3.2.2 The semi-structured interview
  58. 58. The roots of the in-depth interview stem from the phenomenological tradition. Within its framework, the researchers try to comprehend reality, as it is perceived by the research participants. The in-depth interview is one of the most prevalent and most salient methods through which the researchers can try to understand human –beings. The goal of the in-depth interview is not to get answers to questions or to examine certain assumptions – in the midst of the in-depth interview there is the will to understand the experience of other people and the meaning they ascribe to that experience. The interview enables access to the cultural context of the human behavior and this it provides the researchers the possibility to understand the meaning and the behavior. Formulation of the questions and getting answers to them are not a simple mission. Even if the researcher formulates the questions most carefully, encodes the answers of the interrogees cautiously, and still the written or said word carry a trail of some lack of clarity (Shkedi, 2003). The interview is held face to face to hear the opinion and/or experience of the interrogees about the researched subject. The questionnaire may be structured according to questions that were prepared beforehand. These may be semi-structured in which, in addition to the questions that were prepared beforehand, new ones are added following that which emerges through the themes introduced by the research participants or it may be an open encounter. In the standard, structured interview the formulation of the questions, their order and the explanations that may be given to the interviewees are written in advance. The interviewer adds nothing. Contrary to that, on the other pole, the open-end interview is friendly and informal; its questions are spontaneous and the interviewer has no defined program and it does not direct the interrogee but only encourages him/her to talk about his/her experiences and opinions. 3.3 The research field The in-depth interview will be transferred to people from the three social nets (five people from each social net), Israeli and international ones in which there is the sharing of pictures:  flickr.com  café.themarker.com  facebook.com
  59. 59. 3.4 Implementation of the methodology in this research This research aims to examine the existence of photography as therapy on the internet in the present. As such, it attempts to learn the meaning given to the publication of pictures on the internet (by the advertiser), the motives, the needs it responds to and the healing dimensions existing in it. For the sake of such examination, the method of the qualitative research was chosen, using the in-depth questionnaire. The research will be conducted through semi-structured phenomenological interviews. The interviews would be held according to a questionnaire prepared beforehand but there would be the possibility to let in additional questions according to the themes that would be mentioned by the interrogees. Thus, it would be possible to understand the process that each one of the participants went through as well as the essence of the experience of publishing pictures on the internet by each and every one and still allow the interrogees to tell their experiences; to describe events they deem important and express their positions. Thus, a profound understanding of the researched phenomenon would be enabled. Through the various interviews, I shall inquire the meanings granted to the activity discussed by the people. Yossiffon (2001) described it as follows: "The inquiry of a collective case is the collection of dew specific cases through which some things may be learned; either through comparison emphasizing the generics or through the form of unity which emphasizes the similar" (p. 270). 3.5 The limitations of the research Since the research was held following the personal experience of the researcher (the writer of this thesis), it is possible that my experience and personal perception of the subject affected the way in which I perceived the answers of the research participants. In addition, since the interrogees were required to share personal themes it may be possible that their answers to the questions were not totally reliable. In the data analysis, the answers were ascribed full reliability due to my inability to examine the personal experience of the interviewees in any other way. Still, meaning was given to non-verbal insinuations such as body language, tone of speech or any
  60. 60. other datum insinuating sensitivity instigated by the questions, which in turn, evoked the sensation of unreliability. 3.6 Ethics The people described in the research signed a consent form about their participation in it after they were given explanation about the themes of the research and its goals. They were given the possibility to remain anonymous. The data analysis will not include reference to the pictures of the interrogees on the net (i.e. no name of the interviewee on the site and/or link to it would be provided). Thus the reader of this thesis would not have the possibility to surf on the works of the interviewees on the net even though these are open to the public on the internet. That choice had been made to enable the interviewees to share personal details and ensure their confidentiality. 3.7 Analysis of the findings The analysis of the findings would be made based on the data that emerged through the interviews. Relevant examples from the interviews would be presented. Scrutinizing of the findings brought up few major themes within the context of sharing photographs on virtual social nets: The social net motivates its members to take photographs The findings show that social nets constituted a major motive, which caused the participants in them to photograph more often and at times even to start this artistic creation, which did not exist in their world prior to that. Examples for sayings that testify about the net as motive for photography:  "I think that photography is most meaningful in my life since Flickr. It is very big in my life for a lot of reasons. It has opened me to worlds in various areas, as well as with me and as well as artistically. The way of observing things. It is as though something was missing for me and the photography has filled that. Beyond searching through Goggle I did not surf on the net at all and now the whole internet is open before me. It opened a lot of things, also regarding

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