Digital producers often face the dilemma on whether to take a more agile approach or take a waterfall approach seeing development as a ‘bolt-on’. This presentation explores some concepts from Scrum and Lean and how they work with UCD.
Is UCD enough for today’s challenging projects? We will explore if agile and lean is anti-design. Organisations are looking at better ways to deliver projects. Next time you or your agency are hired, without understanding agile principles you might lose the plot.
It replaces waterfall (a series of phases) that so many of us our used to working with. Waterfall requires signs offs to deliver a final product. This makes sense as ‘how can we design’ something before we learn? It contains project management to improve processes, communication and output.
Wintel is no longer king Platforms and technology are rapidly changing Enter experimentation Some startups develop technology first and UX second
There is a line of uncertainty with all projects The idea of a watertight vision does not work Designers need to be open to creating environments and be open to pivots The last responsible moment – Don’t make decisions until you have to. The faster we get our idea out the better it will evolve
Jeffrey Liker explains how Toyota developed the Prius. Toyota had a very tight time frame and a very vague goal. Its easy to fixate on one particular option which is probably not the right one!
Waterfall is rooted in the world of mass production. The problem with waterfall is that you have to wait till the end to see results Agile welcomes changes, even late in development User stories encourage collaborative decision making. Points and charting tools allows team to gauge velocity
Individuals – By interacting socially, we can develop better than working in isolation. Software is a social not solo exercise! Software – Waterfall relies on documentation for QA phases. With agile, testing is built in. Customer – In Agile we recognize the 3 dimensions of a project management time, scope and budget and work within this outline to please the customer. Change – Both Twitter and Facebook have been through numerous technology cycles.
Agile welcomes changes, even late in development User stories encourage collaborative decision making. Points and charting tools allows team to gauge velocity
Vision – Think about Google, it got up and running in no time and iterated quickly. On the contrast the NHS project took years of planning
Keep documentation minimal. In most instances creating detailed proposals or requirement document is not required
Our vision should be supported by a business model This one page business model generators helps to communicate the vision to everyone in the team
In most instances a Scrum Master (responsible member of the team) is the voice of the team It is possible to have separate product managers
Bolt-on – Many agile teams are led by developers getting the designers to apply a ‘brush of paint’
Transparency and communication is key in agile Scrum teams are time boxed and focused The wall becomes a meeting point
Derived from ‘ validated ’ learning.
In 2006 the Microsoft Office UX team realised that 32% of office users only use 5 functions. By stripping out features, content and multimedia, your team will focus on delivering a better user experience.
Innovation accounting is about accountable measurement Avoid vanity analytics at all costs Lean encourages the one page analytics concept. The cohort analysis combines split testing and funnel analysis into one particular chart The weekly cohort can show significant changes that can be tied to specific activities done in a particular week. You can also test different hypothesis using the same format
Lean encourages the one page actionable analytics concept. The cohort analysis (in this example) combines split testing and funnel analysis into one particular chart The weekly cohort can show significant changes that can be tied to specific activities done in a particular week. You can also test different hypothesis using the same format
Innovation accounting is about accountable measurement
The notion of validated, means tried and tested with the customers This process will be frustrating for developers initially as they cannot moved on until features are proven
A pivot happens when it doesn’ t make sense to preserve Lets focus on the first 3 Customer need pivot Potbelly sandwich shop began life as an antique shop and went into the the beverage market With a technology pivot we idenftify a better technology to deliver a product or service With a Zoom in pivot, we move zoom in onto a particular set of functionality
Perceived as effective from the developer ’ s perspective. Scrum has a learning curve.
Ethnography, user interviews, testing and strategic design based on research continue to play a crucial part. Only good design based around the user can deliver desireable products. Did Apple release maps too early? What about Google Buzz? Developers have a crucial role to play in design and can innovate design.
