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Valves Valve types & applications
Valve type by function <ul><li>STOP VALVES–   Closed or (wide) open to isolate equipment or system, or route flow .  </li>...
Valve type by function <ul><li>STOP VALVES–   </li></ul><ul><li>THROTTLE VALVES– </li></ul><ul><li>CHECK VALVES–   </li></...
Valve type by function <ul><li>STOP VALVES–   </li></ul><ul><li>THROTTLE VALVES– </li></ul><ul><li>CHECK VALVES–   </li></...
GATE VALVES <ul><li>Stop valve  function only (closed or wide open) </li></ul>SEAT DISC BONNET BODY PACKING GLAND STEM HAN...
GATE VALVES <ul><li>Disc travel >= diameter of disc </li></ul><ul><li>h = D </li></ul><ul><li>Little resistance to flow wh...
BALL VALVES <ul><li>Stop valve  function only (closed or wide open) </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable for high pressure liquid sy...
BALL VALVES <ul><li>Open/close with only 90 o  rotation of handle </li></ul><ul><li>Valve open with handle in line with pi...
BUTTERFLY VALVES <ul><li>Stop valve  or  throttling  function  </li></ul>SEAT DISC BODY HANDLE STEM
BUTTERFLY VALVES
GLOBE VALVES <ul><li>Stop valve  or  throttling  function  </li></ul>SEAT DISC BONNET BODY PACKING GLAND STEM HANDWHEEL
GLOBE VALVES <ul><li>Stop valve or throttling function  </li></ul><ul><li>Valve fully open when annulus area around disc e...
GLOBE VALVES <ul><li>Numerous construction forms  </li></ul>
CHECK VALVES <ul><li>Swing Check </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May be mounted horizontally or vertically </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Li...
STOP-CHECK VALVE <ul><li>Closed: functions as a stop valve  </li></ul><ul><li>Open: functions like a check valve </li></ul...
VALVE SYSTEM NOMENCLATURE <ul><li>Isolating Valves– </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pumps:  Suction  &  Discharge </li></ul></ul><ul...
VALVE SYSTEM NOMENCLATURE <ul><li>Control Valves– </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant Pressure Regulator </li></ul></ul>F.O. HT...
REGULATING VALVES <ul><li>Pressure Regulating  (Maintain downstream pressure) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulated pressure   ...
VALVE SYSTEM NOMENCLATURE <ul><li>Control Valves– </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant Pressure Regulator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
REGULATING VALVES <ul><li>Air-Regulated </li></ul>Downward Seating Upward Seating direct acting indirect acting
VALVE SYSTEM NOMENCLATURE <ul><li>Control Valves– </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant Pressure Regulator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
REGULATING VALVES <ul><li>Air-Regulated </li></ul><ul><li>Other controls: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul...
VALVE SYSTEM NOMENCLATURE <ul><li>Control Valves– </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant Pressure Regulator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
VALVE SYSTEM NOMENCLATURE <ul><li>Normally closed Valves– </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relief valves </li></ul></ul>F.O. HTR supp...
Relief & Safety Valves <ul><li>Relief Valves–  open & reset at same pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Safety Valves–  reset at pr...
VALVE SYSTEM NOMENCLATURE <ul><li>Normally closed Valves– </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relief valves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B...
Piping Pipe & pipe fittings Tubing & tube fittings
Nomenclature: <ul><li>Piping–   refers to any assembly of pipes, tubes, valves, and fittings that forms all or part of a s...
Pipe sizes <ul><li>Nominal Pipe Size (NPS)   is approximate inside diameter of  Standard Pipe  (Schedule 40) </li></ul><ul...
Pipe sizes <ul><li>Nominal Pipe Size (NPS)   for pipes with O.D.  ≥  14” is the  outside diameter </li></ul><ul><li>Exampl...
Tube sizes <ul><li>Outside diameter–  in inches or  sixteenths  (#12 tube has an outside diameter of ¾ in., #16 has an out...
Pipe connections <ul><li>Welded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Butt weld </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backing ring removed or ground ...
Pipe connections <ul><li>Welded </li></ul><ul><li>Threaded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American National taper pipe thread (NPT)...
Pipe connections <ul><li>Welded </li></ul><ul><li>Threaded </li></ul><ul><li>Flanged </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flanges may be ...
Pipe connections <ul><li>Welded </li></ul><ul><li>Threaded </li></ul><ul><li>Flanged </li></ul>GASKET (LP) Rubber, paper, ...
