Lim Gender St


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Lim Gender St

  1. 1. Gender Issue in S & T JUS 494 ST & InEquality Arizona State University Professor: Merlyna Lim
  2. 2. Dame ‘Steve’ Shirley FI Group (now Xansa) founder in 1962
  3. 3. once upon a time... science was a woman
  4. 4. • The Enlightenment -- rebellion against aristocratic rule and the formation of the first professional academies and associations for scientists, wiped out the established niches for educated and active women of the 17th & 18th centuries • The Reformation -- decline of convent schools (where math and science taught by nuns), newly formed professional orgs and academics had no membership for women • source: The Mind Has No Sex? (Schiebinger)
  5. 5. • Joseph Glanvil, a noted mechanical determinist of Newton’s time, a witch hunter whose inflammatory writings on the power of the laws of physics in identifying witches helped send many innocent women to their deaths in the 17th century (source: Keller’s Reflections on Gender and Science)
  6. 6. Women in S&T • How long have women been active scientists? the answer is the same for men.. as long as we have been human. • Stone and bone record: the first technical name was male - Imhotep, the second: En Hedu’ Anna (c. 2354 BC)
  7. 7. • most myths and religions place the beginning of agriculture, of laws, of civilization, of mathematics, of calendars, time keeping and medicine into the hands of women --- goddesses
  8. 8. Gender • refers to the distinct roles that men and women are assigned in any society • as a result, women and men assume distinct socially and culturally defined responsibilities and tasks both within the household and in the wider community, lead women and men to have different needs and aspirations
  9. 9. Diagnosis • Gender inequity in education and careers in S&T • cultural attitudes and gender stereotyping • more boys than girls receive basic education • among those, more boys than girls study S&T • there are more men than women in S&T careers • there are very few women in S&T policy and decision making positions
  10. 10. • The gender-specific nature of technical change • Rural Impact • potential of S&T to effect changes in the lives of rural women and meet their basic needs has not been fully realized • most S&T programs oriented toward addressing basic needs in rural areas of developing countries have failed to recognize the gender-specific nature of development
  11. 11. • Rural Impact (continued) • most technical change appears to have been oriented to the tasks that men perform and to men’s interests and needs • unwanted outcomes/impacts most likely to adversely affect women • a substantial amount of local traditional knowledge is held by women in agriculture, environmental resource management, and health
  12. 12. • Urban Impact • new technologies (e.g. IT) have increased employment opportunities for women • but new technologies have also made many existing jobs in manufacturing redundant/obsolete --- generally, female labor has been displaced more than male • new jobs are more skill intensive, more limited training opportunities for women than men
  13. 13. Transformative Actions • Gender Equity in S&T education • equity in gaining access • equality of opportunity within schools • opportunity for distance education and re-entry to schools
  14. 14. • Removing obstacles to women in S&T careers • specific measures for all employers • policy tools for governments • initiatives in academia and the school system
  15. 15. • Making Science Responsive to the Needs of Society • improve the decision-making mechanisms within the science system to ensure clear articulation of the gender-specific needs and goals • encourage political parties and governments to be more explicit in their policy platforms -- m/w equality • encourage public media sponsored popular science programming • support NGO working on the interface of gender in S&T
  16. 16. • Making S&T Decision-Making Process more “Gender Aware” • increase the number of women in S&T decision making and policy-advisory bodies • increase the understanding of all decision-makers about the gender implications of their decisions through explicit training programs • involve end-users in the determination of research priorities and in the design and implementation of S&T development program -- explicit attention to the participation of women • subject all development program with ST component to ‘gender impact analysis’ before initiation • government as a focal point of expertise in gender, S &T