May 16, 2013Serving the DIY Patron: LibraryInstruction at the Point of NeedMeredith Farkas, Portland State University
What is DIY?Self-sufficiencyPersonalization/customizationFrugality/rejection of consumerismDeveloping skills for creation,...
http://www.flickr.com/photos/g7ahn/8369950576/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/seven_resist/5428142486/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/pzed/4279771767/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/joshb/99851205/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/taedc/8670412388/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/asieo/3109001969/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/spcummings/2087666493/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/shifted/8555568803/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/juggernautco/6084899576/
The DIY generationRespect for locally-made, hand-madeDesire for more control, personalization (hacker ethos)Grassroots pol...
Do people like this seek out helpfrom experts?
Help-seeking in libraries: a historyThenClosed stacksMediated searchingInformation scarcityNowOpen stacksSearch tools desi...
At the same time...http://www.flickr.com/photos/intersectionconsulting/7537238368/
Plus, most millennials thinkthey’re research...
Information = AbundantTime =ScarceAttention = scarce____________________Do the traditional models still workwhen informati...
What has this meant forreference?
Reference usage has declined“According to Association of Research Library (ARL)statistics, the number of reference transac...
Reference transactions in U.S.academic libraries Source: NCES
Reference transactions in publiclibraries Source: NCES
Reference transactions in CApublic libraries Source: NCES
Why would they ask us?College students overwhelmingly (83%) begin theirinformation searches using search engines, though a...
And yetSource: OCLC Perceptions of Libraries 2010 study
The DIY patronWants to figure it out themselvesIs accustomed to using Google and other web servicesIs accustomed to using ...
Other reasons they might not askfor helpLibrary anxietyLow academic self-efficacy - asking for help means admitting theyla...
“We desperately need to invest serious thoughtand effort into ways that we will not only provideaccess to information, but...
The answer then for referenceinstructionDisintermediate whenever possibleDevelop instructional content that mimics answer ...
Online learning objects
LearningobjectsINSTRUCTION REFERENCE
LearningobjectsINSTRUCTION REFERENCE
INSTRUCTION REFERENCELEARNINGOBJECTS TOSUPPORT ACOURSELEARNINGOBJECTS FORPOINT OF NEEDINSTRUCTION
These are two different things
Do students come looking forthis?
Or this?
So what about these?Great when assignedUseless when not part of a class
Focused on specific needs
Discovering needsReference transactionsWeb statisticsUsability testingEthnographic research
Reference transactionsCollect questions asked at the deskReference statsVirtual reference transcriptsDon’t collect? Talk t...
Web analyticsWhat pages do they visit the most?What databases do they visit the most?Where do patrons get frustrated and l...
Usability testingGiving patrons tasks and watch them use your website to completethemWatch students do authentic researchA...
Ethnographic researchObserving students using the libraryFocus groups and individual interviewsPhoto diary studiesResearch...
Models that support DIY patrons
Library DIY @ Portland StateReference librarian in a boxSmall pieces of instructional contentBased on questions we get at ...
Next stepsFinish content developmentUser testing over the summerPlacement and marketing to make it visible at students’ po...
Making content findable at pointsof need
And how findable is this?Links to tutorialsUnder research resources/start your researchUnder help/research helpUnder Servi...
http://www.flickr.com/photos/yogendra174/5980718184Get in their flow
Where might patrons lookfor/need help on your librarywebsite?Ask a Librarian pageAny help type of pagesResearch guidesData...
“The library needs to be in theuser environment and not expectthe user to find their way to thelibrary environment”-Lorcan...
Go where your users arein the Learning Management System (LMS)on an Intranetin any local social networks or relevant commu...
Digital research help in thephysical world
Link patrons to library instructionalcontent where they need itIn the libraryIn the stacks, places people get lostBy colle...
QR CodesShort for Quick ResponseOriginally developed forinventory controlNeed a QR code readerto readScan a QR code to acc...
Hicks, A., & Sinkinson, C. (2011). SituatedQuestions and Answers. Reference & UserServices Quarterly, 51(1), 60–69.Placed ...
QR Codes are a stopgapNear Field CommunicationsA way for devices to receiveinformation at close rangeRFID is an exampleUse...
Another way to reach DIYstudentsEmbed information literacy instruction seamlessly into the DNA ofclassesCreate learning ob...
Questions? Comments?Find me athttp://meredith.wolfwater.com/wordpressmgfarkas (at) gmail.comtwitter: librarianmerfacebook:...
