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Ob12 03st

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  • According to Meyer and Allen's (1991) three-component model of commitment, prior research indicated that there are three "mind sets" which can characterize an employee's commitment to the organization: Affective Commitment : AC is defined as the employee's positive emotional attachment to the organization. An employee who is affectively committed strongly identifies with the goals of the organization and desires to remain a part of the organization. This employee commits to the organization because he/she "wants to". Continuance Commitment : The individual commits to the organization because he/she perceives high costs of losing organizational, including economic costs (such as pension accruals) and social costs (friendship ties with co-workers) that would be incurred. The employee remains a member of the organization because he/she "has to". Normative Commitment : The individual commits to and remains with an organization because of feelings of obligation. These feelings may derive from many sources. For example, the organization may have invested resources in training an employee who then feels a 'moral' obligation to put forth effort on the job and stay with the organization to 'repay the debt.' It may also reflect an internalized norm, developed before the person joins the organization through family or other socialization processes, that one should be loyal to one's organization. The employee stays with the organization because he/she "ought to".
  • WORSE, ABOUT THE SAME, BETTER ALMOST THE SAME, HARDLY ANY BETTER AT ALL A LITTLE BETTER SOMEWHAT BETTER MODERATELY BETTER A GOOD DEAL BETTER A GREAT DEAL BETTER A VERY GREAT DEAL BETTER [Patients who state they are worse are asked how much worse, and offered similar response options, the word "worse" being substituted for "better"]
  • defined as individual behaviors that are beneficial to the organization and are discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system. These behaviors are rather a matter of personal choice.
  • Transcript

    1. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Attitudes and Job Satisfaction Chapter THREE
    2. Attitudes © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Attitudes Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events. Affective Component The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude. Cognitive component The opinion or belief segment of an attitude. Behavioral Component An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something.
    3. The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. <ul><li>Desire to reduce dissonance depends on </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of elements creating dissonance </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of individual influence over elements </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards involved in dissonance </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Dissonance </li></ul><ul><li>Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals seek to reduce this gap, or “dissonance” </li></ul>
    4. Measuring the A-B Relationship <ul><li>Recent research indicates that attitudes (A) significantly predict behaviors (B) when moderating variables are taken into account. </li></ul>© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. <ul><li>Moderating Variables </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of the attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Specificity of the attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility of the attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Social pressures on the individual </li></ul><ul><li>Direct experience with the attitude </li></ul>A B
    5. Self-Perception Theory © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Attitudes are used after the fact to make sense out of an action that has already occurred. B A ! And,
    6. Types of Attitudes © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Job Involvement Identifying with the job, actively participating in it, and considering performance important to self-worth. Organizational Commitment Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, and wishing to maintain membership in the organization (Affective, Normative, and Continuance Commitment) Job Satisfaction A collection of positive and/or negative feelings that an individual holds toward his or her job.
    7. Types of Attitudes, cont’d. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Employee Engagement An individual’s involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the organization. Perceived Organizational Support (POS) Degree to which employees feel the organization cares about their well-being.
    8. An Application: Attitude Surveys © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Attitude Surveys Eliciting responses from employees through questionnaires about how they feel about their jobs, work groups, supervisors, and the organization.
    9. Attitudes and Workforce Diversity <ul><li>Training activities that can reshape employee attitudes concerning diversity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participating in diversity training that provides for self-evaluation and group discussions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volunteer work in community and social serve centers with individuals of diverse backgrounds. </li></ul></ul>© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
    10. Job Satisfaction <ul><li>Measuring Job Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single global rating </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In general, people are satisfied with their jobs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends on facets of satisfaction—tend to be less satisfied with pay and promotion opportunities. </li></ul></ul>© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
    11. Causes of Job Satisfaction <ul><li>Pay only influences Job Satisfaction to a point </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After about $40,000 a year, there is no relationship between amount of pay and job satisfaction. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personality can influence job satisfaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative people are usually not satisfied with their jobs </li></ul></ul>© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
    12. How Employees Can Express Dissatisfaction © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Exit Behavior directed toward leaving the organization. Voice Active and constructive attempts to improve conditions. Neglect Allowing conditions to worsen. Loyalty Passively waiting for conditions to improve.
    13. The Effect of Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance <ul><li>Satisfaction and Productivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfied workers are more productive AND more productive workers are more satisfied! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worker productivity is higher in organizations with more satisfied workers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction and Absenteeism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfied employees have fewer avoidable absences. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction and Turnover </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfied employees are less likely to quit. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizations take actions to retain high performers and to weed out lower performers. </li></ul></ul>© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
    14. Job Satisfaction and OCB <ul><li>Satisfaction and OCBs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and are trusting of the organization are more willing to engage in behaviors that go beyond the normal expectations of their job. </li></ul></ul>© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
    15. Job Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction <ul><li>Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfied workers provide better customer service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are more friendly, optimistic, and responsive. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are less likely to turnover, which helps build long-term customer relationships. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are experienced. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dissatisfied customers increase employee job dissatisfaction. </li></ul>© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
    16. <ul><li>In general, when we think of attitudes and organizations, we think of </li></ul>© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1) Job Satisfaction 2) Happiness 3) Job Involvement 4) Mood at work 5) Organizational Commitment 6) 1 and 2 7) 1, 3, and 5 Chapter Check-Up: Attitudes
    17. <ul><li>Ernesto is the known as the Donut Hut King---every day he brings donuts and coffee to the office for everyone. He says it helps everyone think more clearly! Ernesto is demonstrating </li></ul>© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. <ul><li>Job satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational citizenship behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Job involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Conscientiousness </li></ul>Chapter Check-Up: Attitudes Write down three things someone could do at work that would constitute an OCB. Compare your list with a neighbor’s.

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