Nuclear Technology
      & Us

   JUS 394 Arizona State University
   Science, Technology & InEquality
        Professor: ...
What IS Nuclear Technology
 Images of our world
   Weapons

   Reactors
   Nuclear waste
   Hiroshima

   Anti Nuclear Pro...
Nuclear POWER
Scientific Views

for easy introduction:http://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=fjgdgAhOzXQ

ENERGY -- the driving force of change
...
Energy plays an important part
And it’s used in all this work;
Energy, yest energy with power so great,
A kind that cannot...
Nuclear ENERGY
Energy forms -- transfer and conversion (recalling
your high-school physics class!!)

Part of nuclear techn...
Nuclear Fission


A process by which a heavy nuclide splits into two
of more pieces -- became the top secret in Germany,
E...
Nuclear Fission
Uranium isotopes -- 235U

How much energy is released per fission reaction?
How can the amount be estimated...
Common Perceptions


http://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=MRC5KDqpZ_I

Are these images represent
“the truth” behind nuclear
te...
Nuclear weapons: Can any rational person
make a case for their continued existence?

Nuclear reactors: if they are very da...
Nuclear Technology
         &
MEDIA Representation
Radiation
As constructed
 in the Media
Media Stories


Do I have to worry about radiation on airplanes?

Is flying like working in a nuclear power plant?

Does th...
Other Nuclear News
Radon
Radon Media Stories


What is it

Should I get my house tested?

Is it related to nuclear power?

Why didn’t someone tell ...
RADIATION FICTIONS
Radiation Fictions
         •   Fear:

             – “It’s gonna blow!!!”

         •   Controversy:

             – “We’...
Nuclear Technology
Too little we know on ‘what it is’

Dominant perception (mainstream political stories, media
representa...
Radiation Facts

 It’s been around forever

 First was noticed ~ 1895

 A lot was learned since then:

– doctors & radiati...
Environmental Radiation

• Radiation & radionuclides
  older than the Earth

• Natural part of our
  environment

• Radiat...
“Artificial” Radiation
• Medical

• Occupational

• Nuclear Fuel Cycle

• Fallout

• Petroleum Industries

• Power generati...
Quanties & Units

• Amount (activity):
  – Becquerel (Bq) dis/s

  – Curie (Ci) 3.7 x 1010 dis/s

• Dose:
  – gray (Gy) 1 ...
Range of Doses

General public - 360 mrem/y natural

  Radon: 200 mrem

  Other natural: 97 mrem

  Remainder ~ 15 % medic...
%Contribution to Dose




• Contribution of various radiation sources to total
  average dose equivalent to persons in the...
Basic Facts

• Two main types:

  – electromagnetic (X-rays and gamma rays)

  – particulate (electrons, protons, alpha pa...
Electromagnetic
                               Wavelength
                                        Frequency
              ...
Radiation Particles - α

            α, Helium-4 nucleus
             (radon is a source)


            β, nuclear electro...
Types and properties of ionizing
                radiation

                                                    Range in S...
Radiation Effects in Living

                     Nuclide decays
                Emitted radiation ionizes
               ...
Routes of Radiation Exposure
External: β, γ, n
        α,          Internal: α, β, γ, n
Range of Radiation
Hormesis (a little is good for you)

Nothing

Impaired organ function

Cancer

Genetic (mutation in off...
Factors Determining

Radiation type ( α, β, γ, n )

Duration of delivery (s → y)

Location (external or internal)

Distrib...
‘predicting’
  Radiation Effects
Why the “uncertainty”?

  Not all effects are apparent

  Knowledge limitations (likely i...
Radiation Effects Model

                                                              Real data
    Potential Damage
    ...
Radiation Effects Data

 Mainly for people or lab rats

 Good data in high dose/high dose-rate region

 Limited/contradict...
What about other

Insects are tough to kill

Big trees are as sensitive as we are

So are most mammals

Fish and plants ar...
Radiosensitivity of
      Species                                Least
        Most
      Sensitive                       ...
So......

