Foundations of  Individual Behavior Chapter   TWO
Ability, Intellect, and Intelligence Ability An individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. Intellectual ...
Dimensions of Intellectual Ability <ul><li>Number aptitude </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Percep...
Physical Abilities Physical Abilities The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar charact...
Nine Physical Abilities <ul><li>Other Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Body coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul><ul>...
The Ability- Job Fit Ability-Job Fit Employee’s Abilities Job’s Ability Requirements
Biographical Characteristics Biographical Characteristics Personal characteristics —such as age, gender, race and tenure—t...
Learning <ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Involves change </li></ul><ul><li>Is relatively permanent </li></ul><ul><li>Is...
Theories of Learning <ul><li>Key Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Unconditioned stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Unconditioned respons...
E X H I B I T  2 –3 Source:  The Far Side ® by Gary Larson © 1993 Far Works, Inc. All rights reserved. Used with permission.
Theories of Learning (cont’d) <ul><li>Key Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Reflexive (unlearned) behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Cond...
Theories of Learning (cont’d) <ul><li>Key Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Attentional processes </li></ul><ul><li>Retention pro...
Theories of Learning (cont’d) <ul><li>Key Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement is required to change behavior. </li></...
Types of Reinforcement <ul><li>Positive reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing a reward for a desired behavior. </l...
Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced each time it is demonstrated. Intermi...
Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d) Fixed-Interval Schedule Rewards are spaced at uniform time intervals. Variable-Interva...
Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d) E X H I B I T  2 –4 Fixed-ratio
Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement E X H I B I T  2 –5
Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d) E X H I B I T  2 –5 (cont’d)
Behavior Modification <ul><li>Five Step Problem-Solving Model </li></ul><ul><li>Identify critical behaviors </li></ul><ul>...
Chapter Checkup: Reinforcement Theory   <ul><li>When professors give random pop quizzes or take random attendance, student...
Chapter Checkup: Reinforcement Theory   <ul><li>Recall and write down the three criteria that indicate learning has occurr...
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Ob12 02st

  1. 1. Foundations of Individual Behavior Chapter TWO
  2. 2. Ability, Intellect, and Intelligence Ability An individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. Intellectual Ability The capacity to do mental activities. Multiple Intelligences Intelligence contains four subparts: cognitive, social, emotional, and cultural.
  3. 3. Dimensions of Intellectual Ability <ul><li>Number aptitude </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual speed </li></ul><ul><li>Inductive reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Deductive reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial visualization </li></ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul>E X H I B I T 2 –1
  4. 4. Physical Abilities Physical Abilities The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics.
  5. 5. Nine Physical Abilities <ul><li>Other Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Body coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul><ul><li>Stamina </li></ul><ul><li>Strength Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic strength </li></ul><ul><li>Trunk strength </li></ul><ul><li>Static strength </li></ul><ul><li>Explosive strength </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Extent flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic flexibility </li></ul>E X H I B I T 2 –2 Source: Adapted from HRMagazine published by the Society for Human Resource Management, Alexandria, VA.
  6. 6. The Ability- Job Fit Ability-Job Fit Employee’s Abilities Job’s Ability Requirements
  7. 7. Biographical Characteristics Biographical Characteristics Personal characteristics —such as age, gender, race and tenure—that are objective and easily obtained from personnel records.
  8. 8. Learning <ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Involves change </li></ul><ul><li>Is relatively permanent </li></ul><ul><li>Is acquired through experience </li></ul>Learning Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience.
  9. 9. Theories of Learning <ul><li>Key Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Unconditioned stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Unconditioned response </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioned stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioned response </li></ul>Classical Conditioning A type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response.
  10. 10. E X H I B I T 2 –3 Source: The Far Side ® by Gary Larson © 1993 Far Works, Inc. All rights reserved. Used with permission.
  11. 11. Theories of Learning (cont’d) <ul><li>Key Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Reflexive (unlearned) behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioned (learned) behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement </li></ul>Operant Conditioning A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment.
  12. 12. Theories of Learning (cont’d) <ul><li>Key Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Attentional processes </li></ul><ul><li>Retention processes </li></ul><ul><li>Motor reproduction processes </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement processes </li></ul>Social-Learning Theory People can learn through observation and direct experience.
  13. 13. Theories of Learning (cont’d) <ul><li>Key Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement is required to change behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Some rewards are more effective than others. </li></ul><ul><li>The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence. </li></ul>Shaping Behavior Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response.
  14. 14. Types of Reinforcement <ul><li>Positive reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing a reward for a desired behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removing an unpleasant consequence when the desired behavior occurs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Punishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extinction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Withholding reinforcement of a behavior to cause its cessation. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced each time it is demonstrated. Intermittent Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced often enough to make the behavior worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated.
  16. 16. Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d) Fixed-Interval Schedule Rewards are spaced at uniform time intervals. Variable-Interval Schedule Rewards are initiated after a fixed or constant number of responses.
  17. 17. Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d) E X H I B I T 2 –4 Fixed-ratio
  18. 18. Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement E X H I B I T 2 –5
  19. 19. Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d) E X H I B I T 2 –5 (cont’d)
  20. 20. Behavior Modification <ul><li>Five Step Problem-Solving Model </li></ul><ul><li>Identify critical behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Develop baseline data </li></ul><ul><li>Identify behavioral consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and apply intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate performance improvement </li></ul>OB Mod The application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting.
  21. 21. Chapter Checkup: Reinforcement Theory <ul><li>When professors give random pop quizzes or take random attendance, students often complain that they are adults, old enough to make their own decisions, and should therefore not be required to come to class. How do you reconcile this argument with what we know about reinforcement theory? Discuss with a classmate. </li></ul>What kind of reinforcement schedule are these professors using? Would a different schedule be preferable? If so, which one?
  22. 22. Chapter Checkup: Reinforcement Theory <ul><li>Recall and write down the three criteria that indicate learning has occurred. Do you think that learning, according to these criteria, really occurs as a result of a one semester college class? Discuss with a neighbor. </li></ul>What kinds of things would you recommend to a college professor to increase the likelihood of students learning all class material? Use theories from the text to frame your answer.

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