Chapter 11 (identify topics   analyze audience+setting)
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Chapter 11 (identify topics analyze audience+setting)






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    Chapter 11 (identify topics   analyze audience+setting) Chapter 11 (identify topics analyze audience+setting) Presentation Transcript

    • THEORY OFCOMMUNICATE Group 5 Chapter 11
    • Developing and Researching a Speech Topic Presenter Ngọc Cẩm
    • Speech plan action steps Action Step 1Determine a Specific Speech Goal that is Adapted to the Audience and Occasion. Action Step 2Gather and Evaluate Information to Develop the Content of Your Speech. Action Step 3Organize Your Material to Meet the Needs of Your Particular Audience. Action Step 4Adapt the Verbal and Visual Material to the Needs of Your Specific Audience. Action Step 5Practice Presenting Your Speech
    • 1- List Subjects (1) That are important to you & that you find interesting and exciting. (2) That you know something about. • Major and career interests: teaching, Web site design, information systems • Hobbies and activities: photography, rowing, social networking • Issues and concerns: personal privacy and the Internet, endangered species, water pollution
    • Action Step 1: Determine a Specific SpeechGoal That Is Adapted to the Audience and Occasion AUDIENCE TOPICS SETTING GOAL
    • Identify TopicsGood speech topics are developed from subjects that interest you and that you already know something about. What is the difference between subject and topic?• A subject is a broad area of knowledge.E.g movies, computer technology, hip-hop culture,…• A topic is narrower and is a subset or specific aspect of a subject.E.g movies: How the Academy Awards nomination process works. The relationships between movie producers, directors, and distributors. How technology is changing movie production.
    • 2- Brainstorm and concept map for topic ideas Presenter: Tran Thi Ngan Giang
    • Brainstorming
    • Definition Brainstorming is a group or individual creativity technique by which efforts are made to find a conclusion for a specific problem by gathering a list of ideas spontaneously contributed by its member(s). The term was popularized by Alex Faickney Osborn in the 1953 book Applied Imagination. Osborn claimed that brainstorming was more effective than individuals working alone in generating ideas.
    • Number of members The ideal is from 6 to 10 people. The assumption is that the greater the number of ideas generated, the greater the chance of producing a radical and effective solution.
    • How long should it last? Your brainstorming session can last anywhere from 5 minutes to 2 hours depending on the experience of the participants and the nature of the problem to be solved. However the time should be split up into approximately 5- to 15- minute sections in order to keep people fresh. There should be short breaks for refreshments, relaxation, encouragement, congratulations and gratitude. People often use the breaks to do their own thinking and reflection.
    • How many stages are there? Gathering and Judging ideas.  Gathering : Quantity counts at this stage, not quality; Every person and every idea has equal worth.  Judging : Before brainstorming, we should make clear some criteria: Feasible, Attractive and Novel
    • Individual and Group Brainstorming When you brainstorm on your own, youll tend to produce a wider range of ideas than with group brainstorming - you do not have to worry about other peoples egos or opinions, and can therefore be more freely creative. When individual group members get stuck with an idea, another members creativity and experience can take the idea to the next stage. Group brainstorming can therefore develop ideas in more depth than individual brainstorming.
    • Concept mapping
    • Definition A concept map is a hierarchical form of structure diagram that illustrates conceptual knowledge and their relationships within a specific topic from general to specific concepts. It consists of concept labels which are connected together by lines, these lines are labeled with directions.
    •  A concept map is often known as a flow chart to brain-storm new ideas and developments
    • Functions To understand the theories and concepts related to the topic. To manage concepts into sub concepts for each group and category. To understand the relationship of each concept, how they are related to each other. To synthesize information, ideas and concepts, and see the whole picture. To encourage creativity and develop higher level thinking skills and strategies.
    • Advantages Allows for Quick Interpretation : People can easily skim through a concept map for a quick understanding of the entire system, because of its brevity and highlighting of key points. Illustrates the Hierarchy of Ideas : It helps people to understand the hierarchy of ideas, understanding how each component relates to the others. Aides in Visualizing Outcomes : Since cross-links show concepts are related, they clarify how one may affect another. This aids in making judgments about the overall benefits of a plan, or better understanding what needs to be done .
    • Analyze the AudiencePresenter: Minh Sang
    • Analyze the Audience You need to understand who will be in your prospective audience. Because speeches are presented to a particular audience, before you can finally decide on your topic This will help you select an appropriate topic from your list. It also helps you in audience adaptation, the process of tailoring your speech’s information to the needs, interests, and expectations of your audience.
