People sometimes make the mistake of thinking listening and hearing are the samething, but they’re not.Hearing is a physiological process, whereas listening is a cognitive process.If you HEAR something it is because you have ears and are not deaf.If you LISTEN TO something then you are paying particular attention to what youcan hear.Listening is the process of receiving, constructing meaning from, and responding tospoken and/or nonverbal messages” (Brownell, 2002, p. 48).
E.g :- Listen or listen to cannot be replaced by hear:• She does all the talking - I just sit and listen.• You havent listened to a word Ive said!- Hear cannot be replaced by listen :• She heard a noise outside.• Youll have to speak up, I cant hear you.Listening is important for effective communication because 50 percent or moreof the time we spend communicating is spent listening .
When we try to listen carefully, most of us remember only about 50 percent of what wehear shortly after hearing it and only about 20 percent two days later.
Listening is one of the most important skills needed in the corporate environment.
II/Type of listening :In order to be an effective listener in different situations, you must ﬁ rst consider yourpurpose for listening. Scholars have identiﬁed ﬁve types of listening based on ﬁ vedifferent purposes :•Appreciative•Discriminative•Comprehensive•Empathic•Critical listening
I.1 Appreciative listening :In an appreciative listening situation, your goal is to simply enjoy the thoughts andexperiences of others by listening to what they are saying.With appreciative listening, you do not have to focus as closely or as carefully onspeciﬁcs as you do in other listening situations.You might use appreciative listening during a casual social conversation.Most people listen to music in this way.
Discriminative Listening : listening tounderstanding the meaning of a message.At times this involves listening “between thelines” for meaning conveyed in other ways thanthe words themselves.Discriminative listeningconcerns the basicfunction of hearing soundand distinguishingbetween different sounds.
In human communication, this includespicking up on shifts in a speakers voice suchas speed, emphasis, and pitch.This listening skill allows the listener torecognize nuances in the speakers messagesuch as pleased or anger.
Discriminative listening isespecially important for salesand customer servicesrepresentatives because itallows the listener to hear anyunderlying tones or emotions.Employees utilizing this form oflistening can discern whether acustomer leaves the businesshappy or upset; therefore, usingdiscriminative listening can savesales and increase revenues forupselling techniques.
Discriminative thinking also focuses onreading body language. Business employeesshould be able to determine if a customersbody language matches his language todiscern any inconsistencies.
What?• In comprehensive listening situation, our goal is to understand the speaker’s message as well as learn, remember, be able to recall what has been said.
• In communication, some words are more important and some less so, and comprehension often benefits from extraction of key facts and items from a long talk.• Also known as: content listening, informative listening and full listening.
How?• Have to know the words and also all rules of grammar and syntax understand what others are saying• Also have to know visual components of communication, and an understanding of body language understand what the messages really mean
Pay close attention to all the information – thewords spoken, the tone of the voice, the bodylanguage and the situation in which theconversation is taking place.
In comprehensive listening, the speaker mustmake his words understandable, and the listenermust let them know if they dont understand.
Eg: – Listening comprehensively to professor lecturing about key concepts – Speakers at training seminars – Broadcast news reports that provide timely information about traffic conditions
Outline• Empathic Listening• The Benefits of Empathic Listening• The Process of Empathic Listening
Empathic ListeningA way of listening and responding to another person that improves mutual understanding and trust.
Empathic Listening• It is an essential skill for third parties and disputants alike, as it enables the listener to receive and accurately interpret the speakers message, and then provide an appropriate response.• It is also called active listening or reflective listening.
The Benefits of Empathic Listening build trust and respect enable the one in need to release his/her emotions reduce tensions encourage the surfacing of information create a safe environment for sharing and problem solving
The Process of Empathic Listening1. Give the person you are connecting with your full attention.
2. Do not speak when the other person is in the middle of communicating their issue.
3. Offer a summary of what you have heard to the speaker, when they are done talking. I hear that you said you feel upset about....
Summary• Empathic Listening• The Benefits of Empathic Listening• The Process of Empathic Listening
• Critical listening requires careful observation, judgment, and trustworthiness of the speaker.• E.g: persuasive communications includes politicians, news, salespeople, etc.
Critical listening skills Understand person and context• Many arguments do not stand alone and understanding why the person is saying what they are saying can help in the understanding and consequently evaluation of their message.• E.g : Your friend is describing his/her test’s result excitingly.
Critical listening skills Probe• asking questions to add useful information and help them develop their argument.• E.g: how, what, why, when, where and who
Critical listening skills Discrimination• separating one thing from another => understand differences and get to important details
Fallacies in critical thinking Judging the person, not the message• The listener strays into judging the person rather than their argument.
Fallacies in critical thinking False positives• You judge it good but it is actually wrong in some way; when your ability to judge is limited by your knowledge or logic capabilities.• You make an evaluation based on the character of the speaker rather than what they are saying.
Fallacies in critical thinking False negatives• You incorrectly judge the argument as being flawed when in fact it is actually valid; lack of skill of the evaluator.
WISE OLD OWLA wise old owl lived in an oakThe more he saw the less he spokeThe less he spoke the more he heard.Why can’t we all be like that wise old bird?