Radiation in high doses can kill you

Radiation in moderate doses increases your
cancer risk

Radiation at doses...
Should we sink ourselves in ‘the fear’ of
  technology? Just based on too little
  knowledge... of we have seen and heard?...
Lim Jus494 Nucleartechnology
Lim Jus494 Nucleartechnology
Lim Jus494 Nucleartechnology
Lim Jus494 Nucleartechnology
Lim Jus494 Nucleartechnology
Lim Jus494 Nucleartechnology
Lim Jus494 Nucleartechnology
Lim Jus494 Nucleartechnology
Lim Jus494 Nucleartechnology
Lim Jus494 Nucleartechnology
Lim Jus494 Nucleartechnology
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Lim Jus494 Nucleartechnology

  1. 1. Nuclear Technology & Us JUS 394 Arizona State University Science, Technology & InEquality Professor: Merlyna Lim
  2. 2. What IS Nuclear Technology Images of our world Weapons Reactors Nuclear waste Hiroshima Anti Nuclear Protests Media bring nuclear technology to our attention How to sort out the issues from the noise?
  3. 3. Nuclear POWER
  4. 4. Scientific Views for easy introduction:http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=fjgdgAhOzXQ ENERGY -- the driving force of change ENERGY -- heart of nuclear technology; radioactivity, nuclear fission, and nuclear fusion (reactions) are also driven by energy
  5. 5. Energy plays an important part And it’s used in all this work; Energy, yest energy with power so great, A kind that cannot shirk. If the farmer had not this energy, He would be at a loss, But it’s sad to think, this energy Belongs to a little brown horse. A school verse by Richard Feynman a Nobel laureate for physics
  6. 6. Nuclear ENERGY Energy forms -- transfer and conversion (recalling your high-school physics class!!) Part of nuclear technology -- for the conversion of nuclear energy into heat and electric energy; its development is related to the development of other technologies The Sun is a nuclear fusion reactor -- nuclear technology imitates the energy producing process of the Sun
  7. 7. Nuclear Fission A process by which a heavy nuclide splits into two of more pieces -- became the top secret in Germany, England, the former USSR and the United States Transuranium: Fermi (1901-1954) in Rome, F. Joliot (1990-1958) and I. Curie in Paris, and Otto Hahn....
  8. 8. Nuclear Fission Uranium isotopes -- 235U How much energy is released per fission reaction? How can the amount be estimated or calculated? What are the applications of fission energy in war and peace? 235U to give two nuclides --> 117Sn50, and 118Sn50, their masses being 116.902956 and 117.901609 amu respectively. The mass of 235U92 is 235.043924 amu. The difference in mass: 235.043924 - (116.902956 + 117.901609) = 0.2394 amu (931.5 MeV/1 amu) = 223 MeV. E=mc 2
  9. 9. Common Perceptions http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=MRC5KDqpZ_I Are these images represent “the truth” behind nuclear technology? We should understand our own biases
  10. 10. Nuclear weapons: Can any rational person make a case for their continued existence? Nuclear reactors: if they are very dangerous, can we afford to use them?
  11. 11. Nuclear Technology & MEDIA Representation
  12. 12. Radiation As constructed in the Media
  13. 13. Media Stories Do I have to worry about radiation on airplanes? Is flying like working in a nuclear power plant? Does that mean nuclear plants are safe or flying is hazardous?
  14. 14. Other Nuclear News
  15. 15. Radon
  16. 16. Radon Media Stories What is it Should I get my house tested? Is it related to nuclear power? Why didn’t someone tell me about it earlier?
  17. 17. RADIATION FICTIONS
  18. 18. Radiation Fictions • Fear: – “It’s gonna blow!!!” • Controversy: – “We’re all gonna die!” • Misunderstanding: – “It’s not natural!” • Mistrust – “They’re all liars. We know mutant bugs will take over the earth and enslave us.”
  19. 19. Nuclear Technology Too little we know on ‘what it is’ Dominant perception (mainstream political stories, media representation) reflect only partial truth Preconceived notions can hinder clear thinking and fruitful discussions Don’t we need to understand the basis of the technology to be able to come to ‘better’ decision? Doesn’t public deserve more information? Doesn’t public (us) need to be better informed?
