Literature review
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  • 1. Subject : ResearchMethodologyLiterature review Group 5
  • 2. Outline1. Definition of literature review2. Steps to take before beginning to write a literature review3. Researching for a literature review4. Organization of a literature review5. Writing recommendations
  • 3. What is literature review? Presenter: Minh Dang
  • 4. What is literature?A collection of all the scholarly writings on a topic
  • 5. Literature Review• A selection of available resources and materials with a strong relation to the topic including a description & a critical evaluation and comparative analysis of each work. – It focuses on those resources and materials that are directly relevant to your topic, and as such, is highly selective.
  • 6. • Focused on a particular question or area of research – Not a widespread, comprehensive list of all materials relating. – Narrowly focused to concentrate only on truly relevant materials
  • 7. • A selection of available, relevant resources and materials available in any formats. – The materials relevance to your research question is whats important, not the format.
  • 8. Common mistakes of making literature review• Make a summary of available materials without any critical description or component; or an annotated bibliography.
  • 9. Purpose of literature review• To convey to readers what knowledge and ideas have been established• It gives us a solid overview of the research on a topic• Makes a case for further investigation and research, highlighting gaps in knowledge and asking questions that need to be answered
  • 10. Format of literature review• A literature review is a prose document similar to a journal article or essay, not a list of citations and descriptions
  • 11. Types of literature review
  • 12. Characteristics of literature review• A Good Literature Review: – Focused – Logical – Developed – Integrative (consistent) – Current (popular)
  • 13. BEFORE WRITINGLITERATURE REVIEW Presenter : Ngân Giang
  • 14. Decide on your areas of researchBefore you begin to search for articles or books,decide beforehand what areas you are going to research.Make sure that you only get articles and books in those areas,even if you come across fascinating books in other areas.
  • 15. Search for the literature Cover a comprehensive search of specific reference booksand articles as well as useful sources online involve in your area.Find relevant information in your books and articles to look for :1. Claims, conclusions, and findings about the constructs youare investigating2. Definitions of terms3. Disagreement about the constructs you are investigating Set a specific time frame for how long you will search.
  • 16. Narrow your topicThe narrower your topic, the easier you can get a good survey of the material.
  • 17. Consider whether your sources are current Some disciplines require that you use information that is as current as possible.E.g: In the sciences, treatments for medical problems are constantly changing according to the latest studies. In a review in the humanities, history, or social sciences, a survey of the history, what is important is how perspectives have changed through the years or within a certain time period.
  • 18. Construct a working thesis statement Use the focus you’ve found to construct a thesis statement.Is a single declarative sentence that states what you want your readers to know, To discover ideas believe, or understand after having read and connections your essay. between ideas that you didnt recognize before
  • 19. RESEARCHING FOR A LITERATURE REVIEWCONSIDER HOW CURRENT YOUR SOURCES MUST BEFIND A FOCUSWRITE A THESIS STATEMENTGATHER YOUR SOURCES Presenter : Hữu Lộc
  • 20. CONSIDER HOW CURRENT YOUR SOURCES MUST BEWhen researching subjects In other areas, such as thethat are constantly changing, history or the humanities, it may be most important to show howsuch as technology, science the particular perspectives onor medicine, having the most the topic have changed or arerecent, cutting edge affected by other factors.information is critical.
  • 21. FIND A FOCUSLook for themes or issues that tie together yoursources.Do the authors share perspectives or are they varied?Are research results consistent or divergent?Are there raging debates?Does the research reveal certain trends or directions?Are there certain aspects or populations left out of the research?Selecting one of these themes will give a focus and sense of organization to your lit review.
  • 22. WRITE A THESIS STATEMENTAfter you have settled on a focus for your litreview, write a thesis statement that will providethe perspective that your paper will take. Forexample: Over the years, dieting trends have come and gone out of fashion. The latest seems to be a back-to-basics approach that combines a balanced diet with regular exercise.