Tube connections <ul><li>Tube installations–   are   never straight runs; deliberate bends allow for a reduction in length...
Tube connections <ul><li>Braised (sweated)–  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At start, brazing alloy in annular slot in  fitting  an...
Tube connections <ul><li>Braised (sweated) </li></ul><ul><li>Flare fittings </li></ul>Flared tube Flaring Tool Body or con...
Pipe fittings <ul><li>Welded, brazed, flanged or threaded connections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Threaded connections shown </l...
Pipe fittings <ul><li>Connecting equally sized pipe sections… </li></ul>Externally threaded  NIPPLE Internally threaded  C...
Pipe fittings <ul><li>Connecting equally sized pipe sections… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The three-piece  UNION </li></ul></ul>...
Pipe fittings <ul><li>Connecting  un -equally sized pipe sections… </li></ul>Externally threaded (larger)  & Internally th...
Pipe fittings <ul><li>Connecting  multiple  pipe sections… </li></ul>SIDE-OUTLET TEE REDUCING TEE TEE CROSS Y-BEND  (Y-Bra...
Pipe fittings <ul><li>Changing flow direction … </li></ul>ELBOW STREET ELBOW (street-EL) U-BEND  (Return Bend) RETURN BEND...
Tube fittings <ul><li>Same variety as for pipe, outfitted for either flare or brazing connection </li></ul>
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Gemilerde Kullanılan Valfler ve Borular

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Gemilerde kullanılan valfler ve borular.

Denizcilik ve Gemi Mühendisliği Sayfası
http://www.facebook.com/gemimuh


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Transcript of "Gemilerde Kullanılan Valfler ve Borular"

  1. 1. Valves Valve types & applications
  2. 2. Valve type by function <ul><li>STOP VALVES– Closed or (wide) open to isolate equipment or system, or route flow . </li></ul><ul><li>THROTTLE VALVES– may be partially opened to control (throttle) flow. </li></ul><ul><li>CHECK VALVES– Permit flow in one direction only: open when upstream pressure is greater than down-stream, closed when downstream pressure is higher </li></ul><ul><li>STOP-CHECK VALVES– Act as stop valve when closed, check valve when fully opened; may be throttled to control flow (in one direction) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Valve type by function <ul><li>STOP VALVES– </li></ul><ul><li>THROTTLE VALVES– </li></ul><ul><li>CHECK VALVES– </li></ul><ul><li>STOP-CHECK VALVES– </li></ul><ul><li>REGULATING VALVES– (Automatically) control the flow at one location in a system in response to a signal (flow, temperature, pressure, level, etc.) from another portion of the system or from a different system. Includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure Regulating Valves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back-pressure Regulating (unloading) Valves </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Valve type by function <ul><li>STOP VALVES– </li></ul><ul><li>THROTTLE VALVES– </li></ul><ul><li>CHECK VALVES– </li></ul><ul><li>STOP-CHECK VALVES– </li></ul><ul><li>REGULATING VALVES– </li></ul><ul><li>RELIEF VALVES– (Automatically) open at a predetermined level above the normal operating pressure to protect system. </li></ul><ul><li>SAFETY VALVES– similar to relief valves, but reset at a pressure below their “popping” level </li></ul>
  5. 5. GATE VALVES <ul><li>Stop valve function only (closed or wide open) </li></ul>SEAT DISC BONNET BODY PACKING GLAND STEM HANDWHEEL YOKE
  6. 6. GATE VALVES <ul><li>Disc travel >= diameter of disc </li></ul><ul><li>h = D </li></ul><ul><li>Little resistance to flow when opened </li></ul>D h
  7. 7. BALL VALVES <ul><li>Stop valve function only (closed or wide open) </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable for high pressure liquid systems (S.W. valves on submarines) </li></ul>BODY PACKING GLAND STEM HANDLE
  8. 8. BALL VALVES <ul><li>Open/close with only 90 o rotation of handle </li></ul><ul><li>Valve open with handle in line with piping </li></ul><ul><li>Negligible opposition to flow when fully open </li></ul>
  9. 9. BUTTERFLY VALVES <ul><li>Stop valve or throttling function </li></ul>SEAT DISC BODY HANDLE STEM
  10. 10. BUTTERFLY VALVES
  11. 11. GLOBE VALVES <ul><li>Stop valve or throttling function </li></ul>SEAT DISC BONNET BODY PACKING GLAND STEM HANDWHEEL
  12. 12. GLOBE VALVES <ul><li>Stop valve or throttling function </li></ul><ul><li>Valve fully open when annulus area around disc equals inlet area </li></ul><ul><li> D 2 /4 =  D h when </li></ul><ul><li>h = D </li></ul><ul><li>4 </li></ul>D D D h A =  D x h <ul><li>A = </li></ul><ul><li>D 2 </li></ul><ul><li>4 </li></ul>h = D 4 slack
  13. 13. GLOBE VALVES <ul><li>Numerous construction forms </li></ul>
  14. 14. CHECK VALVES <ul><li>Swing Check </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May be mounted horizontally or vertically </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lift Check </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal mounting only </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. STOP-CHECK VALVE <ul><li>Closed: functions as a stop valve </li></ul><ul><li>Open: functions like a check valve </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used to throttle </li></ul>h = D 4 slack
