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A Long-Dead German
Lt Col Jim Storr PhD
Contents
•  Introduction
•  Military Thought
•  Trafalgar, 21 October 1805
•  The Analogy
•  The Human Element
•  Command,...
Contents
•  Introduction
•  Military Thought
•  Trafalgar, 21 October 1805
•  The Analogy
•  The Human Element
•  Command,...
HMS President?
•  5 ships of that name
•  3rd, French
Président, taken
1806
•  4th, USS President,
taken 1 June 1813
Chesapeake vs Shannon
•  Massachusetts Bay
•  11 minutes
•  More casualties on
Chesapeake than on
Victory at Trafalgar
–  ...
Introduction
•  Aim
–  Rigour
•  Terminology
–  Strategy or Strategic
–  Operational, Theatre or Campaign
–  Tactics or Ta...
Contents
•  Introduction
•  Military Thought
•  Trafalgar, 21 October 1805
•  The Analogy
•  The Human Element
•  Command,...
Military Thought
•  Clausewitz
•  Observations
–  ‘P’ words
•  War is:
•  Aside: Naval and Air
Force Thinking
Military Thought
•  Clausewitz
•  Observations
–  ‘P’ words
•  War is:
•  Aside: Naval and Air
Force Thinking
Clausewitz
•  1780-1831
•  Language
•  Hegelian Dialectic
•  Differences in
Interpretation
•  Use as authority
•  ‘..in wh...
Military Thought
•  Clausewitz
•  Observations
–  ‘P’ words
•  War is:
•  Aside: Naval and Air
Force Thinking
Philosophy:
...
Military Thought
•  Clausewitz
•  Observations
–  ‘P’ words
•  War is:
•  Aside: Naval and Air
Force Thinking
Buy my book!
Military Thought
•  Clausewitz
•  Observations
–  ‘P’ words
•  War is:
•  Aside: Naval and Air
Force Thinking
War is:
Combat, and to that
extent conflict:
•  Adversarial
•  Highly Dynamic
•  Complex
•  Lethal
•  Uncertain
•  Evoluti...
Military Thought
•  Clausewitz
•  Observations
–  ‘P’ words
•  War is:
•  Aside: Naval and Air
Force Thinking
•  Naval: Fa...
Contents
•  Introduction
•  Military Thought
•  Trafalgar, 21 October 1805
•  The Analogy
•  The Human Element
•  Command,...
Trafalgar
•  27 ships vs 33
•  RN took 17 ships for no loss
•  Casualties:
–  British 449 dead; French and Spanish about 8...
Trafalgar
Outcome:
•  Britain defeated the two
next most powerful navies
in the world
•  France could not invade
Britain
•...
Why?
•  Training
•  Selection
•  Seamanship
•  Teamwork
–  Gunnery
–  Working sails
–  Tactics
•  Health
•  Not just one a...
Contents
•  Introduction
•  Military Thought
•  Trafalgar, 21 October 1805
•  The Analogy
•  The Human Element
•  Command,...
The Analogy (1)
War is:
•  Adversarial
•  Highly Dynamic
•  Complex
•  Lethal
•  Uncertain
•  Evolutionary
•  Fundamentall...
The Analogy (2)
•  Which bit of business are we discussing?
–  Commerce or trade?
–  Manufacturing?
–  The service sector?...
The Analogy: The Service Sector?
War is:
•  Adversarial
•  Highly Dynamic
•  Complex
•  Lethal
•  Uncertain
•  Evolutionar...
The Analogy: Financial Trading?
War is:
•  Adversarial
•  Highly Dynamic
•  Complex
•  Lethal
•  Uncertain
•  Evolutionary...
Contents
•  Introduction
•  Military Thought
•  Trafalgar, 21 October 1805
•  The Analogy
•  The Human Element
•  Command,...
The Human Element
•  Collingwood
•  Personnel selection;
training; pay; terms
and conditions
•  Investment
decisions; desi...
Contents
•  Introduction
•  Military Thought
•  Trafalgar, 21 October 1805
•  The Analogy
•  The Human Element
•  Command,...
Command, Leadership &
Management
•  Terminology
•  Differentiate:
•  ‘Initiative’
– Doctrine: important; or absent?
– Why ...
Mission Command (1)
•  Decentralised style appropriate to
situations which are complex, dynamic
and adversarial
•  Princip...
Mission Command (2)
•  ‘Mission Command is A Good Thing’
– Or is it?
•  Is this appropriate?
– The shop floor: Quality Cir...
Three Axes;
Eight Command Styles
(after Stephen Bungay and Martin Samuels)
Axis: Either: Or:
Knowledge Superior knows more...
Three Axes;
Eight Command Styles
(after Stephen Bungay and Martin Samuels)
Axis: Either: Or:
Knowledge Superior knows more...
Three Axes;
Eight Command Styles
(after Stephen Bungay and Martin Samuels)
Axis: Either: Or:
Knowledge Superior knows more...
