How to teach English to kindergarten children. Alba de la Rubia Merino
English has become the main language of communication for citizens of the European Union and early learning of English in the school context is becoming more common.However, the teaching of English from primary education is not very common in other European countries where educationforeign language often starts in primary school.
LANGUAGE IN PRIMARY EDUCATION: Children to learn English to help educate the entire group, as it promotes greater tolerance towards other cultures and races. You need to create a pleasant climate in the classroom where the child is comfortable and creating a suitable atmosphere for the play and communication. The best way of working is to set goals at the mouth in a fun and motivating. The main objectives are: - Participate in activities and games scheduled. - Learn vocabulary and structures through rhymes and songs. - understand simple stories and stories with minimal support and visual. - Recognize vocabulary through play and drawing tasks. - Follow the routines and basic commands. - Perform tasks according to their degree of maturity. - Share and care for classroom materials. To achieve these objectives we have to schedule a series of content that we deal with aspects of language most stimulate their interest.
The content that most working class are: 1. Basics: colors, numbers, sizes and shapes. 2. Topics: the classroom. My family. My house. Tge cloth. The food. The body. Animals and transport. 3. Interleaved manner and according to the season we will be scheduling the various festivities. Halloween Carnival, Christmas ...
EDUCATING LOCATION:A) ASSEMBLY: sitting in a circle or in rows having a point of reference to the teacher. The place used to tell stories, sing songs, play games ...B) EQUIPMENT: It is important to always use the same structures to encourage assimilation. It's time: 1. The use of orders and oral instructions. 2. Always positively evaluate their work to boost your confidence. 3. Helping to organize the work.
C) CORNERS: We take the corners in the classroom for our classes and in this we will find toys, paintings, puzzles, etc.. Solution for those students who finish their work soon.D) PANELS: Children this age love to show their works throughout the world, so that, whenever possible should contain a panel of English in the classroom to go by placing chips, drawings and works.E) CABINETS: We must have a shelf or cabinet in each classroom in which to place books, posters, tapes, etc.
HOW TO WORK: METHODOLOGY AND RESOURCES:In Child routines are very important so we have to be constant in our models session. Some resources that are recommended for teaching English are:a) stories: the plot simple, with little vocabulary and simple structure. They recommended the "Big Books. "b) forms: short stories are easy to understand and are characterized by the presentation of a dramatized children.
c) rhymes and songs: are great for encouraging children's pronunciation in an entertaining way. Should be short and repetitive and accompanied by movement or gesture.d) puppets: young children love. The dolls speak only English.e) games: we can not make computer games or with rules.f) other materials: it is very important the element of surprise. We can use toys, clothes, earrings, dolls ...
HOW TO EVALUATE:a) evaluation of the student: by looking at aspects such as: 1. Includes providing physical responses. 2. Play games and activities. 3. Meet the rhymes and songs. 4. Identify basic vocabulary. 5. Repeat simple phrases.b) evaluation of the pilot scheme carried out: it is important to be critical of ourselves and continuously evaluate the methods, procedures and resources we are experimenting to analyze to what extent they are really valid in our English classes.
A young child tends to absorb a language through massive amounts of input and exposure, while explicit learning, involving rules and systematic practice, plays an important role for adolescents and adults.The impact of age of learning on ultimate proficiency is not always clear cut; in other words, some child learners end up with accents and incomplete second language grammars, and some adult learners become, for all practical purposes, as skilled as native speakers. While young learners are more likely than older students to ultimately speak a new language like native speakers, adolescents and adults actually learn foreign languages faster.
Ifproficiencyisthegoal, teachingyoungchildren a foreignlanguage in anage-appropriatemannermeansproviding a full-immersioneducation,taught by teacherswho know thelanguagewell. Suchprogramssimulatetheenvironmentofgrowing up with a language by: 1. Integratingthesecondlanguagewithinstruction in othersubjects. 2. Givinglearnersampleopportunitiestoengage in meaningfuldiscoursewithotherstudentsandteachersusingtheforeignlanguage. 3. Exposinglearnersto a varietyofnativespeakersofthetargetlanguage. 4. Focusinginstructiononattainingthelanguageskillsneededforcommunicatingaboutandunderstandingacademicsubjectmatter, notonmastering a foreignlanguageforitsown sake.
Adults Need Varying Amounts of Study Time To Reach Proficiency in Different Languages. Effective language teaching is age appropriate. Young children need full immersion that imitates growing up with a language. Older students require grammar and structure along with meaning and conversation.
the classroom What Should Policymakers Do? First, recognize that simply starting early does not guarantee that a language will be learned. Second,support age-appropriate foreign language teaching — a total immersion program for young children, moving toward a more explicit focus on structure for adolescents and adults. Third, be realistic with students and parents about how much foreign language skill a few hours a week of instruction can generate, especially for preschool and elementary school learners. Such limited instruction will not lead to mastery, but it may build motivation and a “taste” for language learning. Fourth,recognize that for almost everyone, high proficiency in a foreign language will develop outside the classroom, through conversations with native speakers made possible by the skills acquired in the classroom.
Conclusion Determining which type of foreign language instruction is best depends on a number of variables: the learner’s age, aptitude, and motivation; the amount of time available for instruction; and the difference between the native and the foreign language. For young children, starting early can lead to mastery of a foreign language — with no long-term detriment to their grasp of English — only if it is taught through a well-developed form of total immersion instruction. A program consisting of a few hours of foreign language teaching per week is not enough. Older students and adults, on the other hand, need a judicious mixture of practice and communication. Deliberate direct instruction is vital, along with ample classroom and study time. As such students progress, their instruction should become increasingly communicative and should include an extended stay abroad for greatest effect.
Guidelines to understand:- You have to emphasize that the child listen and speak in English and not write it.- Relate what you teach with what children already know in their own language.- Try to speak as much English as possible.- You know that children are not able to speak until they have heard for a long time and I understand.- Design activities so that everyone can succeed.- Let the children respond in their mother tongue.- When you say something in their mother tongue, repeat it in English.- When ready, you can ask them to speak.
- Start with single words, not sentences.- Use lots of repetition.- The classes should be fun.- Provides short and varied activities. Driven activities can be used if they lose interest if they need quiet and calm, especially at the end of the class.- Maintain a routine for children to feel comfortable.- Start each class with a visual cue to let children know that now starts an hour.- Use songs, the vocabulary, the rhythm of language and grammar are learned through songs easily. Also, singing is fun.- Use participatory activities to maintain the interest of children, also to help them learn.
- Use games to motivate them to learn and to make it fun.- Use stories, children love them and if a story is repeated many times, children become accustomed to the vocabulary and grammar and rhythm of language.- Use your body language, facial expressions are attractive resources to help them understand.- uses many visual resources for children to understand the meaning before knowing theword.- Only use the native languagewhen needed to explain a gameor for the discipline.- Do not translate!- Always use short simplesentences and to giveinstructions and ask.