INTRODUCTION When we think of leadership, we typically think of a person who is in charge. It was once thought that leaders were “born”—that some people inherited personality and other traits that made them naturally suited to be leaders. Later, the emphasis moved to the notion that leaders were “made” and that if we could identify the specific behaviors of leadership, then any person could learn them and become an effective leader
INTRODUCTION Then, we recognized who became a leader and the behaviors that made a leader effective varied depending on the task, the situation, and the followers. The most recent thinking is that leadership is a set of functions that can be performed by one, more than one, or all group members at various times. In other words, leadership is most often a shared activity in which different members perform various functions based on their unique strengths and expertise.
INTRODUCTION A group, then, may have a formal leader, but in actuality, throughout the life of the group, a series of informal leaders (also called emergent leaders) will arise to help the group meet the challenges the group faces. People who assume the role of a leader behave and communicate in specific ways that fulfill important leadership functions.
INTRODUCTION Informal or emergent leaders: members who gain power because they are liked and respected by the group
INTRODUCTION Shared leadership functions are the sets of roles that you or other members perform to facilitate the work of the group and help maintain harmonious relationships between members. A role is a specific pattern of behavior that group members perform based on their skills and their perception about the needs of the group at that time.
INTRODUCTION Shared leadership functions: the sets of roles that group members perform to facilitate the work of the group and help maintain harmonious relationships between members.
INTRODUCTION When leadership roles are effectively performed, the group will function smoothly and members will enjoy each other and working on the task. There are three sets of leadership roles that must be performed by members if a group is to be successful: task roles maintenance roles and procedural roles
WHAT IS TASK ROLE? Task roles: sets of behaviors that help a group acquire, process, or apply information that contributes directly to completing a task or goal.
Information or opinion givers provide content for the discussion. People who perform this role are well informed on the content of the task and share what they know with the group. Your ability to assume this role depends on your command of high-quality information that the group needs in order to complete its task.
Information or opinion seekers probe others for their ideas and opinions during group meetings. Typical comments by those performing this role include “Before going further, what information do we have about how raising fees is likely to affect membership?” or “How do other members of the group feel about this idea?”
Information or opinion analyzers help the group to scrutinize the content and the reasoning of discussions. They may question what is being said and help members understand the hidden assumptions in their statements.
MAINTENANCE ROLESMaintenance roles are thesets of behaviors that helpthe group to develop andmaintain cohesion,commitment, and positiveworking relationships. Positive working relationships
MAINTENANCE ROLESWe engage in maintenance leadership any time we manage participation, foster collabortion to resolve conflict, or integrate fun into the group experience.Managing participation means giving everyone an opportunity to share ideas and information with the group and ensuring that no group member or members dominate the discussion.Fostering collaboration to resolve conflict means acting as an unbiased mediator when disagreements between members become heated so that the conflict is resolved as a win-win.
MAINTENANCE ROLES Supporters encourage others in the group. When another member contributes to the group, supporters show appreciation through their nonverbal or verbal behavior. Nonverbally, supporters may smile, nod, or vigorously shake their heads “ Well done ! “ Verbal behavior : smile, nod, or vigorously shake their heads
MAINTENANCE ROLES • Interpreters are familiar with the differences in the social, cultural, and gender orientations of group members and use this knowledge to help group members understand each other. Interpreters are especially important in groups whose members are culturally diverse (Jensen & Chilberg, 1991).Groups whose members are culturallydiverse
MAINTENANCE ROLESFor example, an interpreter might say, “Paul, Lin Chou is Chinese, so when she says that she will think about your plan she might mean that she does not support your ideas, but she doesn’t want to embarrass you in front of the others.”When groups do not have a member to serve in the interpreter leadership role and members come from different cultures, effective group process can suffer
HARMONIZERS Presenter: Huu Loc Harmonizers intervene in the group’s discussion when conflict is threatening to harm group cohesiveness or the relationship between specific group members.
Harmonizers are likely to make statementssuch as “Tom, Jack, hold it a second. Iknow you’re on opposite sides of this, butlet’s see where you might have someagreement” or “Cool it, everybody, we’recoming up with some good stuff; let’s notlose our momentum by getting into name-calling.”
MEDIATORSMediators are neutral and impartial arbiterswho guide the discussion so that memberswho have conflicting ideas find a mutuallyacceptable resolution.
Mediators may maintain their ownneutrality, keep the discussion focusedon issues and not personalities, help toidentify areas of common ground, andwork to find a mutually satisfyingsolution to the disagreement usingparaphrasing and perception checking.
TENSION RELIEVERSTension relievers recognize whengroup members are stressed or tiredand then intervene to relieve thestress or reenergize the groupusually through humor.
People who are effective inthis leadership role might tella joke, kid around, or tell alighthearted story so that thegroup is refreshed when itreturns to the task.
In some situations, a single well-placed one-liner will get alaugh, break the tension or monotony, and jolt the groupout of its lethargy. Although the tension relievermomentarily distracts the group from its task, this actionhelps the group remain cohesive
PROCEDURAL ROLESPRESENTER: TRAN THI NGAN GIANG
Providing logistics Logistics coordinators coordinators ExpeditersProcedural Managing theleadership group’s interaction roles Gatekeepers Keeping records of the group’s decision Recorders
LOGISTICS COORDINATORS Arrange for appropriate spaces for group meetings, procure supplies and equipment that will be needed by the group, and manage other details. The successful performance of this role is crucial to a group’s ability to be efficient and effective.
EXPEDITORS The ENCOURAGER praises, agrees with, and accepts the contribution of the others. S/he indicates warmth and solidarity in her/his attitude toward other group members, offers commendation and praise and in various ways indicates understanding and acceptance of other points of view, ideas, and suggestions. The HARMONIZER mediates the differences between other members, attempts to reconcile disagreements, relieves tension in conflict situations through good hearted jokes, a soothing attitude, etc. The STANDARD SETTER expresses standards for the group. These standards apply to the quality of the group process, or set limits on acceptable individual behavior within the group.
GATEKEEPERS Manage the flow of conversation so that all members have an equal opportunity to participate. If one/two members begin to dominate the conversation, the gatekeeper acknowledges this and invite other member to participate. Also notice nonverbal signals when a member wishes to speak.
RECORDERS Write down suggestions, makes a record of group decisions, or writes down the product of discussion. The recorder fills the role of "group memory."
Each of these roles is part of the leadership process. Which roles a person plays depends his/her abilities, personality and preferences. Some may fill more than one role, at the same time or over a period of time. There may be one person who fills several of these roles and is considered to be the group "leader," but without the leadership contributions made by others in the group, the group would function less effectively, if at all. Roles are also often shared, with, for example, many people serving as initiators or encouragers.