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Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
Etm551 lecture08
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Etm551 lecture08

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  • 1. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 1 Product Design & Development Product Architecture
  • 2. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 2 Questions How would the architecture of the product impact their ability to offer product variety? What would be the cost implications of different product architectures? How would the architecture of the product impact their ability to complete the design within 12 monts? How would the architecture of the product influence their ability to manage the development process?
  • 3. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 3 What is Product Architecture A product can be thought in both functional and physical terms. The functional elements are the individual operationsand transformations The physical elements of a product are the parts, components, and subassemblies The physical elements of a product are typically organized into several major physical building blocks, called chunks.
  • 4. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 4 What is Product Architecture? Product architecture is the assignment of the product's functions to physical building blocks or "chunks". Product module module module module module module module module
  • 5. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 5 Modular or integral architecture?
  • 6. 6 Modular product architecture Each chunk fully embodies one or more product functions. Interactions between chunks are: well defined (typically) fundamental to product's primary functions. Modular architecture has advantages in simplicity and reusability for a product family or platform.
  • 7. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 7 Modular product architecture Modular architecture has advantages in simplicity and reusability for a product family or platform.
  • 8. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 8 Platform Architecture of the Sony Walkman
  • 9. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 9 Integral product architecture Typical functions involve more than one chunk Typical chunks implement more than one function Interactions between chunks are ill-defined and may be incidental to product's primary functions. Integral architecture generally increases performance and reduces costs for any specific product model.
  • 10. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 10 Trailer Example: Modular Architecture box hitch fairing bed springs wheels protect cargo from weather connect to vehicle minimize air drag support cargo loads suspend trailer structure transfer loads to road
  • 11. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 11 Trailer Example: Integral Architecture upper half lower half nose piece cargo hanging straps spring slot covers wheels protect cargo from weather connect to vehicle minimize air drag support cargo loads suspend trailer structure transfer loads to road
  • 12. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 12 Modularity Modularity is a relative property Products are rarely strictly modular or integral.
  • 13. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 13 Types of modularity Slot-modular architecture Each chunk-to-chunk interface is different from the others. Chunks cannot be swapped around.
  • 14. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 14 Slot-modular architecture Each interface between chunks in a slot-modular is of a different type from the others, so that the various chunks in the product cannot be interchanged (e.g. Automobile radio)
  • 15. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 15 Bus-modular architecture Uses a common bus, or similar concept. Uses standard chunk-to-bus interfaces.
  • 16. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 16 Sectional-modular architecture No common bus or other single element interfacing with all other chunks. Uses standard chunk-to-chunk interfaces.
  • 17. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 17 Choosing the Product Architecture Architecture decisions relate to product planning and concept development decisions: Product Change (copier toner, camera lenses) Product Variety (computers, automobiles) Standardization (motors, bearings, fasteners) Performance (racing bikes, fighter planes) Manufacturing Cost (disk drives, razors) Project Management (team capacity, skills) System Engineering (decomposition, integration)
  • 18. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 18 When is the product architecture defined? Product architecture begins to emerge during concept development. PlanningPlanning Concept Development Concept Development System-Level Design System-Level Design Detail Design Detail Design Testing and Refinement Testing and Refinement Production Ramp-Up Production Ramp-Up Platform decision Concept decision Decomposition decision
  • 19. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 19 Product architecture affects: Product changes Upgrades Ex.: Changing the processor board of a computer Add-ons Ex.: Third-party mass storage devices Adaptation to local conditions Ex.: 110 or 220 Volt power supply
  • 20. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 20 Product architecture affects: High-wear components Ex.: tires on vehicles Consumables Ex.: film cartridges Flexibility in use Ex.: Lens or flash options for a camera Resuse Ex.:consumer electronics manufacturers
  • 21. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 21 Product variety Variety refers to the range of product models the firm can produce within a particular timeframe in response to market demand. Swatch produces hundreds of watch models.
  • 22. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 22 Component standardization Use the same components or chunks in various products. Ex.: Watch movement, watch battery, etc.
  • 23. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 23 Product performance How will product implement intended functions? Ex.: Function sharing of BMW transmission chunk
  • 24. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 24 Manufacturability Benefits from: Design-for-manufacturing (DFM) Minimization of parts count through component integration. These strategies are best applied at the chunk level.
  • 25. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 25 Managing the PD process Detailed design responsibility for each chunk is usually assigned to a small in- house team or outsourced to a supplier.