  16. 16. VALVE SYSTEM NOMENCLATURE <ul><li>Isolating Valves– </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pumps: Suction & Discharge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat Exchangers, metering & control devices: inlet & outlet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Root Valves </li></ul></ul>F.O. HTR suction discharge inlet inlet outlet outlet root V. burner V. M
  17. 17. VALVE SYSTEM NOMENCLATURE <ul><li>Control Valves– </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant Pressure Regulator </li></ul></ul>F.O. HTR suction discharge inlet inlet outlet outlet inlet outlet P M
  18. 18. REGULATING VALVES <ul><li>Pressure Regulating (Maintain downstream pressure) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulated pressure  closing force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spring  opening force </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unloading: Maintain upstream (back) pressure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulated pressure  opening force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spring  closing force </li></ul></ul>P REG P REG “ make-up ” “ dump ”
  19. 19. VALVE SYSTEM NOMENCLATURE <ul><li>Control Valves– </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant Pressure Regulator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F.O. Press Regulating Valve </li></ul></ul>F.O. HTR suction discharge inlet inlet outlet outlet inlet outlet inlet outlet Comb Contr (air) signal P P M
  20. 20. REGULATING VALVES <ul><li>Air-Regulated </li></ul>Downward Seating Upward Seating direct acting indirect acting
  21. 21. VALVE SYSTEM NOMENCLATURE <ul><li>Control Valves– </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant Pressure Regulator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F.O. Press Regulating Valve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F.O. Temp Regulating Valve </li></ul></ul>F.O. HTR supply suction discharge drain inlet inlet outlet outlet inlet outlet inlet outlet Comb Contr (air) signal inlet outlet pilot v sensor P P M
  22. 22. REGULATING VALVES <ul><li>Air-Regulated </li></ul><ul><li>Other controls: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. VALVE SYSTEM NOMENCLATURE <ul><li>Control Valves– </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant Pressure Regulator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F.O. Press Regulating Valve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F.O. Temp Regulating Valve </li></ul></ul>F.O. HTR supply suction discharge drain inlet inlet outlet outlet inlet outlet inlet outlet Comb Contr (air) signal inlet outlet pilot v sensor P P M
  24. 24. VALVE SYSTEM NOMENCLATURE <ul><li>Normally closed Valves– </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relief valves </li></ul></ul>F.O. HTR supply suction discharge drain inlet outlet Comb Contr (air) signal pilot v sensor P P M
  25. 25. Relief & Safety Valves <ul><li>Relief Valves– open & reset at same pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Safety Valves– reset at pressure below openining (“popping”) pressure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pop – Reset = “Blowdown” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pop </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. VALVE SYSTEM NOMENCLATURE <ul><li>Normally closed Valves– </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relief valves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By-pass valves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recirculating Valves </li></ul></ul>F.O. HTR supply suction discharge drain inlet outlet Comb Contr (air) signal pilot v sensor P P M
  27. 27. Piping Pipe & pipe fittings Tubing & tube fittings
  28. 28. Nomenclature: <ul><li>Piping– refers to any assembly of pipes, tubes, valves, and fittings that forms all or part of a system for the conveyance of fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Pipe– refers to non-flexible fluid conductors designated by diameter and wall thickness ( strength or schedule ) </li></ul><ul><li>Tubing– can be, and usually is, bent at installation, is more flexible than pipe, and is designated by nominal outside diameter and wall thickness </li></ul><ul><li>Fittings– are devices employed to join sections of pipe, tubing (or hose) in a piping system. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Pipe sizes <ul><li>Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) is approximate inside diameter of Standard Pipe (Schedule 40) </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3” STD pipe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OD= 3.5”; ID= 3.068” ( wall thickness is 0.216”) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3” XS (sched 80) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OD= 3.5”; ID= 2.90” ( wall thickness is 0.300”) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3” Schedule 160 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OD= 3.5”; ID= 2.624” ( wall thickness is 0.438”) </li></ul></ul>3.5” ≈ 3.0”
