1. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ECW503Feat of Civil Engineering<br />Prepared for: <br />Prof. Sr. Ir. Dr. Suhaimi Abdul Talib<br />MereiaKalivakatoga<br />ID: 2008269646<br />Group: ECB6T<br />
2. Feat of Civil Engineering<br />Can be defined as:-<br /><ul><li>the “hallmark” of the industrial world.
3. most remarkable creations of classical antiquity
4. Hellenic sight-seers</li></ul>A country can be well known for its construction.<br />Became a landmark of that particular country<br />
5. 5 Feat of Civil Engineering<br />BurjKhalifa<br /><ul><li>Located in Dubai, United Arab Emirates
6. Height tops 688 m (2,257 ft), making it the tallest man-made structure ever built, surpassing the previous record-holder, the Warsaw Radio Mast in Konstantynów, Poland.
7. Has 160 floors
8. Cost US $20 billion
9. Construction began on the 21st September 2004, with the exterior of the structures completed n 1st October 2009</li></li></ul><li>5 Feat of Civil Engineering<br />2. Beijing National Stadium (Birds Nest)<br /><ul><li>Located in Beijing , China
10. the stadium cost US$423 million
11. stadium's capacity of 80,000 people
12. designed for use throughout the 2008 Summer Olympics and Paralympics.
13. Ground was broken on the 8th December 2003 and the stadium was official opened on the 28th June 2008.</li></li></ul><li>5 Feat of Civil Engineering<br />3. Donghai Bridge, China<br /><ul><li>(East Sea Grand Bridge) is the longest cross-sea bridge in the world and the longest bridge in Asia.
14. Has a total length of 32.5 kilometers (20.2 miles) and connects Shanghai and the water offshore Yangshan port in China.
15. The widest span of the bridge is 420 m.
16. Cost US $1.2 billion</li></li></ul><li>5 Feat of Civil Engineering<br />4. Panama Canal<br /><ul><li>Ship canal located in Panama
17. It joined the Atlantic ocean with the Pacific Ocean.
18. First used on the 15th</li></ul> August 15, 1914<br /><ul><li>8- to 10-hour journey </li></ul>through the canal from the <br />Pacific to the Atlantic<br />
19. 5 Feat of Civil Engineering<br />5. Akashi Kaikyo Bridge (Pearl Bridge)<br /><ul><li>Located in Japan, Awabi Island and Kobe
20. Central span – 1,991 metres (6,532 ft)
21. The central span is staggering 1,991 metres</li></ul> (6,532 ft)<br /><ul><li>Opened on April 5th, 1998
22. Cost ¥2,300</li></li></ul><li>Panama Canal<br />The Panama Canal is one of the most incredible <br /> canal systems in the entire world. Connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, this system is widely considered to be the most comprehensive, complex, and dangerous engineering project ever attempted by humans.<br />Attempts to build a canal, which would ultimately save ships from taking longer routes around the world, began in 1880 under the supervision of the French government. The project was canceled after 21,900 workers died and was later revisited by the United States. The canal was ultimately completed in 1914.<br />
23. Reasons why Panama Canal is successful<br />Reasons:<br />First it achieved its goal to reduce travel time between the two oceans and this worked beautifully not only in peace times but also in the times of the war without which the US would have had a hard time moving ships from Atlantic Ocean t Pacific Ocean or vice versa.<br />It has also been an economical success. It brought prosperity to the country even though there have been negative points as well. <br />
24. Reasons why Panama Canal is successful<br />Nowadays it is in 100% Panamanian hands<br /> and in any single year the Panama Canal brings the country much more money that it ever received in *all* the years it was "leased" to the US.<br />Ships don’t have to sail around South America just to ship freight from California to New York which means less fuel and less expenses spent. <br />
25. Facts on Panama Canal<br />From the beginning, the project was plagued by a lack of engineering skills. In May 1879, an international engineering congress was arranged in Paris, with Ferdinand de Lesseps at its head; of the 136 delegates, however; only 42 were engineers, the others being made up of speculators, politicians, and personal friends of de Lesseps.<br />The engineering congress estimated the cost of the project at $214,000,000; on February 14, 1880, an engineering committee modified this estimate to $168,600,000. De Lesseps twice reduced this estimate, with no apparent reason; on February 20 to $131,600,000, and again on March 1 to $120,000,000.<br />
26. Facts on Panama Canal<br />The planned sea level canal was to have uniform depth of 9 metres (29.5 ft), a bottom width of 22 metres (72 ft), and a width at water level of about 27.5 metres (90 ft), and involved dig estimated at 120,000,000 m³ (157,000,000 cubic yards). It was planned that a dam be built at Gamboa to control the flooding of the Chagres river, along with channels to carry water away from the canal. However, the Gamboa dam was later found to be impossible, and the Chagres River problem was left unresolved.<br />Construction begins until January 22, 1882 and completed in 1893.<br />
27. Facts on Panama Canal<br />It was the largest and most complex project of this kind ever assumed at that time, employing tens of thousands of workers and costing $350 million. <br />The first attempt to construct a canal began in 1880 under French leadership, but was abandoned after 21,900 workers died, largely from disease (particularly malaria and yellow fever) and landslide. The United States launched a second effort, incurring a further 5,600 deaths but succeeding in opening the canal in 1914. The U.S. controlled the canal and the Canal Zone surrounding it until the 1977 Torrijos-Carter Treaties provided for the transition of control to Panama. From 1979 to 1999 the canal was under joint U.S.–Panamanian administration, and from 31 December 1999 command of the waterway was assumed by the Panama Canal Authority, an agency of the Panamanian government.<br />
28. Conclusion: <br />At the end of this research project it can be concluded that the Panama Canal went against so many misfortune during it’s construction. Thousands of people died and a few companies continue the project until it was completed.<br />To achieve any Civil Engineering feat requires creativity, a lot of research and team work.<br />From the construction on Panama Canal, there were a lot of hindrance, yet they never gave up the idea and the dream of construction one of the most impossible engineering design in the world today.<br />
29. Reference:<br />Mellander, Gustavo A.(1971) The United States in Panamanian Politics: The Intriguing Formative Years. Daville,Ill.:Interstate Publishers. OCLC 138568.<br />Mellander, Gustavo A.; Nelly Maldonado Mellander (1999). Charles Edward Magoon: The Panama Years. Río Piedras, Puerto Rico: Editorial Plaza Mayor. ISBN 1563281554. OCLC 42970390.<br />Wikepedia (all the pictures shown are from this site)<br />