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Gemilerde Kullanılan Valfler ve Borular
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Gemilerde Kullanılan Valfler ve Borular

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Gemilerde kullanılan valfler ve borular. …

Gemilerde kullanılan valfler ve borular.

Denizcilik ve Gemi Mühendisliği Sayfası
http://www.facebook.com/gemimuh


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  • 1. Valves Valve types & applications
  • 2. Valve type by function
    • STOP VALVES– Closed or (wide) open to isolate equipment or system, or route flow .
    • THROTTLE VALVES– may be partially opened to control (throttle) flow.
    • CHECK VALVES– Permit flow in one direction only: open when upstream pressure is greater than down-stream, closed when downstream pressure is higher
    • STOP-CHECK VALVES– Act as stop valve when closed, check valve when fully opened; may be throttled to control flow (in one direction)
  • 3. Valve type by function
    • STOP VALVES–
    • THROTTLE VALVES–
    • CHECK VALVES–
    • STOP-CHECK VALVES–
    • REGULATING VALVES– (Automatically) control the flow at one location in a system in response to a signal (flow, temperature, pressure, level, etc.) from another portion of the system or from a different system. Includes:
      • Pressure Regulating Valves
      • Back-pressure Regulating (unloading) Valves
  • 4. Valve type by function
    • STOP VALVES–
    • THROTTLE VALVES–
    • CHECK VALVES–
    • STOP-CHECK VALVES–
    • REGULATING VALVES–
    • RELIEF VALVES– (Automatically) open at a predetermined level above the normal operating pressure to protect system.
    • SAFETY VALVES– similar to relief valves, but reset at a pressure below their “popping” level
  • 5. GATE VALVES
    • Stop valve function only (closed or wide open)
    SEAT DISC BONNET BODY PACKING GLAND STEM HANDWHEEL YOKE
  • 6. GATE VALVES
    • Disc travel >= diameter of disc
    • h = D
    • Little resistance to flow when opened
    D h
  • 7. BALL VALVES
    • Stop valve function only (closed or wide open)
    • Suitable for high pressure liquid systems (S.W. valves on submarines)
    BODY PACKING GLAND STEM HANDLE
  • 8. BALL VALVES
    • Open/close with only 90 o rotation of handle
    • Valve open with handle in line with piping
    • Negligible opposition to flow when fully open
  • 9. BUTTERFLY VALVES
    • Stop valve or throttling function
    SEAT DISC BODY HANDLE STEM
  • 10. BUTTERFLY VALVES
  • 11. GLOBE VALVES
    • Stop valve or throttling function
    SEAT DISC BONNET BODY PACKING GLAND STEM HANDWHEEL
  • 12. GLOBE VALVES
    • Stop valve or throttling function
    • Valve fully open when annulus area around disc equals inlet area
    •  D 2 /4 =  D h when
    • h = D
    • 4
    D D D h A =  D x h
    • A =
    • D 2
    • 4
    h = D 4 slack
  • 13. GLOBE VALVES
    • Numerous construction forms
  • 14. CHECK VALVES
    • Swing Check
      • May be mounted horizontally or vertically
    • Lift Check
      • Horizontal mounting only
  • 15. STOP-CHECK VALVE
    • Closed: functions as a stop valve
    • Open: functions like a check valve
    • Can be used to throttle
    h = D 4 slack
  • 16. VALVE SYSTEM NOMENCLATURE
    • Isolating Valves–
      • Pumps: Suction & Discharge
      • Heat Exchangers, metering & control devices: inlet & outlet
      • Root Valves
    F.O. HTR suction discharge inlet inlet outlet outlet root V. burner V. M
  • 17. VALVE SYSTEM NOMENCLATURE
    • Control Valves–
      • Constant Pressure Regulator
    F.O. HTR suction discharge inlet inlet outlet outlet inlet outlet P M
  • 18. REGULATING VALVES
    • Pressure Regulating (Maintain downstream pressure)
      • Regulated pressure  closing force
      • Spring  opening force
    • Unloading: Maintain upstream (back) pressure
      • Regulated pressure  opening force
      • Spring  closing force
    P REG P REG “ make-up ” “ dump ”
  • 19. VALVE SYSTEM NOMENCLATURE
    • Control Valves–
      • Constant Pressure Regulator
      • F.O. Press Regulating Valve
    F.O. HTR suction discharge inlet inlet outlet outlet inlet outlet inlet outlet Comb Contr (air) signal P P M
  • 20. REGULATING VALVES
    • Air-Regulated
    Downward Seating Upward Seating direct acting indirect acting
  • 21. VALVE SYSTEM NOMENCLATURE
    • Control Valves–
      • Constant Pressure Regulator
      • F.O. Press Regulating Valve
      • F.O. Temp Regulating Valve
    F.O. HTR supply suction discharge drain inlet inlet outlet outlet inlet outlet inlet outlet Comb Contr (air) signal inlet outlet pilot v sensor P P M
  • 22. REGULATING VALVES
    • Air-Regulated
    • Other controls:
      • Temperature
      • Flow
      • Level
      • etc.
  • 23. VALVE SYSTEM NOMENCLATURE
    • Control Valves–
      • Constant Pressure Regulator
      • F.O. Press Regulating Valve
      • F.O. Temp Regulating Valve
    F.O. HTR supply suction discharge drain inlet inlet outlet outlet inlet outlet inlet outlet Comb Contr (air) signal inlet outlet pilot v sensor P P M
  • 24. VALVE SYSTEM NOMENCLATURE
    • Normally closed Valves–
      • Relief valves