    • Identify Audience Analysis Information Needs Gather data to help you understand basic audience characteristics or demographics. Such as each audience member’s age, education, gender, income, occupation, race, ethnicity, religion, geographic uniqueness, and language.  This will help you make educated inferences about them and adapt your speech accordingly
    • Identify Audience Analysis Information Needs For example : You have decided to give a speech on blogging If the audience are young, well-educated, and from a middle class background  gear your speech to more specialized information If your audience is from different demographic groups, then you might need to survey them about what they know about blogging and then use what they tell you to pick an appropriate topic within the general subject of blogging
    • Identify Audience Analysis Information Needs For 18–22 year-old college students  they know what blogging is and so this topic would probably be a good one for this audience If you one or two audience members are older than that  avoid marginalizing them by briefly defining blogging in your opening remarks so that they aren’t completely lost If most of your audience members are older and have never read or written a blog  spend more time acquainting the audience with blogging before moving to a discussion of the dangers of blogging.
    • Identify Audience Analysis Information Needs You should include: how knowledgeable audience members are in your subject area, their initial level of interest in the subject, their attitude toward the subject, and their attitude toward you as a speaker.  Once you did that, you could choose a topic that builds on that interest, or you will need to adapt your material so that it captures their interest. It’s important when you want to influence their beliefs or move them to action. Knowing your audience members’ attitudes toward your subject will enable you to choose a topic that affects your audience’s position without alienating them.
    • GATHER AUDIENCE DATAThere are four main methods you can use to gather the information you need for an audience analysis: Presenter: Huu Loc 1. CONDUCT A SURVEY. 2. INFORMALLY OBSERVE. 3. QUESTION A REPRESENTATIVE. 4. MAKE EDUCATED GUESSES.
    • GATHER AUDIENCE DATA 1 ) C O N D U C T A S U RV E Y 2 ) I N F O R M A L LY O B S E RV E 3 ) Q U E S T I O N A R E P R E S E N TAT I V E 4 ) M A K E E D U C AT E D G U E S S E S
    • 1. Conduct a survey The most direct and most accurate way to collect audience data is to survey the audience. A survey is a questionnaire designed to gather information from people. Some surveys are done as interviews; others are written forms that are completed by audience members. Survey questions or items can be: two-sided items (respondents choose between two answers), multiple response items (respondents choose between several items), scaled items (respondents choose between levels of intensity in a response), or open-ended items (respondents reply in any way they see fit).
    • 2. Informally observe If the members of the audience are people whom we know, such as classmates or coworkers, we can learn a lot about them by just watching. For instance, after a couple of classes, we can determine the approximate average age of the class members, the ratio of men to women, and the general cultural makeup. As we listen to classmates talk, we learn about their knowledge of, and interest in, certain issues.
    • 3.Question a representative When we are invited to make a speech, we can ask the contact person for audience information. You should specifically ask for data that are somewhat important for you as you choose a topic or work to adapt your material. For the blogging speech, for example, you would want to know if the audience members have a basic understanding of what it is.
    • 4. Make educated guesses If you can’t get information in any other way, you can makeinformed guesses based on indirect data such as the generalprofile of people in a certain community or the kinds of peoplelikely to attend the event or occasion.
    • Analyze the settingPresenter: Dinh Quoc Minh Dang
    • SettingThe location and occasion make up the speech settingAnalyze the setting: Answers to several questions about the setting shouldalso guide your topic selection and other parts of your speech planning.
    • Q1: What are the special expectationsfor the speech?Every speaking occasion is surrounded by expectations.For example: At a national sales meeting, the field representatives expect to hear about new products. For your classroom speeches, a major expectation is that your speech will meet the criteria set for the assignment.Speakers must have a appropriate planning of the topic whichis going to be presented
    • Q2: What is the appropriate length forthe speech?The time limit for classroom speeches is usually quite short, soyou will want to choose a topic that is narrow enough to beaccomplished in the brief time allowed. For example, “Two Major Causes of Environmental Degradation” could be presented as a 10-minute speech, but “A History of Human Impact on the Environment” could not.Speakers who speak for more or less time than they have beenscheduled can seriously interfere with the program of an eventand lose the respect of both their hosts and their audience.
    • Q3: How large will the audience be?Although audience size may not directly affect the topic youselect, it will affect how you adapt your material and how youpresent the speech. For example, if the audience is small (up to about 50), you can talk without a microphone and move about if you choose to do so. For larger audiences, you might have a microphone that may limit your range of movement.
    • Q4: Where will the speech begiven?Rooms vary in size, shape, lighting, and seating arrangements.Some are a single level, some have stages or platforms, andsome have tiered seating. The space affects the speech. For example, in a long narrow room, you may have to speak loudly to be heard in the back row. The brightness of the room and the availability of shades may affect what kinds of visual aids you can use. So you will want to know and consider the layout of the room as you plan your speech. At times, you might request that the room be changed or rearranged so that the space is better suited to your needs.
    • Q5: What equipment is necessary togive the speech?Would you like to use a microphone, lectern, flip chart, overheadprojector and screen, or a hookup for your laptop computer duringyour speech?If so, you need to check with your host to make sure that theequipment can be made available to you. In some cases, theunavailability of equipment may limit your topic choice.Regardless of what arrangements have been made, however,experienced speakers expect that something may go wrong and arealways prepared with alternative plans. For example, although computer slide shows can be very effective, there are often technological glitches that interfere with their use, so many speakers prepare overheads or handouts and bring them along as backup.
    • The end