0
Scheduling <ul><li>Prepared by : </li></ul><ul><li>Akın Özkan </li></ul><ul><li>Burcu Uzman </li></ul><ul><li>Meryem Zümra...
Content <ul><li>1. Definition of Scheduling  </li></ul><ul><li>1.1. Components of Scheduling </li></ul><ul><li>1.2. Where ...
<ul><li>Sharing always results in contention </li></ul><ul><li>A scheduling discipline resolves contention: </li></ul><ul>...
1. Definition <ul><li>Project scheduling involves, </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated start time  </li></ul><ul><li>Required comp...
1.1. Components of Scheduling <ul><li>A scheduling discipline does two things: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>decides service order...
1.2. Where to use? <ul><li>Anywhere where contention may occur </li></ul><ul><li>At every layer of protocol stack </li></u...
1.3. Estimation <ul><li>Activities/task characterized by: </li></ul><ul><li>Effort:  how much work will the activity need ...
1.3. Estimation <ul><li>Your best shot for providing estimations (how complex/how much work does the activity require?) </...
1.3. Estimation <ul><li>The best point is to determine how many resources will work in the activity </li></ul>1. Definitio...
1.3. Estimation <ul><li>How much time will the activity last for </li></ul><ul><li>Measured in (work-)hours, (work-)days, ...
2. Gantt Chart <ul><li>Gantt Chart is a way to graphically show progress of a project.  </li></ul><ul><li>Gantt chart is u...
<ul><li>A Gantt chart created using Microsoft Project (MSP).  </li></ul><ul><li>Note (1) the critical path is in red,   </...
3.  Precedence Diagrams or Networks <ul><li>Shows tasks and their relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Exposes tasks that must...
3.1. First and Last Events <ul><li>First event has no predecessors </li></ul><ul><li>Last event has no successors </li></u...
3.2.  Types of Network Diagrams <ul><li>Activity on Node (AON)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in CPM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A...
3.2.1.  Activity on Node (AON) Diagrams <ul><li>“ Bubble Chart” </li></ul><ul><li>The most common information shown is: </...
3.2.1.  AON Chart based on Activities and Predecessors  A network diagram created using Microsoft Project (MSP). Note the ...
3.2.2.  Activity on Arc (AOA) Diagrams <ul><li>Events are in bubbles. </li></ul><ul><li>Activities represented by lines or...
3.2.2.  Activity on Arc   (Arrow) Diagrams 1. Definition   2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks  4. Our Company 5. Schedu...
3.3.  Dummy Activities Dummy Activity:  Represents a dependency between tasks which doesn’t represent any activity. 1. Def...
3.4.  AON vs. AOA <ul><li>AON networks do not use dummy events </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simpler and easier to generate than A...
We are only interested in Process 3.5.  Schedule Network Methodology <ul><li>Tabulate Tasks (Activities) </li></ul><ul><li...
3.6.  Start Event <ul><li>Establish Start Date </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate all other event dates using Schedule Logic and ...
3.7.  LOGON Task Table 1. Definition   2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks  4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project ...
3.7.  LOGON AON Diagram 1. Definition   2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks  4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project...
3.8.  Incorrect AOA Example 1. Definition   2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks  4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Pro...
3.9.  Key Features of Schedule Networks <ul><li>Critical Path </li></ul><ul><li>Early Times  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start  ...
3.9.1.  Critical Path <ul><li>Concept of “Path Length” through network </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate for all possible paths ...
3.9.1. LOGON Critical Path Determination 1. Definition   2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks  4. Our Company 5. Scheduli...
3.9.2.  Early Expected Time of an Event <ul><li>Designated as TE </li></ul><ul><li>Calculation of Early Expected Time is p...
3.9.2.  Early Expected Time Determination 1. Definition   2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks  4. Our Company 5. Schedul...
3.9.3.  Latest Allowable Time of an Event <ul><li>Designated as TL </li></ul><ul><li>Latest time to which an event can be ...
3.9.3.  Latest Allowable Time Determination 1. Definition   2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks  4. Our Company 5. Sched...