    F.O. HTR supply suction discharge drain inlet outlet Comb Contr (air) signal pilot v sensor P P M
  • 25. Relief & Safety Valves
    • Relief Valves– open & reset at same pressure
    • Safety Valves– reset at pressure below openining (“popping”) pressure
      • Pop – Reset = “Blowdown”
      • Pop
  • 26. VALVE SYSTEM NOMENCLATURE
    • Normally closed Valves–
      • Relief valves
      • By-pass valves
      • Recirculating Valves
    F.O. HTR supply suction discharge drain inlet outlet Comb Contr (air) signal pilot v sensor P P M
  • 27. Piping Pipe & pipe fittings Tubing & tube fittings
  • 28. Nomenclature:
    • Piping– refers to any assembly of pipes, tubes, valves, and fittings that forms all or part of a system for the conveyance of fluids
    • Pipe– refers to non-flexible fluid conductors designated by diameter and wall thickness ( strength or schedule )
    • Tubing– can be, and usually is, bent at installation, is more flexible than pipe, and is designated by nominal outside diameter and wall thickness
    • Fittings– are devices employed to join sections of pipe, tubing (or hose) in a piping system.
  • 29. Pipe sizes
    • Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) is approximate inside diameter of Standard Pipe (Schedule 40)
    • Example:
      • 3” STD pipe
      • OD= 3.5”; ID= 3.068” ( wall thickness is 0.216”)
    • 3” XS (sched 80)
      • OD= 3.5”; ID= 2.90” ( wall thickness is 0.300”)
    • 3” Schedule 160
      • OD= 3.5”; ID= 2.624” ( wall thickness is 0.438”)
    3.5” ≈ 3.0”
  • 30. Pipe sizes
    • Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) for pipes with O.D. ≥ 14” is the outside diameter
    • Example:
      • 16” STD (sched 30)
      • OD= 16”; ID= 15.25” ( wall thickness is 0.375”)
    • 16” XS (sched 40)
      • OD= 16”; ID= 15.0” ( wall thickness is 0.500”)
    • 16” Schedule 160
      • OD= 16”; ID= 12.88” ( wall thickness is 1.594”)
    16” 15.25 ”
  • 31. Tube sizes
    • Outside diameter– in inches or sixteenths (#12 tube has an outside diameter of ¾ in., #16 has an outside diameter of 1 inch, etc.)
    • Wall thickness– as a decimal (.065 “) or Birmiongham Wire Gauge (BWG) number (16 BWG = .065’, 18 BWG is thinner-walled and 14 BWG is thicker-walled)
    • Copper Tubing– is often designated by slightly different parameters
      • Nominal size– 0.125 inches less than the actual outside diameter (1” copper tubing has an O.D. of 1.125”)
      • Wall thickness- designated by “type” K, L, or M (with type K the most robust)
  • 32. Pipe connections
    • Welded
      • Butt weld
      • Backing ring removed or ground away after weld
    V-groove Backing Ring
    • Fillet weld
  • 33. Pipe connections
    • Welded
    • Threaded
      • American National taper pipe thread (NPT) is NOT the same as machine threads on nuts & bolts
    External threads are cut with a DIE Internal threads are cut with a TAP Pipe die set
  • 34. Pipe connections
    • Welded
    • Threaded
    • Flanged
      • Flanges may be threaded, welded, or cast integral to pipe section
  • 35. Pipe connections
    • Welded
    • Threaded
    • Flanged
    GASKET (LP) Rubber, paper, flexible graphite, synthetics, etc. Bolt Nut Stud GASKET (HP) Metallic, Flexitallic ™
  • 36. Tube connections
    • Tube installations– are never straight runs; deliberate bends allow for a reduction in length which can occur as the tube is pressurized
  • 37. Tube connections
    • Braised (sweated)–
      • At start, brazing alloy in annular slot in fitting and flux, applied to tube in clearance area
      • Tube is heated and expands, flux forced out of clearance area & braze alloy contacts tube
      • Fitting is heated and clearance area opens; flux & alloy flow out
      • Both tube & fitting are heated; as alloy flows out in penetrates & bonds surfaces
    Brazing Material Flux
  • 38. Tube connections
    • Braised (sweated)
    • Flare fittings
    Flared tube Flaring Tool Body or connector Nut
  • 39. Pipe fittings
    • Welded, brazed, flanged or threaded connections
      • Threaded connections shown
    Internally threaded CAP Externally threaded PLUG
  • 40. Pipe fittings
    • Connecting equally sized pipe sections…
    Externally threaded NIPPLE Internally threaded COUPLING
  • 41. Pipe fittings
    • Connecting equally sized pipe sections…
      • The three-piece UNION
      • Run of piping can be opened without removing large sections
    1 2 3
  • 42. Pipe fittings
    • Connecting un -equally sized pipe sections…
    Externally threaded (larger) & Internally threded (smaller) reducing BUSHING Internally threaded BELL REDUCER coupling
  • 43. Pipe fittings
    • Connecting multiple pipe sections…
    SIDE-OUTLET TEE REDUCING TEE TEE CROSS Y-BEND (Y-Branch) SIDE-OUTLET ELBOW
  • 44. Pipe fittings
    • Changing flow direction …
    ELBOW STREET ELBOW (street-EL) U-BEND (Return Bend) RETURN BEND with BACK-OUTLET
    • ALSO
      • 45 o and 30 o Elbows
      • Reducing Elbow
      • Reducing Street- EL
      • Reducing Side-outlet Elbow
  • 45. Tube fittings
    • Same variety as for pipe, outfitted for either flare or brazing connection