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Tatlı Su Üreticileri

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Gemilerde kullanılan tatlı su üreticileri …

Gemilerde kullanılan tatlı su üreticileri


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  • 1. Fresh WaterGenerating Plants I Distillation HP and LP Evaporators Submerged Tube Types Flash Evaporators
  • 2. Distilling PlantsEVAPORATOR CONDENSER HEAT SINK vapor distillate brine HEAT DIST. SOURCE FEED PUMP BRINE PUMP DIST. PUMP COOLER
  • 3. Saturation Pressures & Temperatures P (abs) P (rel) oF oC“HP” 615 psia ≈600 psi 489 254Evaporation 165 psia ≈150 psi 366 186underpressure 20 psia ≈5 psi 228 109 0 psi 1 atm. 14.7 psia (0 “Hg) 212 100 10 psia 9.6 “Hg 193 89“LP” 6.8 psia 16.1 “Hg 174 79Evaporationunder 3.2 psia 23.4 “Hg 143 62vacuum 1.9 psia 26.1 “Hg 128 53 1.7 psia 26.5 “Hg 119 48
  • 4. HP Evap example – “CONTAMINATED” EVAPORATOR Fuel Oil heating, Lube Oil heating, Galley steam, etc. DRAIN 40 psi COOLER150 psi vaporAUX STM (285oF) FS Return to FEED CONTAMINATED DC HTR PUMP DRAIN (Inspection) TANK
  • 5. LP Evap example #1 – 150 psi “SUBMERRGED Aux Steam TUBE” EVAPORATOR Air drag line CONDENSER 3 psia≈ 24’Hg A/E5 psiAuxSteam 142oF vapor A/E Drain DIST. brine 130oF PUMP tube nest feedwater T.nest Drain DIST. FEED BRINE COOLER PUMP PUMP 65-85oF
  • 6. LP Evap example #2 –“FLASH TYPE” 150 psi Aux Steam EVAPORATOR Air drag line CONDENSER 3 psia≈ 24’Hg A/E5 psiAuxSteam A/E Drain DIST. brine 130oF PUMP tube nest feedwater T.nest Drain DIST. FEED BRINE COOLER PUMP PUMP 65-85oF
  • 7. LP Evap example #2 –“FLASH TYPE” 150 psi Aux Steam EVAPORATOR Air drag line CONDENSER 5 psi 3 psia≈ 24’Hg Aux 142oF Steam A/E vapor FD.W A/E 172oF 130 HTR Drain DIST. PUMP Fd.Htr Brine: 142oF Drain feedwater DIST. FEED BRINE COOLER PUMP PUMP 65-85oF
  • 8.  Why is the liquid-vapor mix inside the evaporator cooler than the feedwater entering?In evaporator shell(3 psia) water boils Under Evap feedat > 142oF but pump pressure (15-20 psig) water 172oFeach lb requires1000 BTU of boils at > 225oFlatent heat to 142oF so feedwater stayschange phase liquid at 172o  In cooling to 142o each lb can “donate” 30 BTU of sensible heat to the process  Therefore it takes 33 lbs of feed cooling to 142o in order to create 1 lb of vapor
  • 9. Multistage (Subm.Tube) Evap Air Distillate Ejector Feed Cooler Pump Distiller Condenser 121o 85o 88o 131o3-way solenoid 126o 90o 80% Dump Valve 164o O/B To: POTABLE & Salinity Vapor RES. FEED Feed Htr Tanks Cell 128oF 174oF 1st Effect: 2nd Effect: vapor 1.9 psia (26”Hg) vapor 6.8 psia (16”Hg) 5 psi Flash Aux Chamber Steam T.nest Distillate Drain Pump Brine O/B Pump
  • 10. Multistage (Subm.Tube) Evap 3 or more “Effects:” 1st Effect LOWER PRESS & TEMP Heat Source 4 3 2 1
  • 11. Multistage FLASH Evap Air Distillate Ejector Feed Cooler Pump Distiller Condenser 85o 88o 133o 138o 105o 110o3-way solenoid 90o 5 psi Dump Vavle Aux Steam To: FEED POTABLE & Salinity RES. FEED HTR Tanks Cell 119oF to 142oF bilge vapor vapor 172o Fd.Htr Distillate Drain Pump 2nd Stage: 1.7 psia (27”Hg) 1st Stage: 3.2 psia (23”Hg) Brine O/B Pump
  • 12. The SALINITY CELL 3-way valve “trips”  “Pure” (0 ppm of dissolved solids) distillate is a very poor“AC” conductor of electricitysource  As the salinity increases the conductivity of the distillate increases (seawater is a very good conductor)  A salinity meter measures TRANSFORMER current although the meter scale is in ppm ammeter  Boiler feedwater requires very pure distillate  The three-way valve is set to dump distillate to the bilge if the current salinity cell detects impurities SALINITY CELL greater than 3 ppm  U.S. maximums for drinking water are in excess of 500 ppm! Distillate
  • 13. Fresh WaterGenerating Plants II No Steam Required Flat-plate Types (e.g., NYREX) Vapor Compression Types Reverse Osmosis (RO) Types
  • 14. The Flat Plate Heat Exchanger FLAT PLATE: FLAT PLATE: many, small many, smallpassages carrying passages carrying hot fluid cold fluid Adjacent, alternate plates: heat transferred from warmer to cooler fluid
  • 15. The Flat Plate Heat ExchangerEnd view … Actual construction
  • 16. Flat Plate Distiller FEED PUMP 1.1 psia FPHX #2: 104oF F.W. PUMP CONDENSER VAPOR ≈180oF FPHX #1: EVAPORATOR J.W. MAIN PUMP ENGINE… TSES VI AIR EJECTOR / BRINE EDUCTOR
  • 17. TSES VI Flat Plate Distiller (NYREX) FEED PUMP 1.1 psia 150 psi FPHX #2: 104oF Aux Stm F.W. PUMP CONDENSER VAPOR ≈180oF FPHX #3 GLYCOL FPHX #1: HTR EVAPORATOR Glycol J.W. Drain Circ PUMP Pump… TSES VI AIR EJECTOR / BRINE EDUCTOR
  • 18. Flat Plate Distiller (NYREX)
  • 19. Vapor-Compression DistillerCompressor Compressed 2 psig Vapor: 3.2 psig 219oF S.W. 223oF Feed vapor F.W. Electric Heater (start-up only) Brine
  • 20. Osmosis Osmotic pressure Dilute Concentrated Diffusion Semi-permeable Membrabe (cellulose fiber or polyamide)
  • 21. Reverse Osmosis (RO) HP P>> P Pump Osmotic pressure M Filtration Dilute Concentrated Diffusion BrineTypical RO membrane canister
  • 22. 2-stage RO Fresh Water Generator5-20 ppm 200 ppm 2/s HP HP 1/s Pump Pump Charcoal recirculating Filter Booster UV M Pump M Pre- Brine F.W. S.W. filter
  • 23. Commercial (1-stage) RO Unit
  • 24. Commercial (1-stage) RO Unit
  • 25. FW Storage (TSES VI) Distill Tanks STBD 301 Tons ER STBD IBFWD AFT 23 Tons AMSPEAK PEAK CENTERTANK TANK 261 Tons105 PORT IB 109Tons 23 Tons Tons PORT 305 Tons PORT OB 28 Tons Reserve Feed Water (MUF) POTABLE WATER