3.9.4. Total Slack <ul><li>Slack is the range of allowable time between when a task can be started, and when it must be st...
3.9.5. Free Slack <ul><li>Activities not on the critical path can be delayed without affecting the start time of succeedin...
3.10.  An Example of Early and Late Times for AON 1. Definition   2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks  4. Our Company 5....
1. Definition  2. Gantt Chart MS   Project 3. Networks  4.  Our  Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List 3....
3.11.1.  Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) <ul><li>Utilizes three time estimates for each activity </li></ul>...
3.11.2.  Estimating Activity Time 1. Definition   2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks  4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of o...
3.11.3.  Probability of Finishing by A Target Completion Date <ul><li>Expected duration of project T is the sum of expecte...
3.11.4.  Pert Network with Expected Times and Variances 1. Definition   2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks  4. Our Comp...
3.11.5.  PERT Advantages/Disadvantages <ul><li>Allows “sensitivity analysis” to determine probability of finishing the pro...
3.11.6.  Near-Critical Paths <ul><li>PERT is overly Optimistic </li></ul><ul><li>Paths near the Critical Path with Large V...
3.11.7.  Meeting the Target Date <ul><li>Actions to Shorten to Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Move Activity on the Critical...
3.11.8.  Criticisms of Target Date Actions <ul><li>Paralleling Activities can be risky, failure of one can hurt the other ...
3.11.9.  Simulation of PERT Network <ul><li>Uses Monte Carl Methods to show the Near-Critical Path Sensitivity </li></ul><...
3.11.10.  Activities and Time Estimates from Evans and Olson 1. Definition   2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks  4. Our...
3.11.11.  Project Network from Evans and Olson 1. Definition   2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks  4. Our Company 5. Sc...
3.11.12.  Crystal Ball Simulation Results 1. Definition   2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks  4. Our Company 5. Schedul...
3.11.13.  Criticisms of PERT <ul><li>Assumes Activity times can be Accurately Estimated and are Independent </li></ul><ul>...
3.11.13.  Criticisms of PERT <ul><li>Leads to Overly Optimistic Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Looking only at Critical Pat...
4.1. Company Profile  <ul><li>Company Name:  The Bosphorus Organisation and Consulting Company </li></ul><ul><li>Founded i...
4. 1 . Organisation Chart 1. Definition   2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks  4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Proje...
4.2. Definition of Project <ul><li>Project Name:   European Student’s Days in Bremen 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Project Period...
4.2. Event Program of ESD 2010 1. Definition   2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks  4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our ...
5.1. Work Breakdown Structure 1. Definition   2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks  4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our P...
5.2. Work Packages 1. Definition   2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks  4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. R...
5.3. Gantt Chart 1. Definition   2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks  4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Ref...
5.4. Critical Path 1. Definition   2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks  4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. R...
6 . Reference List <ul><li>Dennis Lock, Project Management, Gower Publishing; 8th Edition, 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Project ...