  20. 20. Radiation Facts It’s been around forever First was noticed ~ 1895 A lot was learned since then: – doctors & radiation could cure cancer – quacks & radiation could kill people – the Military & radiation could kill a LOT of people
  21. 21. Environmental Radiation • Radiation & radionuclides older than the Earth • Natural part of our environment • Radiation field varies by geology, elevation, season, living conditions
  22. 22. “Artificial” Radiation • Medical • Occupational • Nuclear Fuel Cycle • Fallout • Petroleum Industries • Power generation • Other
  23. 23. Quanties & Units • Amount (activity): – Becquerel (Bq) dis/s – Curie (Ci) 3.7 x 1010 dis/s • Dose: – gray (Gy) 1 J/kg – rad, 0.01 Gy • Dose equivalent
  24. 24. Range of Doses General public - 360 mrem/y natural Radon: 200 mrem Other natural: 97 mrem Remainder ~ 15 % medical, 3% products, 1% other Medical procedures (per procedure) CT head and body: 110 mrem
  25. 25. %Contribution to Dose • Contribution of various radiation sources to total average dose equivalent to persons in the United States (NCRP, 1987).
  26. 26. Basic Facts • Two main types: – electromagnetic (X-rays and gamma rays) – particulate (electrons, protons, alpha particles..) • Produced in the nucleus or through atomic orbital transitions • Capable of ionizing (removing electrons) from atoms
  27. 27. Electromagnetic Wavelength Frequency Gamma Rays γ Photon Energy X Rays Ultraviolet Light Visible Light Infrared (heat) radiation Radio Waves
  28. 28. Radiation Particles - α α, Helium-4 nucleus (radon is a source) β, nuclear electron (40K is a source) orbital electron
  29. 29. Types and properties of ionizing radiation Range in Soft Types of radiation Relative mass & charge Tissue Gamma Ray 0 0 centimeters X-ray 0 0 centimeters Beta Particle (electron) 0.0005 -/+ 1 millimeters 1 0 centimeters Neutron 1 +1 microns Proton 4 +2 microns Alpha
  30. 30. Radiation Effects in Living Nuclide decays Emitted radiation ionizes atom OH Free radicals created Cell/DNA attacked Cell killed or damaged dead cell ⇒dead organ damaged cell ⇒cancer(?)
  31. 31. Routes of Radiation Exposure External: β, γ, n α, Internal: α, β, γ, n
  32. 32. Range of Radiation Hormesis (a little is good for you) Nothing Impaired organ function Cancer Genetic (mutation in offspring) Teratogen (impairment in offspring)
  33. 33. Factors Determining Radiation type ( α, β, γ, n ) Duration of delivery (s → y) Location (external or internal) Distribution in / around body Magnitude of dose
  34. 34. ‘predicting’ Radiation Effects Why the “uncertainty”? Not all effects are apparent Knowledge limitations (likely impact) Natural variations (radiation field changes) Measurement ability (you can only go so low) Dose is predicted
  35. 35. Radiation Effects Model Real data Potential Damage to Health is h es ot yp Doses Causing r H Observed Adverse n ea Li Health Effects 370 mrem 100,000 mrem Area of controversy
  36. 36. Radiation Effects Data Mainly for people or lab rats Good data in high dose/high dose-rate region Limited/contradictory data in low dose/low- dose rate region Some data suggest threshold (~10 rem)
  37. 37. What about other Insects are tough to kill Big trees are as sensitive as we are So are most mammals Fish and plants are about 10x more resistant But….. radionuclides are “more concentrated” lower in food chain
  38. 38. Radiosensitivity of Species Least Most Sensitive Sensitive Micro- organisms Inverte- brates Plants Fish Amphibians Birds Mammals Humans 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000 Acute radiation dose, rads
  39. 39. So...... Radiation in high doses can kill you Radiation in moderate doses increases your cancer risk Radiation at doses near or below background may : do nothing ??? help you ???
  40. 40. Should we sink ourselves in ‘the fear’ of technology? Just based on too little knowledge... of we have seen and heard? Nuclear..... “clean technology”, how clean is clean enough? “a little bit of knowledge is a dangerous thing.....”

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