2. About this workshop
No prior knowledge of linux necessary
Lot of linux flavours, we concentrate on ubuntu
2 hr's with couple of breaks
Start with some history and architecture
Files and Directories
Software management – installing,
4. History of UNIX & GNU
UNIX dominated since 1960. It was
efficient, effective, but expensive.
An effort to produce an open-source UNIX
like os begun by richard stallman in 1983,
this was the GNU projects beginnings.
A lot of software was written as part of the
GNU project by the Free Software
Foundation(FSF): compilers, text editors, a
5. History – GNU is not an os
But there were no complete kernel, device
drivers, faemons etc.
Without these subsystem, GNU could not be
6. History – linux fills the gap
In 1991 Linuz Trovalds developed a
replacement of MINIX teaching OS
developed by andrew d. Tanenbaum and
released by Prentice-Hall.
This replacement became the Linux kernel.
Version 0.12 of linux was released in 1992.
Linux kernel became the missing GNU
Strictly speaking Linux refers to the kernel
GNU/Linux more accurately describes the
Operating System. Linux Kernel combined
with GNU utilities and libraries
8. Open Source Software
Open Source Software (OSS) generally
refers to software for which the source
code is available and which the licensing
scheme permits the user to modify it and
redistribute it in modified or unmodified
9. GNU copyleft1
Nobody should be restricted by the software
they use. There are four freedoms that every
user should have:
the freedom to use the software for any
the freedom to change the software to suit your
the freedom to share the software with your
friends and neighbors, and
the freedom to share the changes you make.
When a program offers users all of these
freedoms, we call it free software.
10. Open Source Software
The GIMP - Adobe Photoshop clone
Open Office - Office suite
Mozilla Firefox - Web browser
Mozilla - Thunderbird E-mail Client
VLC - Media player
Audacity - Digital audio editor
MySQL – Database
11. Ubuntu Linux
A good choice for both server and desktop
Free and well updated – new release every
Security updates for 18 months – after that
just upgrade to the latest version.
There are LTS versions with extended
12. Ubuntu Release
Latest release is Ubuntu 13.04 (Raring
Ringtail), based on kernel 3.8
Latest stable release is Ubuntu 12.04 LTS
(Precise Pangolin), based on kernel 3.2
A filesystem is responsible for managing
data stored on a non-volatile storage device
like hard disks, USB drives, DVD etc.
Most linux distros, including ubuntu, use
ext3 (“third extended filesystem”) and
Ubuntu 9.04 introduces experimental
support for ext4.
14. Journaling Filesystem?
A journaling filesystem keeps a journal or
log of the changes that are being made to
the filesystem during disk writing that can
be used to rapidly reconstruct corruptions
that may occur due to events such a system
crash or power outage.
Ext3 stands for third extended file system.
It was introduced in 2001.
Starting from Linux Kernel 2.4.15 ext3 was
The main benefit of ext3 is that it allows
Maximum individual file size can be from 16
GB to 2 TB
You can convert a ext2 file system to ext3
file system directly (without
Ext4 stands for fourth extended file system.
It was introduced in 2008.
Starting from Linux Kernel 2.6.19 ext4 was
Maximum individual file size can be from 16 GB to
Overall maximum ext4 file system size is 1 EB
(exabyte). 1 EB = 1024 PB (petabyte). 1 PB = 1024
You can also mount an existing ext3 fs as ext4 fs
(without having to upgrade it).
In ext4, you also have the option of turning the
journaling feature “off”.
17. Files and directories
Filesystems store data in files and directories.
Filesystems are stored in disk partitions.
You can configure partitions any way you like,
but something like this is advisable
/home This is where users home directories go.
/boot This is where your kernel images and
boot loader configuration go.
/ This is where the "root" of the file system is
18. Basic commands
ls - List the content of a directory
cd - Change directory
mkdir - Create directory
rmdir - Remove directory
cp - Copy file
mv - Move file
rm - Remove file
pwd - Print the present directory
19. Software Management
21. Using apt
Apt (Advanced Packaging Tool) is the most
favourite method of software installation in
Debian based systems. You have so many
repositories where you can download more
than 60,000 software. This repositories are
referred in the sources list at
Eg: Install VLC player
#apt-get install vlc
22. Using Synaptic Package Manager
Synaptic Package Manager will allow you to
install software by searching the
repositories. It’s a GUI based package
manager. You can view the software by
category and by clicking on Apply button you
can easily install the software.
23. Downloading Deb packages
You can download .deb packages and install
them using command line and also using
GDebi GUI tool.
Eg: Install Skype
#dpkg -i skype-ubuntu-intrepid_188.8.131.52-
In GDebi, you can just right click on the .deb
package and open it in GDebi, then you can
install it from there.
25. GUI Package Management Tool
Just click on System > Administration >
Synaptic Package Manager
Now you can select any package and click on
Mark for Removal popup menu. You can also
start GUI tool from command line, enter:
$ synaptic &
26. Command Line
apt-get is the command-line tool for
For example remove package called mplayer,
$ sudo apt-get remove mplayer
28. GUI tool - Ubuntu Update Manager
You can also start GUI tool by Clicking
System > Administration > Update Manager >
Select Install update
29. command line
apt-get is the command-line tool for
handling packages, updating package and
installing patches under Ubuntu Linux. All
you have to do is type the following two
command to update all installed software to
Open terminal and type the following two
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get upgrade