MARPOL Annex VI: Air Pollution Prevention


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MARPOL Annex VI: Air Pollution Prevention

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  • Key Amendments to MARPOL Annex VI ” The main changes to MARPOL Annex VI will see a progressive reduction in sulphur oxide (SOx) emissions from ships, with the global sulphur cap reduced initially to 3.50% (from the current 4.50%), effective from 1 January 2012; then progressively to 0.50 %, effective from 1 January 2020, to be completed no later than 2018. The limits applicable in Sulphur Emission Control Areas (SECAs) will be reduced to 1.00%, beginning on 1 July 2010 (from the current 1.50 %); being further reduced to 0.10 %, effective from 1 January 2015. Progressive reductions in nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from marine engines were also agreed, with the most stringent controls on so-called "Tier III" engines, i.e. those installed on ships constructed on or after 1 January 2016, operating in Emission Control Areas. The revised Annex VI will allow for an Emission Control Area to be designated for SOx and particulate matter( PM), or NOx, or all three types of emissions from ships, subject to a proposal from a Party or Parties to the Annex, which would be considered for adoption by the Organization, if supported by a demonstrated need to prevent, reduce and control one or all three of those emissions from ships”. Source : IMO text
  • ” Nitrogen oxide emissions from ships were put at around 5 million tons per year - about 7 percent of total global emissions. Nitrogen oxide emissions cause or add to regional problems including acid rain and health problems in local areas such as harbours ” . Source: IMO text
  • Sulphur emissions from ships' exhausts were estimated at 4.5 to 6.5 million tons per year - about 4 percent of total global sulphur emissions. Emissions over open seas are spread out and effects moderate, but on certain routes the emissions create environmental problems, including English Channel, South China Sea, Strait of Malacca. Source: IMO text
  • MARPOL Annex VI: Air Pollution Prevention

    1. 1. <ul><li>AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION </li></ul><ul><li>Revisions of Marpol Annex VI </li></ul><ul><li>November 2009 </li></ul>
    2. 2. AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION <ul><li>1. IMO and Regional Ship Air Emission Developments </li></ul><ul><li>• Air pollution protection: commenced in the late 1980’s </li></ul><ul><li>IMO decided to include the issue of air pollution </li></ul><ul><li>in environmental programme i n 1988 </li></ul><ul><li>• Resolution A.719 (17) adopted in 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>establishing a policy on the prevention of air pollution </li></ul><ul><li>from ships (adoption of Annex VI to MARPOL 73/78) </li></ul><ul><li>• IMO Air Pollution Conference in September 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Protocol of 1997 to amend MARPOL 73/78 and to include </li></ul><ul><li>Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships </li></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse Gas Emissions not included , but Conf erence </li></ul><ul><li>Res.7 and 8 dealt with PFC’s and CO2 emissions respectively </li></ul><ul><li>• Annex VI entered into force in 2005 </li></ul>
    3. 3. AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION <ul><li>1. IMO and Regional Ship Air Emission Developments (cont.) </li></ul><ul><li>• Baltic Sea – SECA from May 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>• North Sea/English Channel– SECA from Nov 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>• Major Revision of MARPOL Annex VI completed in Oct 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>• Revised Annex VI effective from 1 July 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>• European Sulphur Directive governing emissions in port </li></ul><ul><li>(0.1% S at berth 1 Jan 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>• Port regulations in California (USA), Vancouver (Canada) for ship berthing </li></ul><ul><li>The California Air Resources Board (CARB) adopted the Regulations to reduce emissions </li></ul><ul><li>from auxiliary diesel engines and diesel - electric engines operated on ocean-going vessels </li></ul><ul><li>within California waters and 24 nautical miles off the California baseline. Click here </li></ul><ul><li>• ISO ongoing work on Marine Fuel Oil specifications </li></ul><ul><li>• Discussion and development : of on-shore power supply - also called </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative Marine Power (AMP) or Cold-ironing </li></ul><ul><li>• Green House Gases (GHG) limitations </li></ul>
