Apa style


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Apa style

  1. 1. Subject : ResearchMethodology APA Style Group 5
  2. 2. Outline0 1. Reference list0 2. Format for APA entries0 3. Alphabetizing the Reference List0 4. Basic form of in-text citation0 5. Quotations
  3. 3. Reference list Presenter : H.Lộc
  4. 4. REFERENCE LIST Reference list should appear at the end of your paper. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source cited in the body of the paper. References should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay; label this page "References" centered at the top of the page (do NOT bold, underline, or use quotation marks for the title). All text should be double-spaced just like the rest of essay.
  5. 5. Example reference list: ReferencesBowker, N., & Tuffin, K. (2002). Users with disabilities social andeconomic development through online access. In M. Boumedine(Ed.),Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference onInformation and Knowledge Sharing (pp. 122–127). Anaheim, CA:ACTA Press.Durie, M. (2003). Ngā kāhui pou: Launching Māori futures.Wellington, New Zealand: Huia Publishers.Hazledine, T., & Quiggan, J. (2006). Public policy in Australia andNew Zealand: The new global context. Australian Journal of PoliticalScience, 41(2), 131–143.Ministry for Primary Industries. (2012). Rural communities.Retrieved fromhttp://www.mpi.govt.nz/agriculture/rural-communities
  6. 6. Essential Information: The reference list is arranged alphabetically by author. The format for a reference list depends on the type of reference used. You must use the correct format for each reference used.
  7. 7. Entries for the reference list vary because of the differentinformation they include. All, however, must follow anestablished order for presenting information: 1. Authors (and editors) 2. Publication dates 3. Titles 4. Additional information 5. Facts of publication 6. Retrieval information
  8. 8. 1. AuthorsTake names from the first page of an article or fromthe title page of a book. Authors’ or editors’ namesare listed in the order in which they appear (notalphabetical order), and initials are used instead offirst or middle names. All authors’ names areinverted (last name first), not just the name of thefirst author.
  9. 9. Single AuthorLast name first, followed by author initials. Berndt, T. J. (2002). Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 7-10.
  10. 10. Two AuthorsList by their last names and initials. Use theampersand instead of "and.“ Wegener, D. T., & Petty, R. E. (1994). Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 1034-1048.
  11. 11. Three to Seven AuthorsList by last names and initials; commas separateauthor names, while the last author name ispreceded again by ampersand. Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A., Harlow, T., & Bach, J. S. (1993). Theres more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1190-1204.
  12. 12. More Than Seven AuthorsList by last names and initials; commas separate authornames. After the sixth authors name, use an ellipses inplace of the author names. Then provide the finalauthor name. There should be no more than sevennames. Miller, F. H., Choi, M. J., Angeli, L. L., Harland, A. A., Stamos, J. A., Thomas, S. T., . . . Rubin, L. H. (2009). Web site usability for the blind and low-vision user. Technical Communication, 57, 323-335.
  13. 13. 2. Publication datesFor professional journals and books, include the publicationyear in parentheses. For sources that use specific dates—such as popular magazines, newspapers, televisionbroadcasts, or websites—include the year and the month orthe year, month, and day in parentheses. When a source hasno author, the entry begins with the title, followed by thedate. Howe, J. (2007, November 16). Manawatu worth $8.1b. Manawatu Standard, p. 1.
  14. 14. 3. TitlesList titles completely, taking information from the first pageof an article or from the title page of a book. Include bothtitles and subtitles, no matter how long they are.Hazledine, T., & Quiggan, J. (2006). Public policy in Australiaand New Zealand: The new global context. AustralianJournal of Political Science, 41(2), 131–143.