Akın Özkan [email_address] + 49   18140307112 Burcu Uzman [email_address] + 49   18140307113 Meryem Zümra Yıldız [email_ad...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Project Management focused on Scheduling of a Project

5,059

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
5,059
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
7
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
318
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Project Management focused on Scheduling of a Project"

  1. 1. Scheduling <ul><li>Prepared by : </li></ul><ul><li>Akın Özkan </li></ul><ul><li>Burcu Uzman </li></ul><ul><li>Meryem Zümra Yıldız </li></ul><ul><li>Semih Yaraşık </li></ul>
  2. 2. Content <ul><li>1. Definition of Scheduling </li></ul><ul><li>1.1. Components of Scheduling </li></ul><ul><li>1.2. Where to use? </li></ul><ul><li>1.3. Estimation </li></ul><ul><li>2. Gantt Chart MS Project </li></ul><ul><li>3. Precedence Diagrams or Networks </li></ul><ul><li>3.1. First and Last Events </li></ul><ul><li>3.2. Types of Network Diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>3.3. Dummy Activities </li></ul><ul><li>3.4. AON vs. AOA </li></ul><ul><li>3.5. Schedule Network Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>3.6. Start Event </li></ul><ul><li>3.7. LOGON Task Table & AON Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>3. 8 . Incorrect AOA Example </li></ul><ul><li>3.9. Key Features of Schedule Networks </li></ul><ul><li>3.10. An Example of Early and Late Times for AON </li></ul><ul><li>3.11. Network Methods </li></ul>4. Our Company 4.1. Company Profile 4.2. Definition of Project 5. Scheduling of Our Project 5.1. Work Breakdown Structure 5.2. Work Packages 5.3. Gantt Chart 5.4. Critical Path 6 . Reference List
  3. 3. <ul><li>Sharing always results in contention </li></ul><ul><li>A scheduling discipline resolves contention: </li></ul><ul><li>who’s next ? </li></ul><ul><li>1. Key to fairly sharing resources and providing performance guarantees </li></ul><ul><li>2. Split project into tasks (= create a WBS) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Estimate time and resources required to complete each task. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Organize tasks concurrently to make optimal use of workforce. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Minimize task dependencies to avoid delays caused by one task waiting for another to complete. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Dependent on project managers intuition and experience. </li></ul>1. Definition 1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  4. 4. 1. Definition <ul><li>Project scheduling involves, </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated start time </li></ul><ul><li>Required completion time </li></ul><ul><li>WBS (Work Breakdown Structure) </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduling the activities </li></ul><ul><li>Allocating owners and resources </li></ul>1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  5. 5. 1.1. Components of Scheduling <ul><li>A scheduling discipline does two things: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>decides service order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>manages queue of service request </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: Consider queries awaiting web server scheduling discipline decides service order and also if some query should be ignored. </li></ul>1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  6. 6. 1.2. Where to use? <ul><li>Anywhere where contention may occur </li></ul><ul><li>At every layer of protocol stack </li></ul><ul><li>Usually studied at network layer, at output queues of switches </li></ul>1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  7. 7. 1.3. Estimation <ul><li>Activities/task characterized by: </li></ul><ul><li>Effort: how much work will the activity need to be completed </li></ul><ul><li>Resources: how many resources will be working on the activity </li></ul><ul><li>Duration: how long will the activity last for </li></ul><ul><li>… estimation technique provide (at least) two of the quantities specified above </li></ul>1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  8. 8. 1.3. Estimation <ul><li>Your best shot for providing estimations (how complex/how much work does the activity require?) </li></ul><ul><li>Measured in man/month </li></ul><ul><li>Mind you though: communication increases the time to complete activities </li></ul>1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List Effort
  9. 9. 1.3. Estimation <ul><li>The best point is to determine how many resources will work in the activity </li></ul>1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List Resources
  10. 10. 1.3. Estimation <ul><li>How much time will the activity last for </li></ul><ul><li>Measured in (work-)hours, (work-)days, (work) months, … </li></ul><ul><li>Calendar time != duration: calendar time includes non-working days, holidays, … </li></ul><ul><li>Usually: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A duration of 5 days == 40 hours (8 hours a day) = 1 calendar week (sat and sun rest time) </li></ul></ul>1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List Duration
  11. 11. 2. Gantt Chart <ul><li>Gantt Chart is a way to graphically show progress of a project. </li></ul><ul><li>Gantt chart is useful tool for planning and scheduling projects. </li></ul><ul><li>A Gantt chart is helpful when monitoring a project's progress. </li></ul><ul><li>With Gantt chart, all subtasks of a task can be viewed graphically. </li></ul>1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List A Gantt chart showing three kinds of schedule dependencies (in red) and percent complete indications