Three Axes;
Eight Command Styles
(after Stephen Bungay and Martin Samuels)
Axis: Either: Or:
Knowledge Superior knows more...
The Axes:
(on the following slides, the axes are exploded in order to generate
the faces of a cube in 3D)
1. Knowledge
2. ...
1. Knowledge
2. Alignment
3. Effects
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Mission
Command
Issues (1)
•  Knowledge:
–  Hubris
–  Render unto Caesar
•  Alignment:
–  Initiative is (generally) empowering
•  Effects:...
Issues (2)
•  However:
– The devil is in the detail
– Remember the Law of Unintended
Consequences
– Tolerance of well-inte...
Contents
•  Introduction
•  Military Thought
•  Trafalgar, 21 October 1805
•  The Analogy
•  The Human Element
•  Command,...
Summary & Conclusions
•  Clausewitz
•  Relevance: Analogy
•  The analogy is not exact
•  Managing complex, adaptive, socio...
Questions?
jimpstorr@aol.com
A long dead German - Lt. Col. Jim Storr Phd
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Transcript of "A long dead German - Lt. Col. Jim Storr Phd"

  1. 1. A Long-Dead German Lt Col Jim Storr PhD
  2. 2. Contents •  Introduction •  Military Thought •  Trafalgar, 21 October 1805 •  The Analogy •  The Human Element •  Command, Leadership and Management •  Summary and Conclusions
  3. 3. Contents •  Introduction •  Military Thought •  Trafalgar, 21 October 1805 •  The Analogy •  The Human Element •  Command, Leadership and Management •  Summary and Conclusions
  4. 4. HMS President? •  5 ships of that name •  3rd, French Président, taken 1806 •  4th, USS President, taken 1 June 1813
  5. 5. Chesapeake vs Shannon •  Massachusetts Bay •  11 minutes •  More casualties on Chesapeake than on Victory at Trafalgar –  (Casualties almost exactly 2:1) Drama!
  6. 6. Introduction •  Aim –  Rigour •  Terminology –  Strategy or Strategic –  Operational, Theatre or Campaign –  Tactics or Tactical
  7. 7. Contents •  Introduction •  Military Thought •  Trafalgar, 21 October 1805 •  The Analogy •  The Human Element •  Command, Leadership and Management •  Summary and Conclusions
  8. 8. Military Thought •  Clausewitz •  Observations –  ‘P’ words •  War is: •  Aside: Naval and Air Force Thinking
  9. 9. Military Thought •  Clausewitz •  Observations –  ‘P’ words •  War is: •  Aside: Naval and Air Force Thinking
  10. 10. Clausewitz •  1780-1831 •  Language •  Hegelian Dialectic •  Differences in Interpretation •  Use as authority •  ‘..in which other discipline so vital to man’s existence do we grant almost divine reverence to one long- dead German?’
  11. 11. Military Thought •  Clausewitz •  Observations –  ‘P’ words •  War is: •  Aside: Naval and Air Force Thinking Philosophy: •  Poorly-defined Phenomena •  Prevalence of Paradox •  Paradigm •  Paper thin •  (& more Pamphlets than we know what to do with)
  12. 12. Military Thought •  Clausewitz •  Observations –  ‘P’ words •  War is: •  Aside: Naval and Air Force Thinking Buy my book!
  13. 13. Military Thought •  Clausewitz •  Observations –  ‘P’ words •  War is: •  Aside: Naval and Air Force Thinking
  14. 14. War is: Combat, and to that extent conflict: •  Adversarial •  Highly Dynamic •  Complex •  Lethal •  Uncertain •  Evolutionary •  Fundamentally Human
  15. 15. Military Thought •  Clausewitz •  Observations –  ‘P’ words •  War is: •  Aside: Naval and Air Force Thinking •  Naval: Far fewer, far more complex platforms in a highly complex physical environment •  Air Power: –  An end in itself? –  Riddled with unsupportable assertion –  Defensive self- justification
  16. 16. Contents •  Introduction •  Military Thought •  Trafalgar, 21 October 1805 •  The Analogy •  The Human Element •  Command, Leadership and Management •  Summary and Conclusions
  17. 17. Trafalgar •  27 ships vs 33 •  RN took 17 ships for no loss •  Casualties: –  British 449 dead; French and Spanish about 8 times as many –  HMS Colossus: fought 3 ships; highest casualties of any British ship; but still inflicted 3 ½ times her own losses –  HMS Royal Sovereign: fought 8 ships; of which Santa Ana alone suffered double her losses •  All over in 4 hours and 40 minutes •  Outcome:
  18. 18. Trafalgar Outcome: •  Britain defeated the two next most powerful navies in the world •  France could not invade Britain •  Spain would never again control her colonies in Latin America •  No fleet sailed against the Royal Navy for over 100 years Spanish
  19. 19. Why? •  Training •  Selection •  Seamanship •  Teamwork –  Gunnery –  Working sails –  Tactics •  Health •  Not just one admiral
  20. 20. Contents •  Introduction •  Military Thought •  Trafalgar, 21 October 1805 •  The Analogy •  The Human Element •  Command, Leadership and Management •  Summary and Conclusions
