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Lim JUS394 Indonesia Cyberactivism

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  • 1. JUS 394: IT & SOCIAL JUSTICE M e r l y n a L i m Arizona State University Cyber-Urban Activism and Political Change in Indonesia
  • 2.  
  • 3. 1990 1995 2000 Internet and “Democracy” Utopian Dystopian Zapatista Serbia Philippines communities Internet infrastructure pre-Internet Indonesia “reformasi”(1998)
  • 4. THE INTERNET & MAY 1998 POLITICAL CHANGE
  • 5. Suharto: The Smiling General
  • 6. Palapa Satellite: the “All Seeing Eye” of Suharto
  • 7. Suharto and ‘his’ urban public spaces
  • 8. Self-policing: The ‘Authorized Party’ “ A guess (who stays for) more than 1X24 hours should be reported”
  • 9. The Indonesian Internet Socio-Political Context: Early Middle Late (1965-1970s) (1980s) (1990s) Military vs. Habibie + Suharto (Pres) Cronies Crisis Privatization Globalization Technocrats --- Berkeley Mafia Military National integration National unity Development “ Technologous” ---Habibienomics Military Leap-frogging Industrial society High tech INTERNET Private TVs SATELLITE ‘ national’ TV / Radio NATIONAL TV / Radio
  • 10. The Internet and Suharto’s Late Days WARNET: a new ‘life space’ and (potential) ‘civic space’
  • 11. Apakabar, USA Parokinet,USA CSVI, Netherlands Pijar, Germany Munindo, Germany Aditjondro, Australia SiaR, Germany
  • 12. Aditjondro Munindo Pijar SiaR Apakabar Newspaper-sellers Street-vendors Taxi-drivers Kiosk-owners NET-USERS PEOPLE WARNET USERS GLOBAL INDONESIA INDONESIA Cyberspace Hybrid-space Physical-Space
  • 13. Mediator Internet users Mass mobilization Printed/Photocopied/Faxed material Political activists Cyber activists Ordinary people Info Online info Oral & Textual (Fax, fixed phone, cell phone, email, etc.) Physical Physical Cyber Hybrid coordinating organising/mobilising Cyberspace to the Streets --> Cyber to Urban Activism Internet cafes/warnet
  • 14. Cyberspace to the Streets --> Cyber to Urban Activism Cyberactivism Street activism (taxi drivers, street vendors, street café/food stall owners) Internet-café activism Organizational activism (oppositions, students, etc) People “ Demo”places
  • 15. The Internet and Suharto’s Late Days Ephemeral insurgent spaces ( National monument, House of parliament )
  • 16. The Internet and Suharto’s Late Days Ephemeral insurgent spaces (HI circle/roundabout)
  • 17.
    • the figure of ‘1%’ is inadequate
    • the crisis vs. the control
    • the Internet in a ‘unique’ position
    • the Internet taps into existing cultural networks
    • the creation of non-hierarchical networks
    The Cyber-network + Warung/warung-like network --> multiplier effect
  • 18. Some remarks May 1998.. an Internet ‘coincident’ revolution ? . The Internet emerged at the right space-time coordinate The more important factor is not cyberspace itself, but the linkages The warnet paradigm provides the basis for its near simultaneous expansion of resistance throughout the entire social structure. In warnet = politics and culture are inseparable, political activities are created as an extension of the production of culture or sub-culture.
  • 19.
    • Mobilizing effects vs. Democracy
    • More democratic media environment
    • 12M, M2M, P2P
    • Viral, vast, & fast -- simple, simplified, gossip-like
    • Internet-democracy
    • Technology-society relations
    • Beyond the Internet --> intermodality, convergence
    • The importance of context