  12. 12. <ul><li>A Gantt chart created using Microsoft Project (MSP). </li></ul><ul><li>Note (1) the critical path is in red, </li></ul><ul><li>(2) the slack is the black lines connected to non-critical activities, </li></ul><ul><li>(3) since Saturday and Sunday are not work days </li></ul><ul><li>and are thus excluded from the schedule, </li></ul><ul><li>some bars on the Gantt chart are longer if they cut through a </li></ul><ul><li>weekend. </li></ul>2. Gantt Chart Example 1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  13. 13. 3. Precedence Diagrams or Networks <ul><li>Shows tasks and their relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Exposes tasks that must be completed before others. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Called a precedence diagram. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrows show how tasks are ordered and flow of time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key elements include determining predecessors and defining attributes such as: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>early start date </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>last-last </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>early finish date </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>late finish date </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WBS reference </li></ul></ul>1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  14. 14. 3.1. First and Last Events <ul><li>First event has no predecessors </li></ul><ul><li>Last event has no successors </li></ul><ul><li>All networks have a first and last event . </li></ul>1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  15. 15. 3.2. Types of Network Diagrams <ul><li>Activity on Node (AON) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in CPM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Activity on Arc (AOA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in PERT </li></ul></ul>1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  16. 16. 3.2.1. Activity on Node (AON) Diagrams <ul><li>“ Bubble Chart” </li></ul><ul><li>The most common information shown is: </li></ul><ul><li>The activity name </li></ul><ul><li>The normal duration time </li></ul><ul><li>The early start time (ES) </li></ul><ul><li>The early finish time (EF) </li></ul><ul><li>The late start time (LS) </li></ul><ul><li>The late finish time (LF) </li></ul><ul><li>The slack </li></ul>1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  17. 17. 3.2.1. AON Chart based on Activities and Predecessors A network diagram created using Microsoft Project (MSP). Note the critical path is in red. A node like this one (from Microsoft Visio) can be used to display the activity name, duration, ES, EF, LS, LF, and slack 1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  18. 18. 3.2.2. Activity on Arc (AOA) Diagrams <ul><li>Events are in bubbles. </li></ul><ul><li>Activities represented by lines or “arcs” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delimited by Bubbles (Events) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requires “Dummy” Activities to illustrate precedence </li></ul>1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  19. 19. 3.2.2. Activity on Arc (Arrow) Diagrams 1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List In the network diagram shown, each arc represents an activity and is labelled with the activity number . This network is an activity on arc (AOA) network. The nodes of the network represent the start (and end) of activities and are regarded as events. 14 15 “ Start” event “ Finish” event 8 weeks Activity Y: Final installation
  20. 20. 3.3. Dummy Activities Dummy Activity: Represents a dependency between tasks which doesn’t represent any activity. 1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List When two paths in an activity network (edges as activities) have a common event but are independent, or partly independent of one another, it is necessary to introduce a dummy activity,
  21. 21. 3.4. AON vs. AOA <ul><li>AON networks do not use dummy events </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simpler and easier to generate than AOA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular in Construction Industry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AOA method places emphasis on “Events” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed before AON </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better for “PERT” charts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AOA line segments imply “flow of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look similar to Gantt Charts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most Software packages create both </li></ul>1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  22. 22. We are only interested in Process 3.5. Schedule Network Methodology <ul><li>Tabulate Tasks (Activities) </li></ul><ul><li>Determine Task Duration </li></ul><ul><li>Determine Immediate Predecessors </li></ul><ul><li>Assign Start Event Date and Time </li></ul>1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  23. 23. 3.6. Start Event <ul><li>Establish Start Date </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate all other event dates using Schedule Logic and Task Duration </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule network determines dates, not the other way around </li></ul><ul><li>If finish date is incompatible with project goals, you must adjust the schedule assumptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Logic (Workarounds) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task Duration (More People or Overtime) </li></ul></ul>1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  24. 24. 3.7. LOGON Task Table 1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  25. 25. 3.7. LOGON AON Diagram 1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  26. 26. 3.8. Incorrect AOA Example 1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  27. 27. 3.9. Key Features of Schedule Networks <ul><li>Critical Path </li></ul><ul><li>Early Times </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Late Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Total Slack </li></ul><ul><li>Free Slack </li></ul>1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  28. 28. 