  • 23. GATHER YOUR SOURCESIf you intend to use journal articles, select thejournal index(es) that pertain to your subjectarea (in the case above, health or nutrition). Listthe keywords that best describe your topic;generally, use nouns (such as diets and trends)rather that verbs (such as effect or behave). Over the years, dieting trends have come and gone out of fashion. The latest seems to be a back-to-basics approach that combines a balanced diet with regular exercise.
  • 24. Begin by searching broadly, addingkeywords to narrow your topic. Aska Reference Librarian to suggestsearch terms and for help selectingand navigating databases.When you find good sources,consider “harvesting” additionalsources by examining the referencelists of pertinent articles.
  • 25. Scan the materials you have collected (in other words, skim the abstracts, beginning and conclusions) to decide which you think might be most relevant.Make a pile of the best, most important works, and put the others aside (do not toss them out for now – you never know what you may return to in the future).Once you have decided which are the best and most important sources, read them more carefully and take notes.Keep all of your printouts until after your paper is returned, just in case you need to refer to them.
  • 26. RESEARCHING FOR A LITERATURE REVIEWCONSIDER HOW CURRENT YOUR SOURCES MUST BEFIND A FOCUSWRITE A THESIS STATEMENTGATHER YOUR SOURCES
  • 27. CONSIDER HOW CURRENT YOUR SOURCES MUST BEWhen researching subjects In other areas, such as thethat are constantly changing, history or the humanities, it may be most important to show howsuch as technology, science the particular perspectives onor medicine, having the most the topic have changed or arerecent, cutting edge affected by other factors.information is critical.
  • 28. FIND A FOCUSLook for themes or issues that tie together yoursources.Do the authors share perspectives or are they varied?Are research results consistent or divergent?Are there raging debates?Does the research reveal certain trends or directions?Are there certain aspects or populations left out of the research?Selecting one of these themes will give a focus and sense of organization to your lit review.
  • 29. WRITE A THESIS STATEMENTAfter you have settled on a focus for your litreview, write a thesis statement that will providethe perspective that your paper will take. Forexample: Over the years, dieting trends have come and gone out of fashion. The latest seems to be a back-to-basics approach that combines a balanced diet with regular exercise.
  • 30. GATHER YOUR SOURCESIf you intend to use journal articles, select thejournal index(es) that pertain to your subjectarea (in the case above, health or nutrition). Listthe keywords that best describe your topic;generally, use nouns (such as diets and trends)rather that verbs (such as effect or behave). Over the years, dieting trends have come and gone out of fashion. The latest seems to be a back-to-basics approach that combines a balanced diet with regular exercise.
  • 31. Begin by searching broadly, addingkeywords to narrow your topic. Aska Reference Librarian to suggestsearch terms and for help selectingand navigating databases.When you find good sources,consider “harvesting” additionalsources by examining the referencelists of pertinent articles.
  • 32. Scan the materials you have collected (in other words, skim the abstracts, beginning and conclusions) to decide which you think might be most relevant.Make a pile of the best, most important works, and put the others aside (do not toss them out for now – you never know what you may return to in the future).Once you have decided which are the best and most important sources, read them more carefully and take notes.Keep all of your printouts until after your paper is returned, just in case you need to refer to them.
  • 33. Organization of a literature review Presenter: M.Sang
  • 34. Organization of a literature reviewSimilar to other papers you have written, your literature review should also containthree basic parts:• An introduction, giving the reader a quick idea of your topic and the central themeor organizational pattern you will follow.Gives a quick idea of the topic of the literature review, such as the central themeor organizational pattern.• The body, which contains your discussion of sources.• Conclusions/Recommendations: Discuss what you have drawn from reviewingliterature so far. Where might the discussion proceed?