  15. 15. 4. Additional informationInclude any of the following information inthe order presented here if it is listed on thefirst page of the article, essay, chapter orother subsection, or the title page of the book:  Translator  Edition number  Volume number  Issue number (if the journal is paginated separately by issue)  Inclusive pages
  16. 16. 5. Facts of publication For periodicals, take the volume number, issue number, and date from the first few pages in journals and magazines, often in combination with the table of contents. For books, use the first city listed on the title page and provide a two-letter abbreviation for the state or the full name of the foreign country. Take the publisher’s name from the title page, presenting it in abbreviated form.
  17. 17. 6. Retrieval informationFor electronic sources, provide a retrieval statement, aphrase or sentence that explains how to access the source,to direct readers to the electronic copy.
  18. 18. Article From an Online PeriodicalOnline articles follow the same guidelines for printedarticles. Include all information the online host makesavailable, including an issue number in parentheses. Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number(issue number if available). Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/ Bernstein, M. (2002). 10 tips on writing the living Web. A list apart: For people who make websites, 149. Retrieved from http://www.alistapart.com/articles/writeliving
  19. 19. Electronic BooksElectronic books may include books found on personalwebsites, databases, or even in audio form. If the work is notdirectly available online or must be purchased, use"Available from," rather than "Retrieved from," and pointreaders to where they can find it. For books available in printform and electronic form, include the publish date inparentheses after the authors name. For refernces to e-bookeditions, be sure to include the type and version of e-bookyou are references (e.g., "[Kindle DX version]") De Huff, E. W. (n.d.). Taytay’s tales: Traditional Pueblo Indian tales. Retrieved from http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/dehuff/taytay/taytay.html Davis, J. (n.d.). Familiar birdsongs of the Northwest. Available from http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/biblio?inkey=1- 9780931686108-0
  20. 20. FORMAT FOR APA ENTRIES Presenter : Ngân Giang
  21. 21. 0 Each entry has four basic parts:- The name of the author- The year of publication- The title- Further publication information
  22. 22. Indentation patterns0 Begin the first line of each entry at the left margin; indent subsequent lines five to seven spaces, using the “Indent” feature.
  23. 23. Authors’ names0 entries must be arranged in alphabetical order0 invert all authors’ names (Haley, R.)0 use an ampersand (&), not the word and, to join the names of multiple authors (Haley, R., & Taylor, J.).
  24. 24. 0 1. Single author
  25. 25. 0 2. Multiple authors
  26. 26. Authorless sources0 When no author is identified, list the source by title0 Alphabetize a reference-list entry by using the primary words of the title (no using a, an, or the)0 Be able to begin the entry with the editor’s name
  27. 27. 0 Unknown author
  28. 28. Article titles0 Include full titles but use sentence-style capitalization.0 Article titles use no special punctuation
  29. 29. E.g:0 Article in a Magazine0 Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in todays schools. Time, 135, 28-31.0 Article in a Newspaper0 Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The Country Today, pp. 1A, 2A.
  30. 30. Periodical titles.0 Present the titles of periodicals in headline style0 Follow the title with a comma and the volume number0 Italicize the title and the volume number, including the separating comma and the comma that follows the volume number
  31. 31. 0 Article in a journal
  32. 32. 0 Article in a magazine: Cite as a journal article, but give the year and the month for monthly magazines; add the day for weekly magazines.0 E.g:0 McKibben, B. (2007, October). Carbon’s new math. National Geographic, 212(4), 32-37.
  33. 33. 0 Article in a newspaper0 Give the year, month, and day for daily and weekly newspapers. Use “p.” or “pp.” before page numbers.
  34. 34. Issue numbers0 If a journal paginates issues separately, place the issue number in parenthese after the volume number0 no space separates the volume number from the issue number0 the parentheses and issue number are not italicized0 Both volume and issue numbers are presented as Arabic, not Roman numerals0 E.g: Journal title, 25(6),Journal title, 18(3), 0
  35. 35. Titles of books0 Present the titles of books with sentence-style capitalization0 The title is italicized.