3.9.1. Critical Path <ul><li>Concept of “Path Length” through network </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate for all possible paths by traversing Network from left to right </li></ul><ul><li>Longest path length from start event to finish event is critical path </li></ul><ul><li>Activities on the critical path cause a day-for-day slip in the completion event </li></ul><ul><li>After calculating the critical path, look for things that can be done in parallel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shortens critical path </li></ul></ul>1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  29. 29. 3.9.1. LOGON Critical Path Determination 1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  30. 30. 3.9.2. Early Expected Time of an Event <ul><li>Designated as TE </li></ul><ul><li>Calculation of Early Expected Time is part of schedule analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Events which are not on the critical path can be started early </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By definition, events on the critical path cannot be started early </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can have more than one critical path, on that path events cannot be started early </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Calculated by taking the sum of all task durations on the longest path leading to the event </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traverse network from left to right </li></ul></ul>1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  31. 31. 3.9.2. Early Expected Time Determination 1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  32. 32. 3.9.3. Latest Allowable Time of an Event <ul><li>Designated as TL </li></ul><ul><li>Latest time to which an event can be slipped without affecting succeeding events </li></ul><ul><li>Calculated by taking the sum of all task durations on the longest backward path from the finish date to the event of interest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traverse network from right to left </li></ul></ul>1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  33. 33. 3.9.3. Latest Allowable Time Determination 1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  34. 34. 3.9.4. Total Slack <ul><li>Slack is the range of allowable time between when a task can be started, and when it must be started </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Once slack is used up, the finish date of the project is affected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The task of interest is now on the critical path </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Total slack of an activity is the amount of slack available to all activities on a given subpath of a network </li></ul><ul><li>Total slack of activities on the critical path is zero </li></ul><ul><li>Total Slack of an activity (task) is calculated as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>Total Slack = LS - ES </li></ul>1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  35. 35. 3.9.5. Free Slack <ul><li>Activities not on the critical path can be delayed without affecting the start time of succeeding tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Free slack of an activity is the amount of time that the activity can slip without affecting its successors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumes that the TE of all preceding tasks has been met </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Free Slack of an activity is calculated as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>Free Slack = ES (earliest successor) - EF </li></ul>1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  36. 36. 3.10. An Example of Early and Late Times for AON 1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  37. 37. 1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List 3.11. Network Methods <ul><li>CPM (Critical Path Method) </li></ul><ul><li>PDM (Precedence Diagramming Method) </li></ul><ul><li>MPM (Metra Potential Method) </li></ul><ul><li>PERT (Program Evaluation Review Technique) </li></ul>1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  38. 38. 3.11.1. Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) <ul><li>Utilizes three time estimates for each activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimistic, a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most Likely, m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pessimistic, b </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beta Probability Distribution Function for Each Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Calculates Expected Time, t </li></ul><ul><li>Calculates Variance, V </li></ul>1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  39. 39. 3.11.2. Estimating Activity Time 1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  40. 40. 3.11.3. Probability of Finishing by A Target Completion Date <ul><li>Expected duration of project T is the sum of expected Activity times on Critical Path </li></ul><ul><li>Variation in the Project Duration Distribution is the sum of the variations of the activity durations on the Critical Path </li></ul>1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  41. 41. 3.11.4. Pert Network with Expected Times and Variances 1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  42. 42. 3.11.5. PERT Advantages/Disadvantages <ul><li>Allows “sensitivity analysis” to determine probability of finishing the project on time </li></ul><ul><li>Does not account for “Near Critical Path” </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely complicated </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot account for errors in schedule logic or the ability of project manager to alter schedule logic via workarounds </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom Line: No better than MS Project and a lot more complicated! </li></ul>1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  43. 43. 3.11.6. Near-Critical Paths <ul><li>PERT is overly Optimistic </li></ul><ul><li>Paths near the Critical Path with Large Variance may become critical </li></ul><ul><li>Probability of Completing All Paths is the Product of Probability on each Path </li></ul>1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  44. 