  21. 21. The Analogy (1) War is: •  Adversarial •  Highly Dynamic •  Complex •  Lethal •  Uncertain •  Evolutionary •  Fundamentally Human Business is: •  Adversarial •  Highly Dynamic •  Complex •  Lethal •  Uncertain •  Evolutionary •  Fundamentally Human
  22. 22. The Analogy (2) •  Which bit of business are we discussing? –  Commerce or trade? –  Manufacturing? –  The service sector? –  Financial trading? •  In war, the exchange is violence. •  In business, it is money •  The details are fundamentally different; therefore the analogy is not exact
  23. 23. The Analogy: The Service Sector? War is: •  Adversarial •  Highly Dynamic •  Complex •  Lethal •  Uncertain •  Evolutionary •  Fundamentally Human Business is: •  Adversarial •  Highly Dynamic •  Complex •  Lethal •  Uncertain •  Evolutionary •  Fundamentally Human
  24. 24. The Analogy: Financial Trading? War is: •  Adversarial •  Highly Dynamic •  Complex •  Lethal •  Uncertain •  Evolutionary •  Fundamentally Human Business is: •  Adversarial •  Highly Dynamic •  Complex •  ~ ‘Lethal’ •  Uncertain •  Evolutionary •  Fundamentally Human
  25. 25. Contents •  Introduction •  Military Thought •  Trafalgar, 21 October 1805 •  The Analogy •  The Human Element •  Command, Leadership and Management •  Summary and Conclusions
  26. 26. The Human Element •  Collingwood •  Personnel selection; training; pay; terms and conditions •  Investment decisions; design; planning; marketing; sales; productivity; •  ‘The moral is to the physical as three is to one’ (Napoleon)
  27. 27. Contents •  Introduction •  Military Thought •  Trafalgar, 21 October 1805 •  The Analogy •  The Human Element •  Command, Leadership and Management •  Summary and Conclusions
  28. 28. Command, Leadership & Management •  Terminology •  Differentiate: •  ‘Initiative’ – Doctrine: important; or absent? – Why important? •  Mission Command
  29. 29. Mission Command (1) •  Decentralised style appropriate to situations which are complex, dynamic and adversarial •  Principles: – Unity of Effort – Trust – Freedom of Action – Mutual Understanding
  30. 30. Mission Command (2) •  ‘Mission Command is A Good Thing’ – Or is it? •  Is this appropriate? – The shop floor: Quality Circles – The Law of Unintended Consequences
  31. 31. Three Axes; Eight Command Styles (after Stephen Bungay and Martin Samuels) Axis: Either: Or: Knowledge Superior knows more Superior knows less Alignment Subordinates should use initiative Subordinates should act as instructed Effects Superiors will intervene Superiors will not intervene
  32. 32. Three Axes; Eight Command Styles (after Stephen Bungay and Martin Samuels) Axis: Either: Or: Knowledge Superior knows more Superior knows less Alignment Subordinates should use initiative Subordinates should act as instructed Effects Superiors will intervene Superiors will not intervene
  33. 33. Three Axes; Eight Command Styles (after Stephen Bungay and Martin Samuels) Axis: Either: Or: Knowledge Superior knows more Superior knows less Alignment Subordinates should use initiative Subordinates should act as instructed Effects Superiors will intervene Superiors will not intervene
  34. 34. Three Axes; Eight Command Styles (after Stephen Bungay and Martin Samuels) Axis: Either: Or: Knowledge Superior knows more Superior knows less Alignment Subordinates should use initiative Subordinates should act as instructed Effects Superiors will intervene Superiors will not intervene
  35. 35. The Axes: (on the following slides, the axes are exploded in order to generate the faces of a cube in 3D) 1. Knowledge 2. Alignment3. Effects
  36. 36. 1. Knowledge
  37. 37. 2. Alignment
  38. 38. 3. Effects
  39. 39. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Mission Command
  40. 40. Issues (1) •  Knowledge: –  Hubris –  Render unto Caesar •  Alignment: –  Initiative is (generally) empowering •  Effects: –  Intervention is (generally) a strong demotivator •  So something like Mission Command is a Good Thing
  41. 41. Issues (2) •  However: – The devil is in the detail – Remember the Law of Unintended Consequences – Tolerance of well-intentioned mistake? •  Learning (from experience) is a second- or third-order effect •  Reinforces trust •  Mistake as threat or opportunity?
  42. 42. Contents •  Introduction •  Military Thought •  Trafalgar, 21 October 1805 •  The Analogy •  The Human Element •  Command, Leadership and Management •  Summary and Conclusions
  43. 43. Summary & Conclusions •  Clausewitz •  Relevance: Analogy •  The analogy is not exact •  Managing complex, adaptive, socio- technical systems –  Be rigorous –  Get to the human behaviour beneath the Snake Oil –  Look after your people
  44. 44. Questions? jimpstorr@aol.com
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