What is agile Agile has been hyped as the next major breakthrough in product development.Support ers Spons ors Organi s er 4
Why use Agile? TechnologySupport ers Spons ors Organi s er 5
Why use Agile? Uncertainty *Source: Agile Experience Design: A Digital Designers Guide to Agile, Lean, and ContinuousSupport ers Spons ors Organi s er 6
Why use Agile? It works in other industries • Dozens of designs submitted, only 2 considered and then iterated • Toyota worked on 80 different engines variations • Tested 20 different suspensions at the same timeSupport ers Spons ors Organi s er 7
Scrum (Agile Manifesto) principles Individuals and interactions over processes and tools Working software over comprehensive documentation Customer collaboration over contract negotiation Responding to change over following a planSource: epod.usra.eduSupport ers Spons ors Organi s er 9
So what is Scrum? • User stories replace extensive requirements. • It welcomes change. • Use it in full or partially. • The concept of ‘done’ is redefined.Support ers Spons ors Organi s er 10
The Scrum framework Source: www.mitchlacey.comSupport ers Spons ors Organi s er 11
Scrum tip 01 – Planning • Keep proposals as outlines. • Do ‘Just enough and no more’ – think in days not months. • Use ‘How Might We’ (HMW) sketches for ideas (and iterate). • A point system and velocity gauge the difficulty of tasks.Support ers Spons ors Organi s er 12
Scrum tip 01 - Planning > The one page business plan KEY PARTNERS KEY ACTIVITIES VALUE CLIENTS SEGMENTS PROPOSITION Suppliers, Things we need The problems How we will The different technologies to do to make we are solving, interact with customer are partners. our plan and the USP. customers and profiles. happen. maintain the relationship. RESOURCES CHANNELS Who we need How we will find to make this the clients. happen. COST STRUCTURE MONETISATION What sort of budgets do we need? What customers will pay now and in the future Source: www.businessmodelgeneration.comSupport ers Spons ors Organi s er 13
Scrum tip 02 – The team Product Owner Scrum Master Front-End UX Producer Developer Back-End DeveloperSupport ers Spons ors Organi s er 14
Scrum tip 03 - Sprints • At the heart of Scrum are time boxed sprints. • Sprints are potentially shippable products. • Sprints take 2-4 weeks to complete.Support ers Spons ors Organi s er 15
Scrum tip 04 - The boardSupport ers Spons ors Organi s er 16
Scrum tip 05 - Meetings • Weekly kick-off meetings. • Daily stand-up meetings / Daily workshops. • Customer interaction meetings (weekly). • End of week showcase meeting.Support ers Spons ors Organi s er 17
The lean startup Most startups fail. But many of those failures are preventable. The Lean Startup is a new approach being adopted across the globe, changing the way companies are built and new products are launched.Support ers Spons ors Organi s er 19
What is lean? • Management philosophy with roots in Toyota production. • Heavily relies on evolving strategies (pivots). • Encourages the use of automation to remove errors.Support ers Spons ors Organi s er 20
Why use Lean? • Based on the ‘Build’, ‘Measure’ and ‘Learn’ cycle (experiments) • Heavily geared towards MVP. • Small teams, independent working within an ‘innovation sandbox’. • All decision making is based on actionable analytics. • Ultimately, it eliminates waste.Support ers Spons ors Organi s er 21
Lean tip 01 - MVP Go to market with the minimum amount of features.Support ers Spons ors Organi s er 22
Lean tips 02 – Innovation Accounting • Analytics have to be actionable, accessible and auditable • Use split testing to test your hypothesis • Use Cohort based metrics for validated learningSupport ers Spons ors Organi s er 23
Lean tips 03 – Innovation Accounting Week 1 Cohort Week 2 Cohort Week 3 Cohort Week 4 Cohort Signed-up Signed-up Signed-up Signed-up Signed-up Signed-up Signed-up Signed-up 900 (100%) 900 (100%) 1000 (100%) 1000 (100%) 1100 (100%) 1100 (100%) 1200 (100%) 1200 (100%) Signed-up Signed-up Signed-up Signed-up Signed-up Signed-up Signed-up Signed-up 750 (830%) 750 (830%) 800 (80%) 800 (80%) 900 (81%) 900 (81%) 950 (80%) 950 (80%) Completed a a task Completed task Completed a a task Completed task Completed a a task Completed task Completed a a task Completed task 380 (42%) 380 (42%) 500 (50%) 500 (50%) 650 (60%) 650 (60%) 350 (30%) 350 (30%) Purchased Purchased Purchased Purchased Purchased Purchased Purchased Purchased 95 (11%) 95 (11%) 100 (10%) 100 (10%) 180 (16%) 180 (16%) 0 0 (0%) (0%) * Credits from this example belong to: http://www.ashmaurya.com/2010/07/3-rules-to-actionable-metrics/Support ers Spons ors Organi s er 24
Lean tips 03 – Innovation Accounting Lazy registration (via split testing) had no effect on sign-ups.Support ers Spons ors Organi s er 25
Lean tips 04 – The Kanban board BACKLOG IN PROGRESS BUILT VALIDATED H G A F I B D C E • B and C are built but cannot be moved until A,D,E are validated • Until then, H and I are on pauseSupport ers Spons ors Organi s er 26
Lean tips 05 – Small batches work faster • Restructure processes and machines allowed faster and more flexible manufacturing (Toyota). • Quality issues identified faster in small batches. • Toyota designers and engineers travel with customers in new cars. • Andon cord allows workers to stop the production line. “Stop production so production doesn’t have to stop” ToyotaSupport ers Spons ors Organi s er 27
Lean tips 06 – Pivot or preserve A pivot tests a new hypothesis about a product or business model. •Customer need pivot – Business model is flipped •Technology pivot – More common in established businesses. •Zoom in pivot – Move away from broad functionality to a narrow one •Zoom out pivot – Opposite above, need more features •Customer Segment pivot – Different customer than anticipated •Platform pivot – Change from application to platform or vice versaSupport ers Spons ors Organi s er 28
SUMMING UP…Support ers Spons ors Organi s er 29
Problems with Agile • Design is often a ‘bolt-on’. • It very rarely involves marketing. • Perceived as having a long learning curve.Support ers Spons ors Organi s er 30
Summary • User Centred Design (or UXD) is a critical component of agile/lean. • Scrum is more iterative, lean is more experimental/pivotal. • Some can fail with lean products (iOS6 maps, Google Buzz) but failure is an opportunity for future success. • Technology influences design (think of AJAX). • Go entirely agile or pick agile elements that suit your project.Support ers Spons ors Organi s er 31
Thank you! @danny_bluestone @Cyberduck_ukSupport ers Spons ors Organi s er 32