  36. 36. Publishers’ names0 Shorten the names of commercial publishers, using only the main elements of their names (Houghton, not Houghton Mifflin) and dropping descriptive titles (Publishers, Company, Incorporated).0 use the complete names of university presses and organizations and corporations that serve as publishers, retaining the words Books and Press whenever they are part of a publisher’s name0 If a work has co-publishers, include both publishers’ names, separated by an en dash or a hyphen (Harvard–Belknap Press).
  37. 37. Punctuation within entries0 Separate major sections of entries (author, date, title, and publication information) with periods, including elements enclosed in parentheses or brackets0 the period used with the abbreviation of an author’s first or middle name substitutes for this period0 separate the place of publication from the publisher’s name with a colon0 When an entry ends with a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) or URL (Uniform Resource Locator), no period is required to close the entry
  38. 38. 0 E.g 1:0 . . Jacobson, N. S., & Truax, P (1991) Clinical significance: A statistical approach to defining change . in psychotherapy research Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 12–19 .
  39. 39. 0 E.g 2:0 Article in an online newspaper: Treat as an article in a print newspaper, adding the URL for the newspaper’s home page.0 Watson, P. (2008, October 19). Biofuel boom endangers orangutan habitat. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://www.latimes.com/
  40. 40. Spacing within entries0 One space separates elements in APA entries0 However, when a journal paginates issues separately, the issue number (in parentheses) follows the volume number without a space.
  41. 41. Abbreviations.0 Use abbreviations for standard parts of periodicals, books, and other print materials.
  42. 42. ACCEPTABLE ABBREVIATIONSDigital Object Identifier DOI or doiedition ed.Editor (Editors) Ed. (Eds.)no date n.d.No place of publication N.p.no publisher n.p.Number No.page (pages) p. (pp.)Part Pt.Revised edition Rev. ed.Second edition, fifth edition 2nd ed., 5th ed. (superscript is not used)Supplement Suppl.Technical Report Tech. Rep.Translator Trans.Uniform Resource Locator URLVolume (Volumes) Vol. (Vols.)
  43. 43. Page numbers0 List numbers completely (176–179, not 176–9 or 176– 79), separated by an en dash or a hyphen0 No commas are used to separate digits of numbers one thousand or larger when citing pages (pp. 1295– 1298)0 When articles appear on nonconsecutive pages, list them all, separated by commas (34–35, 38, 54–55, 57, 59).
  44. 44. Line spacing Line spacing• Double space between each line. 0 Double space between each line.
  45. 45. Alphabetiz ing the Reference List Presenter: Ngọc Cẩm
  46. 46. The reference list must be in alphabetical orderRules in some circumstances:0Letter-by-letter style0“Nothing precedes something”0Prefixes0Names with prepositions0Multiple works by the same author0Single-author and multiple-author works0Groups, institutions, or organizations as authors0Authorless works0Numerals in titles
  47. 47. 1. Letter-by-letter style Alphabetize one letter at a time E.g. Baker, R. L. precedes Baker, W. S. Our American Heritage comes before Our American Legacy.
  48. 48. 2. “Nothing precedes something”The space that follows a name supersedes the lettersthat follow.E.g. Wood, T. S., precedes Woodman, K. F
  49. 49. 3.PrefixesPrefixes are alphabetized as they appear, not as if theyappeared in full formE.g. MacDonald, J. B., precedes McDonald, B. V.
  50. 50. 4. Names with prepositions Names that incorporate prepositions are alphabetized as if they were spelled closed E.g. De Forest, A. M., precedes Denton, R. L.
  51. 51. 5. Multiple works by the same authorArrange selections in chronological orderE.g. Sparks, C. G. (2008) precedes Sparks, C. G. (2009)
  52. 52. 6. Single-author and multiple-author worksSingle-author works precede multiple-author worksE.g.Kelly, M. J., precedes Kelly, M. J., & Dorfmeyer, P. G.