44. 3.11.7. Meeting the Target Date <ul><li>Actions to Shorten to Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Move Activity on the Critical Path to a Parallel Path </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add or transfer resources from activities with large slack to critical or near-critical activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substitute less time-consuming activities or delete those that are not of utmost importance </li></ul></ul>1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  45. 45. 3.11.8. Criticisms of Target Date Actions <ul><li>Paralleling Activities can be risky, failure of one can hurt the other </li></ul><ul><li>Adding or transferring resources to speed activities increases cost and denies “resource leveling” </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution or Elimination can degrade end-item Performance, Requirements, Poor Quality of Work </li></ul>1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  46. 46. 3.11.9. Simulation of PERT Network <ul><li>Uses Monte Carl Methods to show the Near-Critical Path Sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure gives an Average Project Duration and Standard Deviation (Variance) which is more realistic than simple PERT </li></ul><ul><li>Returns Probabilities ff Other Paths Becoming Critical </li></ul><ul><li>Allows Historical Data </li></ul>1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  47. 47. 3.11.10. Activities and Time Estimates from Evans and Olson 1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  48. 48. 3.11.11. Project Network from Evans and Olson 1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  49. 49. 3.11.12. Crystal Ball Simulation Results 1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  50. 50. 3.11.13. Criticisms of PERT <ul><li>Assumes Activity times can be Accurately Estimated and are Independent </li></ul><ul><li>Three estimates are guesses, not necessarily better than one guess </li></ul><ul><li>Contractual Arrangements Influence Time Estimates </li></ul><ul><li>Activity Times are not Independent ( Constant Energy Surface) </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict of necessary Resources </li></ul>1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  51. 51. 3.11.13. Criticisms of PERT <ul><li>Leads to Overly Optimistic Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Looking only at Critical Path Misleading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Near-Critical Paths must be Considered </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Beta Distribution Gives Large Errors in Estimating T </li></ul><ul><li>Errors in T come from faulty time estimates </li></ul>1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  52. 52.
  53. 53. 4.1. Company Profile <ul><li>Company Name: The Bosphorus Organisation and Consulting Company </li></ul><ul><li>Founded in: 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Headquarter: Bremen </li></ul><ul><li>Employees: 75 </li></ul><ul><li>Average Revenue: € 3.2 m </li></ul><ul><li>Departments: </li></ul><ul><li>Project/Event Management&Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress & Meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incentive & Events </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project/Event </li></ul><ul><li>Management Consulting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consulting Services </li></ul></ul>1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  54. 54. 4. 1 . Organisation Chart 1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  55. 55.
  56. 56. 4.2. Definition of Project <ul><li>Project Name: European Student’s Days in Bremen 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Project Period: 17-23 July 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Project Goal: Between young people; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Close communication and cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To gain new knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Customers/Sponsors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All Students from European Countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Municipality of Bremen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hochschule Bremen University of Applied Sciences </li></ul></ul>1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  57. 57. 4.2. Event Program of ESD 2010 1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  58. 58. 5.1. Work Breakdown Structure 1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  59. 59. 5.2. Work Packages 1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  60. 60. 5.3. Gantt Chart 1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  61. 61. 5.4. Critical Path 1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  62. 62. 6 . Reference List <ul><li>Dennis Lock, Project Management, Gower Publishing; 8th Edition, 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Project Management Institute (2003). A Guide to The Project Management Body of Knowledge (3rd ed.). Project Management Institute </li></ul><ul><li>Martin Stevens (2002). Project Management Pathways. Association for Project Management. APM Publishing Limited, 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Albert Hamilton (2004). Handbook of Project Management Procedures. TTL Publishing, Ltd. </li></ul><ul><li>Lewis R. Ireland (2006) Project Management. McGraw-Hill Professional, 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>The Definitive Guide to Project Management. Nokes, Sebastian. 2nd Ed.n. London (Financial Times / Prentice Hall): 2007. </li></ul>1. Definition 2. Gantt Chart MS Project 3. Networks 4. Our Company 5. Scheduling of our Project 6. Reference List
  63. 63. Akın Özkan [email_address] + 49 18140307112 Burcu Uzman [email_address] + 49 18140307113 Meryem Zümra Yıldız [email_address] + 49 18140307114 Semih Yaraşık [email_address] + 49 18140307115 Thanks for your attention!
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×