  30. 30. Pipe sizes <ul><li>Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) for pipes with O.D. ≥ 14” is the outside diameter </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>16” STD (sched 30) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OD= 16”; ID= 15.25” ( wall thickness is 0.375”) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>16” XS (sched 40) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OD= 16”; ID= 15.0” ( wall thickness is 0.500”) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>16” Schedule 160 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OD= 16”; ID= 12.88” ( wall thickness is 1.594”) </li></ul></ul>16” 15.25 ”
  31. 31. Tube sizes <ul><li>Outside diameter– in inches or sixteenths (#12 tube has an outside diameter of ¾ in., #16 has an outside diameter of 1 inch, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Wall thickness– as a decimal (.065 “) or Birmiongham Wire Gauge (BWG) number (16 BWG = .065’, 18 BWG is thinner-walled and 14 BWG is thicker-walled) </li></ul><ul><li>Copper Tubing– is often designated by slightly different parameters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nominal size– 0.125 inches less than the actual outside diameter (1” copper tubing has an O.D. of 1.125”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wall thickness- designated by “type” K, L, or M (with type K the most robust) </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Pipe connections <ul><li>Welded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Butt weld </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backing ring removed or ground away after weld </li></ul></ul>V-groove Backing Ring <ul><li>Fillet weld </li></ul>
  33. 33. Pipe connections <ul><li>Welded </li></ul><ul><li>Threaded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American National taper pipe thread (NPT) is NOT the same as machine threads on nuts & bolts </li></ul></ul>External threads are cut with a DIE Internal threads are cut with a TAP Pipe die set
  34. 34. Pipe connections <ul><li>Welded </li></ul><ul><li>Threaded </li></ul><ul><li>Flanged </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flanges may be threaded, welded, or cast integral to pipe section </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Pipe connections <ul><li>Welded </li></ul><ul><li>Threaded </li></ul><ul><li>Flanged </li></ul>GASKET (LP) Rubber, paper, flexible graphite, synthetics, etc. Bolt Nut Stud GASKET (HP) Metallic, Flexitallic ™
  36. 36. Tube connections <ul><li>Tube installations– are never straight runs; deliberate bends allow for a reduction in length which can occur as the tube is pressurized </li></ul>
  37. 37. Tube connections <ul><li>Braised (sweated)– </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At start, brazing alloy in annular slot in fitting and flux, applied to tube in clearance area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tube is heated and expands, flux forced out of clearance area & braze alloy contacts tube </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fitting is heated and clearance area opens; flux & alloy flow out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both tube & fitting are heated; as alloy flows out in penetrates & bonds surfaces </li></ul></ul>Brazing Material Flux
  38. 38. Tube connections <ul><li>Braised (sweated) </li></ul><ul><li>Flare fittings </li></ul>Flared tube Flaring Tool Body or connector Nut
  39. 39. Pipe fittings <ul><li>Welded, brazed, flanged or threaded connections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Threaded connections shown </li></ul></ul>Internally threaded CAP Externally threaded PLUG
  40. 40. Pipe fittings <ul><li>Connecting equally sized pipe sections… </li></ul>Externally threaded NIPPLE Internally threaded COUPLING
  41. 41. Pipe fittings <ul><li>Connecting equally sized pipe sections… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The three-piece UNION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Run of piping can be opened without removing large sections </li></ul></ul>1 2 3
  42. 42. Pipe fittings <ul><li>Connecting un -equally sized pipe sections… </li></ul>Externally threaded (larger) & Internally threded (smaller) reducing BUSHING Internally threaded BELL REDUCER coupling
  43. 43. Pipe fittings <ul><li>Connecting multiple pipe sections… </li></ul>SIDE-OUTLET TEE REDUCING TEE TEE CROSS Y-BEND (Y-Branch) SIDE-OUTLET ELBOW
  44. 44. Pipe fittings <ul><li>Changing flow direction … </li></ul>ELBOW STREET ELBOW (street-EL) U-BEND (Return Bend) RETURN BEND with BACK-OUTLET <ul><li>ALSO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>45 o and 30 o Elbows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing Elbow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing Street- EL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing Side-outlet Elbow </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Tube fittings <ul><li>Same variety as for pipe, outfitted for either flare or brazing connection </li></ul>
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