  53. 53. 7. Groups, institutions, or organizations as authors Alphabetize group, institutional, or organizational authors by major words in their completely spelled-out names (omitting a, an, or the) E.g. American Psychological Association precedes Anderson, V. W.
  54. 54. 8. Authorless worksAuthorless works are alphabetized by the firstsignificant words in their titles (omitting a, an, or the)E.g. The price of poverty precedes Stewart, R. P.
  55. 55. 9. Numerals in titlesNumerals in titles are alphabetized as if they werespelled outE.g. “The 10 common errors of research” precedesTwelve angry men.
  56. 56. APA documentation has two areas of emphasis0 The authors of source materials and0 The year in which sources were published or presented.0 E.g. Smith (2005) reported; (Smith, 2005)
  57. 57. Patterns for in-text citations0 An in-text citation (also called a parenthetical note) corresponds to an entry in the reference list at the end of the paper.0 E.g.Duenwald, M. (2004, January 6). Slim pickings: Looking beyond ephedra.In-text citation: (Duenwald, 2004).
  58. 58. Patterns for in-text citationsE.g.Understanding Torres’ grid. (2003, March). [Chart]. Infopleasealmanac. Retrieved January 13, 2006, fromhttp://www.infoplease.com/In-text citation: (“Understanding Torres’ Grid,” 2003)
  59. 59. Shortened Forms of Titles• “When Teachers Don’t Make the Grade” In-text citation “When Teachers”=> Use initial words of the title.• “A Long Day’s Journey into Night”In-text citation “Long Day’s Journey”⇒ Omit articles.• “Paycare: The High Cost of Insurance-based Medicine”In-text citation “Paycare.”=> Omit subtitles.
  60. 60. Shortened Forms of Titles0 The Price of Poverty In-text citation Price⇒ Omit prepositional phrases.0 The Chicago Manual of Style In-text citation Chicago Manual⇒ Make the short title brief but readable0 APA Dictionary of Psychology In-text citation APA Dictionary=> Retain punctuation patterns.
  61. 61. Basic form o f in- text citation Presenter: M inh Dang
  62. 62. 0 To avoid disrupting the text, in text citation briefly has only author name or the title of the source appear in the reference list0 To make it clear and smooth, you may incorporate some of the necessary information
  63. 63. Some special circumtances0 Two author with the same last name: include initials and last name0 Eg: 0 (Pirlo, A., 1999) 0 (Pirlo, L., 1999)
  64. 64. 0 Multiwork by the same author, same year: use the letters to distinguish the sources. The letters indicate the alphabetical order of the titles0 Eg: 0 (Gerrard, 1999a) 0 (Gerrard, 1999b)
  65. 65. 0 Two authors: Use both last name, joined by an ampersand (&)0 Eg: 0 (Xavi & Iniesta, 1999)
  66. 66. 0 Three, four or five authors: the first notation includes all names. Subsequent citation, use the first author name and “et al.,”0 Eg: 0 (Xavi, Iniesta, & Busquets, 2000) 0 (Xavi, et al., 2000)0 Further references within the single paragraph omit the date0 Eg: 0 (Xavi, et al.)