  • 26. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 26 Concepts of integral and modular apply at several levels System Sub-system Component
  • 27. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 27 Product Architecture = Decomposition + Interactions Interactions within chunks Interactions across chunks
  • 28. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 28 Establishing the architecture Create schematic (illustrating product architecture) Cluster elements Create rough geometric layout Identify fundamental and incidental interactions
  • 29. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 29 DeskJet Printer Schematic Flow of forces or energy Flow of material Flow of signals or data Store Output Store Blank Paper Enclose Printer Provide Structural Support Print Cartridge Position Cartridge In X-Axis Position Paper In Y-Axis Supply DC Power “Pick” Paper Control Printer Command Printer Connect to Host Communicate with Host Display Status Accept User Inputs Functional or Physical Elements
  • 30. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 30 Clustering elements Key considerations when clustering elements (of schematic) into chunks include: Geometric integration and precision Ex.: H-P clustering for ink-jet printer calls for cartridge positioning on x-axis and paper positioning on y-axis
  • 31. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 31 Clustering elements (cont) Function sharing Ex.: Status display and user controls for H-P printer Ex.: Transmission for BMW motorcycle Vendor (= Supplier) capabilities Ex.: H-P printer Ex.: Spring and shock absorber for rear suspension of BMW motorcycle
  • 32. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 32 Clustering elements (cont) Similarity of design or production technology Location of change Accommodating variety Enabling standardization Portability of interfaces
  • 33. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 33 Cluster Elements into Chunks Store Output Store Blank Paper Enclose Printer Provide Structural Support Print Cartridge Position Cartridge In X-Axis Position Paper In Y-Axis Supply DC Power “Pick” Paper Control Printer Command Printer Connect to Host Communicate with Host Display Status Accept User Inputs Paper Tray Print Mechanism Logic Board Chassis Enclosure User Interface Board Host Driver Software Power Cord and “Brick” Functional or Physical Elements Chunks
  • 34. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 34 Audio System Exercise: Where are the Chunks? CassetteTuner Front Controls Power Amplifier CD Changer Rear Controls Cellular Phone Cellular Antenna Antenna Motor AM/FM Antenna Rear Headphones LF Speaker LR Speaker RR Speaker RF Speaker Microphone Display 104.1 FM
  • 35. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 35 Geometric layout Key considerations when creating a rough geometric layout include: Identification of fundamental and incidental interactions Fundamental interactions Ex.: H-P printer Sheets of paper flow from the paper tray to print mechanism. Incidental interactions Ex.: Vibration induced by the actuators in paper tray may interfere with precision positioning of print cartridge (x-axis)
  • 36. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 36 Create a rough geometric layout chassis paper roller print cartridge paper tray enclosure logic board height print mechanism paper tray user interface board print cartridge logic board chassis
  • 37. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 37 Incidental interactions Enclosure Paper Tray Chassis Print Mechanism User Interface Board Logic Board Power Cord and “Brick” Host Driver Software Styling Vibration Thermal Distortion Thermal Distortion
  • 38. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 38 F G E D I A C B1 K1 J P N Q R B2 K2 O L M H S T U V Crankshaft F F l l l l l l l l l l l l Flywheel G l G l l l l Connecting Rods E l E l l l l l l Pistons D l l l D l l l l l l l l l Lubrication I l l l l I l l l l l l l l l Engine Block A l l l l l A l l l l l l l l l l Camshaft/Valve Train C l l l l C l l l l l l Cylinder Heads B1 l l l l l B1 l l l l l l Intake Manifold K1 l l l l K1 l l l l l Water Pump/Cooling J l l l l l l J l l l l l l l l l Fuel System P l P l l l l l l l l l l Air Cleaner N l N l l l l l l Throttle Body Q l l l Q l l l l l l l l l EVAP R l l R l l l Cylinder Heads B2 l l l B2 l l l l l l l l Intake Manifold K2 l l l l l l K2 l l l l l l l A.I.R. O l l l l l l O l l l l l l Exhaust L l l l l l l l l L l l l l l l E.G.R. M l l l l l l l l M l l l l l Accessory Drive H l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l H l l l l Ignition S l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l S l l l E.C.M. T l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l T l l Electrical System U l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l U l Engine Assembly V l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l V Frequency of PDT Interactions l Daily l Weekly l Monthly Team 1 Team 2 Team 3 Team 4 Integration Team
  • 39. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 39 Variety and supply chain considerations
  • 40. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 40 Fundamental Decisions Integral vs. modular architecture? What type of modularity? How to assign functions to chunks? How to assign chunks to teams? Which chunks to outsource?
  • 41. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 41 Practical Concerns Planning is essential to achieve the desired variety and product change capability. Coordination is difficult, particularly across teams, companies, or great distances. Special attention must be paid to handle complex interactions between chunks (system engineering methods).
  • 42. 42 Product Architecture: Conclusions Architecture choices define the sub- systems and modules of the product platform or family. Architecture determines: ease of production variety feasibility of customer modification system-level production costs Key Concepts: modular vs. integral architecture clustering into chunks planning product families
  • 43. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 43 Summary Product architecture decisions affect product change, product variety, component standardization, product performance, manufacturability, and PD management. A key characteristic of a product architecture is the degree to which it is modular or integral
  • 44. ETM 551 -Product Architecture 44 Summary Four steps for product architecture 1. Create a schematic of the product 2. Cluster the elements of the schematic 3. Create a rough geometric layout 4. Identify the fundamental and incidental interactions

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