    4. 4. AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION <ul><li>2. Key Amendments to MARPOL Annex VI cont. </li></ul><ul><li>• Reg. 13 Progressive reductions in nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions </li></ul><ul><li>• Establishment of Emission Control Areas (ECAs) formerly only SECAs : </li></ul><ul><li>“ Emission Control Area” is an area where the adoption of special mandatory measures for </li></ul><ul><li>emissions from ships is required to prevent, reduce and control air pollution from SOx, NOx </li></ul><ul><li>and particulate matter. Areas listed in Regulations 13 and 14. ” </li></ul><ul><li>• Revised NOx-Code </li></ul><ul><li>• Reg. 14 Reduced SOx-emission limits </li></ul><ul><li>• Reg. 4 Expanded scope for equivalent measures </li></ul><ul><li>• Clarified criteria for verifying compliant fuel </li></ul><ul><li>• Reg. 15 Improved control on VOC-emissions </li></ul><ul><li>• Reg. 18 New provision for Fuel Oil unavailability </li></ul><ul><li>• Revised guidance for Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems </li></ul>
    5. 5. AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION 3. Revised Marpol Annex VI 3.1. Regulation 13 - NOx emission and NOx Technical Code NEW EXHAUST EMISSION NOx LEGISLATION . SSE -Slow Speed Engines MSE - Medium Speed Engine s HSE - High Speed Engines NOx limits Requirements Effective for TIER I SSE = 17.0 g/kWh MSE = 4 5 x RPM (-0.2) g/kWh) HSE = 9.8 g/kWh Ships built : 0 1 Jan 20 00 t o 0 1 Jan 20 11 ( the standards in force ) TIER II SSE = 4.4 g/kWh MSE = 44 x RPM (-0.23) g/kWh) HSE = 7.7 g/kWh Ships built after 01 Jan 20 11 TIER III SSE = 3. 4 g/kWh MSE = 9 x RPM (-0.2) g/kWh HSE = 2.0 g/kWh Ships built after 01 Jan 20 16 and operating in ECAs
    6. 6. AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION <ul><li>3.1. NOx emission , Technical Code cont. </li></ul><ul><li>Remarks: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Tier III limits - applicable to engines of power </li></ul><ul><li>output > 750 kW exclusively in ECAs. </li></ul><ul><li>2. IMO Review in 2012/13 plan ning to verify </li></ul><ul><li>technological development to implement Tier III standard. </li></ul><ul><li>3. In order to meet NOx limits - exhaust gas cleaning system </li></ul><ul><li>can be applied. </li></ul><ul><li>4. R evised NOx Technical Code 2008 ( entering into force on </li></ul><ul><li>01 July 2010) to be u sed in the certification, testing, and </li></ul><ul><li>measurement procedures. </li></ul>
    7. 7. AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION <ul><li>3.1.1. New measures on engines of ships built: Jan 1990 – Dec 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>The NOx emissions at Tier I level upgraded for engines of power </li></ul><ul><li>output > 5,000 kW and per cylinder displacement at or > 90 litres </li></ul><ul><li>The upgrading is provided with approved and cost effective </li></ul><ul><li>method for NOx limitation and should not: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reduce the engine rating by more than 1% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increase the fuel consumption by more than 2%, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have negative effect on the engine durability or reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For Engines NOT complying with Tier I NOx emission limitations: </li></ul><ul><li>• measures against ship only if there is a certified, efficient commercially </li></ul><ul><li>available system </li></ul><ul><li>• rules for certification, verification and documentation of scrubbers </li></ul><ul><li>and upgrade at the ship’s first Renewal Survey if there is an approved </li></ul><ul><li>method for upgrading at least to Tier I standard </li></ul><ul><li>• if system not available, the next Annual Survey after that method is available </li></ul>
    8. 8. AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION <ul><li>3.2. Regulation 14 - SOx & Particulate Matter emission limits </li></ul><ul><li>Sulphur Content of Fuel Oil Limits </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Sulphur content documented by supplier as required by Regulation 18 </li></ul><ul><li>* Review of 0.50% standard to be carried out by experts by 2018 to determine availability of such fuel. </li></ul><ul><li>If not possible, then the final date is Jan 1, 2025 ) </li></ul><ul><li>* * From 1 Jan 2010 in EU ports at berth and inland waters (EU Directive 99/32 Amendment) </li></ul>Area Sulphur content / Effective for Open Sea (Global) 4.50% Prior to 1 Jan 2012 3.50% 1 Jan 2012 0.50%* 1 Jan 2020 SOx/PM Emission Control Areas 1.50% Prior to 1 Mar 2010 1.00% 1 Jan 2012 0.10% 1 Jan 2015**