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Serving the DIY Patron: Library Instruction at the Point of Need

  1. 1. May 16, 2013Serving the DIY Patron: LibraryInstruction at the Point of NeedMeredith Farkas, Portland State University
  2. 2. What is DIY?Self-sufficiencyPersonalization/customizationFrugality/rejection of consumerismDeveloping skills for creation, reconnection with hands-on activitiesA rejection of the mediated/expert modelDoing things outside of traditional hierarchies/boundariesSatisfaction from building things yourself
  3. 3. http://www.flickr.com/photos/g7ahn/8369950576/
  4. 4. http://www.flickr.com/photos/seven_resist/5428142486/
  5. 5. http://www.flickr.com/photos/pzed/4279771767/
  6. 6. http://www.flickr.com/photos/joshb/99851205/
  7. 7. http://www.flickr.com/photos/taedc/8670412388/
  8. 8. http://www.flickr.com/photos/asieo/3109001969/
  9. 9. http://www.flickr.com/photos/spcummings/2087666493/
  10. 10. http://www.flickr.com/photos/shifted/8555568803/
  11. 11. http://www.flickr.com/photos/juggernautco/6084899576/
  12. 12. The DIY generationRespect for locally-made, hand-madeDesire for more control, personalization (hacker ethos)Grassroots politics, leaderless movements (Occupy, Wikileaks)Growth in communities for the “expert amateur” to make thingsWhy be DIY? (Kuznetsov & Paulos, “Rise of the Expert Amateur: DIYProjects, Communities, and Cultures.” NordiCHI, 2010)“Express myself/be creative” (97%)“Learn new skills” (91%)“Solve problems/challenge myself” (88%)
  13. 13. Do people like this seek out helpfrom experts?
  14. 14. Help-seeking in libraries: a historyThenClosed stacksMediated searchingInformation scarcityNowOpen stacksSearch tools designed for the end-userSelf-checkout, patron-driven acquisitions, unmediated ILL, etc.
  15. 15. At the same time...http://www.flickr.com/photos/intersectionconsulting/7537238368/
  16. 16. Plus, most millennials thinkthey’re research...
  17. 17. Information = AbundantTime =ScarceAttention = scarce____________________Do the traditional models still workwhen information isn’t scarce?
  18. 18. What has this meant forreference?
  19. 19. Reference usage has declined“According to Association of Research Library (ARL)statistics, the number of reference transactionstaking place in ARL libraries has declined bymore than half since 1995. Control that statistic forenrollment and the decline is greater: in 1995, ARL librariesprovided an average of 10.1 reference transactions perstudent FTE; in 2009 the number was 3.6, a decline ofover 60%.”Anderson, Rick. (2011). “The Crisis in Research Librarianship” Journal ofAcademic Librarianship, 37(4).
  20. 20. Reference transactions in U.S.academic libraries Source: NCES
  21. 21. Reference transactions in publiclibraries Source: NCES
  22. 22. Reference transactions in CApublic libraries Source: NCES
  23. 23. Why would they ask us?College students overwhelmingly (83%) begin theirinformation searches using search engines, though at lowerrates than in 2005 (92%). As in 2005, no student surveyedstarted on the library Web site. College students feel thatsearch engines trump libraries for speed, convenience, reliability and easeof use. Libraries trump search engines for trustworthiness and accuracy.Substantially more students in 2010 (43%) indicatedthat information from library sources is moretrustworthy than from search engines (31% in 2005).Source: OCLC Perceptions of Libraries 2010 study
  24. 24. And yetSource: OCLC Perceptions of Libraries 2010 study
  25. 25. The DIY patronWants to figure it out themselvesIs accustomed to using Google and other web servicesIs accustomed to using quick help sites like WikiAnswers, Yahoo!Answers, etc.Wants things to be intuitiveLooks for pointers about how things work
  26. 26. Other reasons they might not askfor helpLibrary anxietyLow academic self-efficacy - asking for help means admitting theylack ability.Gender - girls “lose their voice” during adolescenceLack of understanding of the role of the librarian (marketingproblem?)
  27. 27. “We desperately need to invest serious thoughtand effort into ways that we will not only provideaccess to information, but also maintain theconnections between the wired user and theinformation expert to demonstrate that the addedvalue that we provide users in this information-saturated environment is far greater than themere convenience of ‘getting it all online.’”Brette Barclay Barron, “Distant and Distributed Learners Are Two Sides ofthe Same Coin,” Computers in Libraries 22 (Jan. 2002): 24–28.