  • 35. 1 ) Chronological If the research in your sources appears to follow a chronological progression, whetherin thought or practice, this could be a logical framework for organizing your lit review.Start with the earliest references and discuss them at the beginning, and thengradually work you way logically through time, to the references that are most recent.E.G : What is the relation of love theme for movies of all time ?Sample references : Titanic, Gone with the wind, Romeo and Juliet.How will you order these references ?1. Gone with the wind ( 1936 )2. Romeo and Juliet ( 1968 )3. Titanic ( 1997 )
  • 36. 2) Trends:You may be able to certain identify trends within the research or treatment of yourtopic. This may be similarly chronological, but certain trends may encompass greaterhistorical era.examine the sources under another trend, such as the history, geographical,cultural, etc. E.g : What is the impact of racism on humanity ?History :•In those earlier days in the 20th century, the face of racism was largely black andwhite.•The 21st Century has brought about many attempted changes in society. There islegislation and memoranda against discrimination in its many forms.Geography :•In Western countries , racism is largely for black and white people.•In Asian, racism is largely for the different classes in society.
  • 37. 3)Thematic: thematic reviews focus on central issues or topics.. As you writethe review, you will use your sources to reinforce the theme that you have chosen ascentral to your paper.Thematic reviews of literature are organized around a topic or issue, rather thanthe progression of time. But more authentic thematic reviews tend to break awayfrom chronological order.
  • 38. 4) Methodological:Instead of the content, this framework is organized around the methodologies(qualitative, quantitative, in-depth case studies ) used in the researchThis approach to lit review is often used by researchers who wish to justify theirchoice of one methodology over others. They give an analysis of research techniquesaccording to criteria as to whether they are valid and reliable.E.g : A specific qualitative method results :The results were very surprising to the management team. The major qualitativefindings included the following:Women viewed convenience stores to be primarily designed for men, with little orno consideration for women.QuickStop was seen as one of the worst of convenience stores "kind of the place fora man to buy gas, get a six-pack of cheap beer and cigarettes, but not the kind ofplace I want to go".
  • 39. Writing recommendations Presenter: Ngọc Cẩm
  • 40. Read and write with purpose• Focus on your goal• See how the major concepts, theories, arguments, conclusions, etc. related or similar to each other=> Purpose: evaluate and show the relationshipsbetween the research.
  • 41. Use evidence, but be selectiveHowever, other studies haveshown that even gender-neutralantecedents are more likely toproduce masculine images thanfeminine ones (Gastil, 1990). provide the reader withHamilton (1988) asked students evidence to back up and justify what you writeto complete sentences thatrequired them to fill in pronounsthat agreed with gender-neutralantecedents such as “writer,”“pedestrian,” and “persons.”
  • 42. Be selective Include only the information that points back to your thesis. The type of information you choose to mentionshould relate directly to the review’s focus, whether it is thematic, methodological, or chronological.
  • 43. Use quotes sparingly• Use quotes sparingly, if at all – make your own voice clear and center.• Use care when paraphrasing to be sure you accurately represent the authors’ thoughts and findings.• Keep your own voice
  • 44. However, other studies have shown that evengender-neutral antecedents are more likely to producemasculine images than feminine ones (Gastil, 1990).Hamilton (1988) asked students to complete sentencesthat required them to fill in pronouns that agreed withgender-neutral antecedents such as “writer,”“pedestrian,” and “persons.” The students were askedto describe any image they had when writing thesentence. Hamilton found that people imagined 3.3men to each woman in the masculine “generic”condition and 1.5 men per woman in the unbiasedcondition.
  • 45. Summarize, synthesize and transition• Present/summarize for readers, and synthesize your findings• Provide transitions from one thought or source to another
  • 46. Drafts and revisions• Refer often to your thesis statement when writing your text from your outline.• Use terminology that is appropriate to your field and audience, avoiding slang, jargon and contractions.• Add subheadings when appropriate to break up longer sections
  • 47. Drafts and revisions• Check that you have documented your sources correctly (text + reference list)• Include everything cited in your paper on your reference list, and vice versa• Edit and revise your paper as needed• Ask someone else look it over for technical or organizational errors
  • 48. Recommendations for writing Lit. Review  Read and write with purpose  Use evidence, but be selective  Use quotes sparingly  Summarize, synthesize and transition  Drafts and revisions
  • 49. Thank you for listening !Group 5 :1. M.Sang2. H.Lộc3. Ngân Giang4. Ngọc Cẩm5. M.Đăng6. Tố Ngân