    9. 9. AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION <ul><li>3.3 Fuel changeover to be recorded: </li></ul><ul><li>Ships using separate fuel oils entering or leaving an ECA shall: </li></ul><ul><li>• possess a written procedure indicating proper fuel oil change-over, providing fuel oil system flushing of all fuel oils exceeding the permissible sulphur </li></ul><ul><li>content prior to entry into an ECA. </li></ul><ul><li>• ensure that there is written record ( e.g. ER log book) of the volume of low sulphur fuel oils in each tank as well as the date, time, and position of the ship when any fuel-oil-change-over operation is completed prior to the entry into an ECA or commenced after exit from such an area </li></ul><ul><li>Note: During the first twelve months immediately following an amendment designating a specific </li></ul><ul><li>ECA , ships operating in that Emission Control Area are exempt from the above Requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Click here for Div Tech Work Instruction ”Fuel Change over Information on Boilers </li></ul><ul><li>and Diesel Engines with respect to Low Sulphur Fuel use .” </li></ul>
    10. 10. AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION <ul><li>3.4. Equivalent measures scope (Regulation 4) </li></ul><ul><li>A lternative technology (any fitting, material, appliance or apparatus to </li></ul><ul><li>be fitted in a ship or other procedures, alternative fuel oils, or </li></ul><ul><li>compliance methods e.g. scrubbers) can be acknowledged by </li></ul><ul><li>Administration as is an &quot;equivalent measure” provided that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• equivalent efficiency in terms of SOx, PM and NOx emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is ensured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• its operation is within the requirements of the IMO guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• environment is not harmed (potential water discharge issue) </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION <ul><li>3.5. Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems </li></ul><ul><li>IMO Marine Environmental Protection Committee has adopted </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution MEPC.184(59): ”2009 GUIDELINES FOR EXHAUST GAS </li></ul><ul><li>CLEANING SYSTEM” (click here ) entering into force on 1 July 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>Revised guidance for Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems </li></ul><ul><li>(EGCS Unit) mainly deals with: </li></ul><ul><li>• rules for certification, verification and documentation of scrubbers </li></ul><ul><li>• new regulations for Wash Water Discharge (monitoring and recording) </li></ul>
    12. 12. AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION <ul><li>3.5.1. The requirements and documents for EGCS Units </li></ul><ul><li>1. The Guidelines permit two schemes for EGCS Unit : </li></ul><ul><li>• Scheme A (Unit Certification with Parameter and Emission Checks) </li></ul><ul><li>• Scheme B (Continuous Emission Monitoring with Parameter Checks) </li></ul><ul><li>2. SOx Emissions Compliance Plan (SECP) approved by the Administration. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Technical Manual (ETM): nominal capacity, operating limits, maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>/survey procedures </li></ul><ul><li>4. SECC SOx Emissions Compliance Certificate - testing, approval of ETM </li></ul><ul><li>5. EGC Record Book - Log book for scrubber maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>6. Onboard Monitoring Manual (OMM) - monitoring specification, </li></ul><ul><li>maintenance and survey procedures, etc . </li></ul>
    13. 13. AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION <ul><li>3.5.2. Benefits and main drawbacks of using scrubbers </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>• cost effectiveness - fuel price scenarios make scrubbers more attractive </li></ul><ul><li>• developing technology - more stationary power plants with scrubbers. </li></ul><ul><li>• evident progress made in the revised guidelines by IMO - wash water </li></ul><ul><li>• regulations and certification procedures </li></ul>
    14. 14. AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION <ul><li>Disadvantages of using scrubbers: </li></ul><ul><li>• Relatively high cost of the scrubber system (comprising </li></ul><ul><li>testing and approval) </li></ul><ul><li>• Energy – consuming process </li></ul><ul><li>• Acidity of wash water discharge affecting e.g. propeller, </li></ul><ul><li>rudder, antifouling system etc. </li></ul><ul><li>• Space consuming unit in the engine room and in particular </li></ul><ul><li>the funnel. </li></ul><ul><li>• Problems with discharge of scrubber effluent overboard </li></ul><ul><li>in ports within ECA and waste disposal </li></ul><ul><li>• CO 2 emission </li></ul>