  28. 28. The answer then for referenceinstructionDisintermediate whenever possibleDevelop instructional content that mimics answer services on theweb like Yahoo! Answers (small, specific bits of content)Make that content available and easily findable at their points ofneed 24/7For academic/K12 librarians: Embed instructional content into thefabric of classes
  29. 29. Online learning objects
  30. 30. LearningobjectsINSTRUCTION REFERENCE
  31. 31. LearningobjectsINSTRUCTION REFERENCE
  32. 32. INSTRUCTION REFERENCELEARNINGOBJECTS TOSUPPORT ACOURSELEARNINGOBJECTS FORPOINT OF NEEDINSTRUCTION
  33. 33. These are two different things
  34. 34. Do students come looking forthis?
  35. 35. Or this?
  36. 36. So what about these?Great when assignedUseless when not part of a class
  37. 37. Focused on specific needs
  38. 38. Discovering needsReference transactionsWeb statisticsUsability testingEthnographic research
  39. 39. Reference transactionsCollect questions asked at the deskReference statsVirtual reference transcriptsDon’t collect? Talk to colleagues who frequently work the referencedeskOr sample!
  40. 40. Web analyticsWhat pages do they visit the most?What databases do they visit the most?Where do patrons get frustrated and leave?Where do they spend a lot of time that doesn’t make sense?Time on siteBounce rate
  41. 41. Usability testingGiving patrons tasks and watch them use your website to completethemWatch students do authentic researchAlways surprising
  42. 42. Ethnographic researchObserving students using the libraryFocus groups and individual interviewsPhoto diary studiesResearch journalsResearch narratives
  43. 43. Models that support DIY patrons
  44. 44. Library DIY @ Portland StateReference librarian in a boxSmall pieces of instructional contentBased on questions we get at the reference deskEach one answers just one questionIf in-depth help needed, link outInformation architecture gets students to just the info they’re lookingfor
  45. 45. Next stepsFinish content developmentUser testing over the summerPlacement and marketing to make it visible at students’ points ofneedOn the library websiteIn the libraryOn campus
  46. 46. Making content findable at pointsof need
  47. 47. And how findable is this?Links to tutorialsUnder research resources/start your researchUnder help/research helpUnder ServicesUnder Library Services --> InstructionWithin LibGuidesUnfindable from some library websites
  48. 48. http://www.flickr.com/photos/yogendra174/5980718184Get in their flow
  49. 49. Where might patrons lookfor/need help on your librarywebsite?Ask a Librarian pageAny help type of pagesResearch guidesDatabases page (and inside databases)CatalogWebpages for specific services (ILL, gov docs, etc.)
  50. 50. “The library needs to be in theuser environment and not expectthe user to find their way to thelibrary environment”-Lorcan Dempseyhttp://orweblog.oclc.org/archives/000688.html
  51. 51. Go where your users arein the Learning Management System (LMS)on an Intranetin any local social networks or relevant community websiteson Facebookon mobile devicesin computer labs (on the desktop)
  52. 52. Digital research help in thephysical world
  53. 53. Link patrons to library instructionalcontent where they need itIn the libraryIn the stacks, places people get lostBy collections patrons have trouble usingMachines patrons have issues withOther places people have information needsBuses, business support organizations, daycare centers,community centers, high schools, academic department offices,residence halls, computer labs, etc.
  54. 54. QR CodesShort for Quick ResponseOriginally developed forinventory controlNeed a QR code readerto readScan a QR code to accessinfo or take action
  55. 55. Hicks, A., & Sinkinson, C. (2011). SituatedQuestions and Answers. Reference & UserServices Quarterly, 51(1), 60–69.Placed posters with QR codes in the library in places where patronsencountered difficultiesFor the journals area: Poster says “How do I...find older issues of the journal?find the call number for the journal I need?find a scanner?find a copy machine?get more help?
  56. 56. QR Codes are a stopgapNear Field CommunicationsA way for devices to receiveinformation at close rangeRFID is an exampleUser no longer has to take theinitiative to scanIn the meantimeUse QR codes with shortened URLs(bit.ly, goo.gl, tinyURL, etc.)
  57. 57. Another way to reach DIYstudentsEmbed information literacy instruction seamlessly into the DNA ofclassesCreate learning objects, activities, and self-paced tutorials thatfaculty can easily integrate into their coursesEmbed library instruction meaningfully into classes (beyond theone-shot)Requires a tremendous amount of relationship-building withfaculty + time
  58. 58. Questions? Comments?Find me athttp://meredith.wolfwater.com/wordpressmgfarkas (at) gmail.comtwitter: librarianmerfacebook: meredithfarkasSlides and links atmeredithfarkas.wetpaint.com
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