  67. 67. 0 Six or more authors: use the first author’s name and “et al.,”0 Eg: 0 (Fabregas, et al.,2003)
  68. 68. 0 Organization: in the first note, present the organization’s name in full, with the abbreviation in bracket.0 Eg: 0 (World Trade Organization [WTO], 2002)0 Use the shortened form in subsequent notations.0 Eg: 0 (WTO, 2002)
  69. 69. 0 No author: include the shortened version of the title, appropriately capitalized and punctuated, and the year0 Eg: 0 (Optimum Performance from Test Subjects,” 1999)
  70. 70. 0 Multiple publication dates: include both dates, separated by a slash0 Eg: 0 (Kroos, T., 1994/2000)
  71. 71. 0 Reference works: list by author if applicable or by shortened form of the title0 Eg: 0 (Vaart, 2003) 0 (“Manhattan project,” 1998)
  72. 72. 0 Two or more works by the same author: to cite several works by the same author, include the author’s name and all dates in chronological order, separated by commas0 Eg: 0 (Kagawa, 2000, 2009, 2010)
  73. 73. 0 Two or more works by different authors: to cite different works by differents authors in the same note, list each author and dates, separated by semicolons0 Eg: 0 (Messi, 2000; Villa, 2003)
  74. 74. 0 Parts of sources: to cite only a portion of a source, including the author or title as appropriate, the date, and clarifying information0 Eg: 0 (Mata, 2001, p. 452) 0 (Silva, 2000, chaps. 2-3)
  75. 75. 0 Personal communication: cite email and other correspondence, memos, interviews and so on by listing the person’s name, the clarifying phrase “personal communication” and the specific date.0 Eg: 0 (Schweinsteiger, personal communication, June 7, 2012)
  76. 76. 4f.Quotations Presenter : M.Sang
  77. 77. 4f.QuotationsWhen an author’s manner of expressionor her ideas or language are difficult tosummarize, quote the passage in your text.To avoid plagiarism, reproduce quotedmaterial word for word, including exactspelling and punctuation, separate thematerial from your text, and prepare anaccurate citation.
  78. 78. a) Concerns About Quotations0 Style. Is the style so distinctive that you cannot say the same thing as well or as clearly in your own words?• Vocabulary. Is the vocabulary technical and therefore difficult to translate into your own words?• Reputation. Is the author so well known or so important that the quotation can lend authority to your paper?• Points of contention. Does the author’s material raise doubts or questions or make points with which you disagree?
  79. 79. b) Brief quotations (fewer than 40 words)0 Appear within a normal paragraph, with the author’s words enclosed in quotation marks.0 Placed in parentheses, follows the closing quotation mark, whether it is in the middle or at the end of a sentence.0 If the quotation ends the sentence, the sen-tence’s period follows the closing parenthesis. The citation includes the author’s name and the publication date , as well as a specific page reference p. or pp. (not italicized)
  80. 80. Example :0 The tacit assumption that intelligence isis at the heart The tacit assumption that intelligence at the heart of success has has been called into question: “The of success been called into question: “The memory and analyticalanalytical skills so central to intelligence memory and skills so central to intelligence are certainly important for for school and life success, are certainly important school and life success, but perhaps they they are not sufficient. Arguably, but perhaps are not sufficient. Arguably, wisdom- related skills are skills are as least as important or wisdom-related at least at important or even more important” (Sternberg, 2003, p. 147). even more important” (p. 147).0 Reference list entry : Sternberg, R. J. (2003). Wisdom, intelligence, and creativity synthsized. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
  81. 81. c) Long quotations (40 or more words)0 A quotation of 40 or more words is set off from a normal para-graph in an indented block paragraph.0 After an introductory statement, start the quotation on a new line, indented five to seven spaces or ½ inch (use the “Indent” feature to maintain the indentation throughout the quotation).0 Quotation marks do not appear at the opening and closing of a block quotation.0 Like the surrounding text, the quotation is double- spaced.
  82. 82. d) Single Quotation Marks 0 To indicate an author’s use of quotation marks within a brief quotation (which is set off by double quotation marks), change the source’s punctuation to single quotation marks. “….”  ‘….’
  83. 83. Example : 0 Young (2005) stressed the cautionary and even alarmist nature of current approaches to health management. He asserted, “Each year as many as 40,000 to 50,000 articles are published where the term risk appears in the titles and abstracts—this has led some observers to refer to a ‘risk epidemic’ in the medical literature” (p. 177). Reference-list entry Young, T. K. (2005). Population health: Concepts and methods (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  84. 84. Thanks for listening0 Group 5 :0 1. M.Sang0 2. H.Lộc0 3. Ngân Giang0 4. Ngọc Cẩm0 5. M.Đăng0 6. Tố Ngân