    15. 15. AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION <ul><li>3.6. Fuel Oil Availability and Quality (Regulation 18) </li></ul><ul><li>If a ship is found not to meet the standards for compliant fuel oils, </li></ul><ul><li>the competent authority can require the ship to: </li></ul><ul><li>• present a record of the actions taken to achieve compliance; and </li></ul><ul><li>• provide evidence that it attempted to purchase compliant fuel oil and </li></ul><ul><li>consequently no measures taken against the ship </li></ul><ul><li>• not to deviate from the voyage and not to be delayed </li></ul><ul><li>• to notify its Administration and the relevant port of call each time it </li></ul><ul><li>cannot find the compliant fuel. </li></ul><ul><li>For IMO Resolution MEPC.182(59) : „2009 GUIDELINES FOR THE SAMPLING OF FUEL OIL FOR </li></ul><ul><li>DETERMINATION OF COMPLIANCE WITH THE REVISED MARPOL ANNEX VI: click here </li></ul><ul><li>This Resolution supersedes Res. MEPC.96(47) </li></ul>
    16. 16. AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION <ul><li>3.7. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions from Ships </li></ul><ul><li>• according to IMO data - international shipping caused 2.7% </li></ul><ul><li>of the global CO2 emissions in 2007 (machinery exhaust gases) . </li></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse gases were not significantly covered by IMO regulations </li></ul><ul><li>until: 5 Dec 2003 , when IMO adopted resolution A.963(23) IMO </li></ul><ul><li>Policies and practices related to the reduction of greenhouse </li></ul><ul><li>gas emissions from ships . </li></ul><ul><li>MEPC is to: </li></ul><ul><li>• identify and develop a work plan and timetable for GHG limitations </li></ul><ul><li>• establish GHG emissions baseline guidelines for future application </li></ul><ul><li>• create CO2 indexing scheme </li></ul><ul><li>• develop technical, operational and market-based reduction solutions </li></ul>
    17. 17. AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION <ul><li>3.7.1. IMO GHG Study - MEPC 59 Outcome </li></ul><ul><li>In July 2009: M EPC developed a package of GHG emissions </li></ul><ul><li>reduction through technical/operational measures i.e.: </li></ul><ul><li>1. for new ships : , ”The Energy Efficiency Design Index” (EEDI) </li></ul><ul><li>(improving design and propulsion technologies) </li></ul><ul><li>2. for all ships: ” Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan” (SEEMP) </li></ul><ul><li>comprising best practices for the fuel efficient operation and </li></ul><ul><li>” Ship Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator” (SEEOI) </li></ul><ul><li>I n addition - M arket - Based Instruments (MBI ) are to be introduced for two main </li></ul><ul><li>purposes: • off-setting growing ship emissions and </li></ul><ul><li>• providing a fiscal incentive to operate ships in energy efficient way </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Work on all measures to be continued at forthcoming meetings of the MEPC , </li></ul><ul><li>Considering the outcome of Copenhagen UN Climate Change Conference (COP 15) in Dec 2009. </li></ul>
    18. 18. AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION <ul><li>3.8. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC’s) Regulation 15 </li></ul><ul><li>• tankers subjected to vapour emission control shall be provided </li></ul><ul><li>with an approved Vapour Collection System (VCS) to be operated </li></ul><ul><li>during the loading of such cargoes * . </li></ul><ul><li>• VCP shall Comply with IMO Guidelines ( MSC/Circ.585 ) </li></ul><ul><li>• revised Annex VI to MARPOL requires crude oil tankers ≥ 400 grt </li></ul><ul><li>to implement and keep onboard an approved VOC Management Plan. </li></ul><ul><li>( Effective as from 01 July 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>• The plan is to be ship specific, taking into account IMO Guidelines ** </li></ul><ul><li>* for existing tankers not fitted with VCS systems, three years after respective terminal </li></ul><ul><li>requirements bec o me effective </li></ul><ul><li>** Click here for ”Guidelines for the Development of VOC Management Plans” </li></ul>
    19. 19. AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION <ul><li>Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC’s) cont. </li></ul><ul><li>VOC Management Plan shall : </li></ul><ul><li>• Provide written procedures for minimizing VOC emissions during the loading </li></ul><ul><li>and sea passage. </li></ul><ul><li>• Give consideration to the additional VOC generated during Crude Oil Washing </li></ul><ul><li>• Identify a person responsible for implementing the plan. </li></ul><ul><li>• Be written in the working onboa rd language and, if it is not English, French or </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish, include an appropriate translation </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Regulation 15 shall also apply to gas carriers only if the type of loading and containment </li></ul><ul><li>systems allow safe retention of non-methane VOCs on board or their safe return ashore. </li></ul>
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